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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353289/the-new-agreement-of-the-international-riga-consensus-conference-on-nasal-airway-function-tests
#1
K Vogt, G Bachmann-Harildstad, A Lintermann, A Nechyporenko, F Peters, K D Wernecke
The report reflects an agreement based on the consensus conference of the International Standardization Committee on the Objective Assessment of the Nasal Airway in Riga, 2nd Nov. 2016. The aim of the conference was to address the existing nasal airway function tests and to take into account physical, mathematical and technical correctness as a base of international standardization as well as the requirements of the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices. Rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow, Odiosoft-Rhino, optical rhinometry, 24-h measurements, computational fluid dynamics, nasometry and the mirrow test were evaluated for important diagnostic criteria, which are the precision of the equipment including calibration and the software applied; validity with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, reliability with intra-individual and inter-individual reproducibility and responsiveness in clinical studies...
January 21, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352779/hydrodynamically-coupled-brownian-dynamics-a-coarse-grain-particle-based-brownian-dynamics-technique-with-hydrodynamic-interactions-for-modeling-self-developing-flow-of-polymer-solutions
#2
V R Ahuja, J van der Gucht, W J Briels
We present a novel coarse-grain particle-based simulation technique for modeling self-developing flow of dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions. The central idea in this paper is the two-way coupling between a mesoscopic polymer model and a phenomenological fluid model. As our polymer model, we choose Responsive Particle Dynamics (RaPiD), a Brownian dynamics method, which formulates the so-called "conservative" and "transient" pair-potentials through which the polymers interact besides experiencing random forces in accordance with the fluctuation dissipation theorem...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352728/differential-proteomic-analysis-of-synovial-fluid-from-hip-arthroplasty-patients-with-a-pseudotumor-vs-periprosthetic-osteolysis
#3
Isabelle Catelas, Eric A Lehoux, Zhibin Ning, Daniel Figeys, Stephen J Baskey, Paul E Beaulé
Adverse tissue reactions to metal implants, including pseudotumors, can compromise implant functionality and survivorship. The identification of specific proteins in the synovial fluid (SF) of hip arthroplasty patients with a pseudotumor may lead to a better understanding of the underlying pathomechanisms. The objective of the present study was to compare the protein content of SF from patients with a short-term metal-on-metal hip implant associated with a pseudotumor and patients with a long-term metal-on-polyethylene hip implant associated with periprosthetic osteolysis...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352714/effect-of-single-agent-daily-prednisone-on-outcomes-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Gregory R Pond, Arnoud J Templeton, Guru Sonpavde
The clinical effect of prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We performed a pooled analysis of control arms of randomized controlled trials that had or had not administered single-agent prednisone. Randomized controlled trials with a control arm that included single-agent placebo (or no anticancer therapy) or single-agent prednisone (with or without placebo) were eligible for analysis. Patients receiving prednisone combined with other agents in the control arm were excluded...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351897/transitions-between-circulatory-states-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-protocol-for-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Halvor Langeland, Daniel Bergum, Magnus Løberg, Knut Bjørnstad, Jan Kristian Damås, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Nils-Kristian Skjærvold, Pål Klepstad
BACKGROUND: The post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) is responsible for the majority of in-hospital deaths following cardiac arrest (CA). The major elements of PCAS are anoxic brain injury and circulatory failure. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of circulatory failure and inflammatory responses after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and to identify patterns of circulatory and inflammatory responses, which may predict circulatory deterioration in PCAS...
January 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351721/myeloperoxidase-and-neurological-disorder-a-cross-talk
#6
Kanta Pravalika, Deepaneeta Sarmah, Harpreet Kaur, Madhuri Wanve, Jackson Saraf, Kiran Kalia, Anupom Borah, Dileep R Yavagal, Kunjan R Dave, Pallab Bhattacharya
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a protein present in azurophilic granules, macrophages, and neutrophils that are released into extracellular fluid (ECF) during inflammation. MPO releases hypochlorous acid (HOCL) and other chlorinated species. It is derived from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showing response during inflammatory conditions and plays a role in the immune defense against pathogens. MPO may show unwanted effects by indirectly increasing the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) leading to inflammation and oxidative stress...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351562/clinical-and-ultrasonographic-features-associated-to-response-to-intraarticular-corticosteroid-injection-a-one-year-follow-up-prospective-cohort-study-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patient-with-joint-effusion
#7
Joan Calvet, Cristóbal Orellana, Carlos Galisteo, María García-Manrique, Noemí Navarro, Assumpta Caixàs, Marta Larrosa, Jordi Gratacós
OBJECTIVES: Intraarticular injection is used for pain relief in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but there is not a well defined profile of patient who could get more benefit from it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of pain relief at one year after corticosteroids intraarticular injection and to identify clinical factors associated to response in patients with knee osteoarthritis with joint effusion. METHODS: One-year prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA with joint effusion confirmed by ultrasound...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349881/speech-and-language-therapists-perspectives-of-therapeutic-alliance-construction-and-maintenance-in-aphasia-rehabilitation-post-stroke
#8
Michelle Lawton, Karen Sage, Gillian Haddock, Paul Conroy, Laura Serrant
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic alliance refers to the interactional and relational processes operating during therapeutic interventions. It has been shown to be a strong determinant of treatment efficacy in psychotherapy, and evidence is emerging from a range of healthcare and medical disciplines to suggest that the construct of therapeutic alliance may in fact be a variable component of treatment outcome, engagement and satisfaction. Although this construct appears to be highly relevant to aphasia rehabilitation, no research to date has attempted to explore this phenomenon and thus consider its potential utility as a mechanism for change...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349845/effects-of-intravenous-tryptophan-infusion-on-thermoregulation-in-steers-exposed-to-acute-heat-stress
#9
Madoka Sutoh, Etsuko Kasuya, Ken-Ichi Yayou
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan (TRP) supply on the thermoregulatory responses via brain serotonin (5-HT) in cattle. In period 1, 12 Holstein steers were kept under a constant room temperature (22°C) and were administered the intravenous (i.v.) infusion of saline or TRP (38.5 mg/kg/2 h). Changes in rectal temperature (RT), 5-HT concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and other factors involved in thermoregulation were measured. In period 2, the steers received the same treatments as in period 1; however, the room temperature was elevated from 22°C to 33°C during i...
January 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348883/spatial-habitats-from-multiparametric-mr-imaging-are-associated-with-signaling-pathway-activities-and-survival-in-glioblastoma
#10
Katherine Dextraze, Abhijoy Saha, Donnie Kim, Shivali Narang, Michael Lehrer, Anita Rao, Saphal Narang, Dinesh Rao, Salmaan Ahmed, Venkatesh Madhugiri, Clifton David Fuller, Michelle M Kim, Sunil Krishnan, Ganesh Rao, Arvind Rao
Glioblastoma (GBM) show significant inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, impacting response to treatment and overall survival time of 12-15 months. To study glioblastoma phenotypic heterogeneity, multi-parametric magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 85 glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed to characterize tumor-derived spatial habitats for their relationship with outcome (overall survival) and to identify their molecular correlates (i.e., determine associated tumor signaling pathways correlated with imaging-derived habitat measurements)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348373/-immunopathogenesis-of-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs
#11
Takashi Yamamura, Hirohiko Ono, Wakiro Sato
A recent study on the pathogenesis of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) has revealed an elevation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids of the patients and presence of autoantibodies in subgroups of ME/CFS patients. Furthermore, investigator-initiated clinical trials have proved the efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab), that eliminate B cells, in the treatment of ME/CFS. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that immune abnormalities, such as enhanced autoimmune responses, may play an essential role in the neuroinflammatory pathogenesis of ME/CFS...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347804/active-nematic-gels-as-active-relaxing-solids
#12
Stefano S Turzi
I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347739/fluid-driven-fracture-propagation-in-heterogeneous-media-probability-distributions-of-fracture-trajectories
#13
David Santillán, Juan-Carlos Mosquera, Luis Cueto-Felgueroso
Hydraulic fracture trajectories in rocks and other materials are highly affected by spatial heterogeneity in their mechanical properties. Understanding the complexity and structure of fluid-driven fractures and their deviation from the predictions of homogenized theories is a practical problem in engineering and geoscience. We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation study to characterize the influence of heterogeneous mechanical properties on the trajectories of hydraulic fractures propagating in elastic media. We generate a large number of random fields of mechanical properties and simulate pressure-driven fracture propagation using a phase-field model...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347504/ion-beam-plasma-interaction-effects-on-electrostatic-solitary-wave-propagation-in-ultradense-relativistic-quantum-plasmas
#14
I S Elkamash, I Kourakis, F Haas
Understanding the transport properties of charged particle beams is important not only from a fundamental point of view but also due to its relevance in a variety of applications. A theoretical model is established in this article, to model the interaction of a tenuous positively charged ion beam with an ultradense quantum electron-ion plasma, by employing a rigorous relativistic quantum-hydrodynamic (fluid plasma) electrostatic model proposed in McKerr et al. [M. McKerr, F. Haas, and I. Kourakis, Phys. Rev...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347303/predicting-tensorial-electrophoretic-effects-in-asymmetric-colloids
#15
Aaron J Mowitz, T A Witten
We formulate a numerical method for predicting the tensorial linear response of a rigid, asymmetrically charged body to an applied electric field. This prediction requires calculating the response of the fluid to the Stokes drag forces on the moving body and on the countercharges near its surface. To determine the fluid's motion, we represent both the body and the countercharges using many point sources of drag known as Stokeslets. Finding the correct flow field amounts to finding the set of drag forces on the Stokeslets that is consistent with the relative velocities experienced by each Stokeslet...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347088/effect-of-polymer-additives-on-heat-transport-and-large-scale-circulation-in-turbulent-rayleigh-b%C3%A3-nard-convection
#16
Jian-Ping Cheng, Hong-Na Zhang, Wei-Hua Cai, Si-Ning Li, Feng-Chen Li
The present paper presents direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in an enclosed cell filled with the polymer solution in order to investigate the viscoelastic effect on the characteristics of heat transport and large-scale circulation (LSC) of RBC. To overcome the difficulties in numerically solving a high Weissenberg number (Wi) problem of viscoelastic fluid flow with strong elastic effect, the log-conformation reformulation method was implemented. Numerical results showed that the addition of polymers reduced the heat flux and the amount of heat transfer reduction (HTR) behaves nonmonotonically, which firstly increases but then decreases with Wi...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347073/orientational-dynamics-of-a-triaxial-ellipsoid-in-simple-shear-flow-influence-of-inertia
#17
Tomas Rosén, Yusuke Kotsubo, Cyrus K Aidun, Minh Do-Quang, Fredrik Lundell
The motion of a single ellipsoidal particle in simple shear flow can provide valuable insights toward understanding suspension flows with nonspherical particles. Previously, extensive studies have been performed on the ellipsoidal particle with rotational symmetry, a so-called spheroid. The nearly prolate ellipsoid (one major and two minor axes of almost equal size) is known to perform quasiperiodic or even chaotic orbits in the absence of inertia. With small particle inertia, the particle is also known to drift toward this irregular motion...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346873/autonomously-responsive-pumping-by-a-bacterial-flagellar-forest-a-mean-field-approach
#18
James D Martindale, Henry C Fu
This study is motivated by a microfluidic device that imparts a magnetic torque on an array of bacterial flagella. Bacterial flagella can transform their helical geometry autonomously in response to properties of the background fluid, which provides an intriguing mechanism allowing their use as an engineered element for the regulation or transport of chemicals in microscale applications. The synchronization of flagellar phase has been widely studied in biological contexts, but here we examine the synchronization of flagellar tilt, which is necessary for effective pumping...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346438/colonization-of-the-cervicovaginal-space-with-gardnerella-vaginalis-leads-to-local-inflammation-and-cervical-remodeling-in-pregnant-mice
#19
Luz-Jeannette Sierra, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barilá, Lauren Anton, Carrie E Barnum, Snehal S Shetye, Louis J Soslowsky, Michal A Elovitz
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346247/concurrent-versus-sequential-intrapleural-instillation-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-and-deoxyribonuclease-for-pleural-infection
#20
Fayez Kheir, George Cheng, Estefania Rivera, Alejandro Folch, Erik Folch, Fernandez-Bussy Sebastian, Colleen Keyes, Mihir Parikh, Colleen Channick, Alex Chee, Adnan Majid
BACKGROUND: Treatment of pleural infection with instillation of sequential intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and human recombinant deoxyribonuclease (DNase) twice daily for a total of 6 doses has been shown to decrease surgical referral and improve radiographic imaging. This labor-intensive regimen was empirically chosen. Thus, it remains unclear whether the 2 drugs can be administered immediately one after the other (concurrent administration) instead of instilling them separately with a 1-hour to 2-hour interval in between (sequential administration)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
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