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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096686/peptide-consensus-sequence-determination-for-the-enhancement-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-and-selectivity-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#1
Ammar Almaaytah, Ya'u Ajingi, Ahmad Abualhaijaa, Shadi Tarazi, Nizar Alshar'i, Qosay Al-Balas
The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria is causing a serious threat to the world's human population. Recent reports have identified bacterial strains displaying pan drug resistance against antibiotics and generating fears among medical health specialists that humanity is on the dawn of entering a post-antibiotics era. Global research is currently focused on expanding the lifetime of current antibiotics and the development of new antimicrobial agents to tackle the problem of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we designed a novel consensus peptide named "Pepcon" through peptide consensus sequence determination among members of a highly homologous group of scorpion antimicrobial peptides...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094521/titanium-iii-member-of-the-family-of-trigonal-building-blocks-with-scorpionate-and-cyanide-ligands
#2
Andrew Brown, Mohamed Saber, Willem Van den Heuvel, Kelsey Schulte, Alessandro Soncini, Kim R Dunbar
The titanium(III) cyanide compound [Et4N][Tp*Ti(CN)3] ([Et4N] = tetraethylamonium; Tp* = 3,5-dimethyltrispyrazolylhydroborate) is reported, which exhibits a trigonally distorted geometry. Magnetic data and ab initio calculations verified that the molecule is an S = (1)/2 paramagnet and that it exhibits significant temperature-independent paramagnetism.
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088477/selected-scorpion-toxin-exposures-induce-cytokine-release-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#3
Gerardo Corzo, Gerardo Pavel Espino-Solis
A cytokine screening on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with selected scorpion toxins (ScTx's) was performed in order to evaluate their effect on human immune cells. The ScTx's chosen for this report were three typical buthid scorpion venom peptides, one with lethal effects on mammals Centruroides suffussus suffusus toxin II (CssII), another, with lethal effects on insects and crustaceans Centruroides noxius toxin 5 (Cn5), and one more without lethal effects Tityus discrepans toxin (Discrepin)...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088475/role-of-some-vasoactive-mediators-in-scorpion-envenomed-children-possible-relation-to-envenoming-outcome
#4
Sahar E M El-DeeK, Ayat A Sayed, Ahmed Y Nassar, Zeynab M Mohey-Eldeen, Hussein M Eldeeb, Abdel-Raheim M A Meki
Scorpion envenomation causes an autonomic storm resulting in changes in the vasoactive mediators' levels which lead to myocardial damage, cardiovascular disturbances, peripheral circulatory failure, pulmonary edema, multi-system-organ-failure and death. The study aimed to determine the circulating levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II), kallikrein enzyme, nitric oxide (NO), aldosterone, and electrolytes Na(+), K(+) and Ca(+2) in scorpion envenomed children and to evaluate the potential relation between these vasoactive mediators, the severity of scorpion envenoming and the clinical outcome of envenomed children...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088444/feeding-recombinant-e-coli-with-gst-mbmktx-fusion-protein-increases-the-fecundity-and-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Jie Xu, Yajie Jiang, Lu Wan, Qi Wang, Zebo Huang, Yongmei Liu, Yingliang Wu, Zongyun Chen, Xin Liu
Scorpion venom could be a useful treatment for a variety of diseases, such as cancer, epilepsy and analgesia. BmKTX is a polypeptide extracts from scorpion venom (PESV), which have attracted much attention from researchers in recent years. mBmKTX is a mutant polypeptide according to the amino acid sequence of BmKTX. We expressed it with the vector pGEX-4T-1 in Escherichia coli, and Caenorhabditis elegans were used as the animal model and fed with the strains. In this study, the expression of pGEX-mBmKTX was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and GST-mBmKTX purified from pGEX-mBmKTX as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion protein is approximately 30kDa...
January 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#6
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077339/st20-a-new-venomous-animal-derived-natural-peptide-with-immunosuppressive-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#7
Min Xiao, Li Ding, Weishan Yang, Lin Chai, Yuwen Sun, Xianyi Yang, Dandan Li, Hua Zhang, Wenxin Li, Zhijian Cao, Yingliang Wu, Jian Li, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen
Peptide toxins from venomous animals are natural resources with diverse biological functions and therapeutic potential towards human diseases. For venomous scorpions, many valuable peptide toxins have been discovered from Buthidae scorpions, but few works were done about non-buthidae scorpions. Here, we cloned and characterized the first disulfide-bridged toxin peptide St20 from the non-buthidae scorpion Scorpiops tibetanus. St20 has a putative 23-residue signal peptide, followed by a presumed 34-residue mature peptide including 8 cysteines...
January 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067810/bioactivity-of-natural-and-engineered-antimicrobial-peptides-from-venom-of-the-scorpions-urodacus-yaschenkoi-and-u-manicatus
#8
Karen Luna-Ramirez, Miray Tonk, Mohammad Rahnamaeian, Andreas Vilcinskas
The spread of multidrug-resistant human pathogens has drawn attention towards antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are major players in the innate immune systems of many organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Scorpion venom is an abundant source of novel and potent AMPs. Here, we investigated natural and engineered AMPs from the scorpions Urodacus yaschenkoi and U. manicatus to determine their antimicrobial spectra as well as their hemolytic/cytotoxic activity. None of the AMPs were active against fungi, but many of them were active at low concentrations (0...
January 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065753/the-roles-of-conserved-aromatic-residues-tyr5-and-tyr42-in-interaction-of-scorpion-toxin-bmk-agp-sypu1-with-human-nav1-7
#9
Xiangxue Meng, Yijia Xu, Fangyang Wang, Mingyi Zhao, Xue Hou, Yuanyuan Ma, Yao Jin, Yanfeng Liu, Yongbo Song, Jinghai Zhang
Scorpion toxins are invaluable source of therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which produce influence on the voltage gated sodium channels. In the previous study, our group has reported BmK AGP-SYPU1 (64 amino acids), one scorpion toxin with both potential α-type and β-type scorpion characteristics and analgesic activity in vivo, act as an activator to hNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Additionally, conserved aromatic amino acids Tyr5 and Tyr42 played important roles in bioactivity of BmK AGP-SYPU1 on hNav1.4 and hNav1...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050465/lizard-bite-masquerading-as-scorpion-sting-envenomation
#10
Ramesh Neelannavar, Mallanagouda Patil, Shankargouda Patil, Bhavana Lakhkar, Vijaykumar Shegji
Lizard bite is very infrequent in children. Lizards tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are only inflicted when they are manipulated or when they are cornered and feel threatened. Lizard bites may be frightening but most do not cause serious health problems. The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. A two-year-old boy was brought with history of lizard bite over right hand when he was trying to capture it. The child had experienced excessive sweating and irritability within two hours of bite...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040703/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-study-of-scorpion-toxic-myocarditis
#11
Davide Lonati, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Guido Moro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035955/exon-shuffling-and-origin-of-scorpion-venom-biodiversity
#12
Xueli Wang, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Scorpion venom is a complex combinatorial library of peptides and proteins with multiple biological functions. A combination of transcriptomic and proteomic techniques has revealed its enormous molecular diversity, as identified by the presence of a large number of ion channel-targeted neurotoxins with different folds, membrane-active antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and protease inhibitors. Although the biodiversity of scorpion venom has long been known, how it arises remains unsolved. In this work, we analyzed the exon-intron structures of an array of scorpion venom protein-encoding genes and unexpectedly found that nearly all of these genes possess a phase-1 intron (one intron located between the first and second nucleotides of a codon) near the cleavage site of a signal sequence despite their mature peptides remarkably differ...
December 26, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032510/ruthenium-catalyzed-ammonia-borane-dehydrogenation-mechanism-and-utility
#13
Xingyue Zhang, Lisa Kam, Ryan Trerise, Travis J Williams
One of the greatest challenges in using H2 as a fuel source is finding a safe, efficient, and inexpensive method for its storage. Ammonia borane (AB) is a solid hydrogen storage material that has garnered attention for its high hydrogen weight density (19.6 wt %) and ease of handling and transport. Hydrogen release from ammonia borane is mediated by either hydrolysis, thus giving borate products that are difficult to rereduce, or direct dehydrogenation. Catalytic AB dehydrogenation has thus been a popular topic in recent years, motivated both by applications in hydrogen storage and main group synthetic chemistry...
December 29, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030603/reliable-refuge-two-sky-island-scorpion-species-select-larger-thermally-stable-retreat-sites
#14
Jamie E Becker, Christopher A Brown
Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028798/a-biomechanical-view-on-stinger-diversity-in-scorpions
#15
Arie van der Meijden, Thomas Kleinteich
Scorpions have elongated metasomas that bear a telson, which is used as a stinger for venom injection. There is a remarkable diversity in the use of the stinger among scorpions, comprising defensive behavior, prey subjugation and mating. This diversity could be reflected by the shape of the telson, as different stinging behaviors will result in very different functional demands. Here we explored the diversity of telson shapes in scorpions by providing morphological measurements, such as curvature and tip angle, as well as by testing stingers under load using finite element analysis (FEA)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024999/diversity-and-endemicity-in-the-scorpion-fauna-of-vietnam-a-preliminary-synopsis
#16
Dinh-Sac Pham, Thi-Hang Tran, Wilson R Lourenço
A faunistic inventory is proposed for the known Vietnamese scorpion species. The aim of this contribution is to bring an up-to-date checklist of all known species in Vietnam, prior to a more detailed study of the Vietnamese fauna to be performed by one of the authors (T.-H.T.) in the context of the preparation of a doctoral degree. Final taxonomic decisions should be taken at the end of the doctoral dissertation.
December 23, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017694/pitfalls-to-avoid-when-using-phage-display-for-snake-toxins
#17
Andreas Hougaard Laustsen, Line Præst Lauridsen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Brian Lohse
Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies are thus warranted, and phage display technology may be a promising avenue for bringing antivenoms into the modern era of biologics. Although phage display technology represents a robust and high-throughput approach for the discovery of antibody-based antitoxins, several pitfalls may present themselves when animal toxins are used as targets for phage display selection...
December 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012802/some-pharmacological-effects-of-tityus-obscurus-venom-in-rats-and-mice
#18
Andria de Paula Santos-da-Silva, Denise Maria Candido, Ana Leonor A Nencioni, Louise F Kimura, José P Prezotto-Neto, Katia Cristina Barbaro, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Valquíria Abrão Coronado Dorce
There are a great number of studies about Brazilian scorpions. However, little is known about the venom of scorpions of northern Brazil, mainly about Tityus obscurus, which is responsible for the most number of accidents in the Amazon. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate some pharmacological effects of T. obscurus venom in rats and mice. In rats, the venom (10 mg/kg i.p.) caused hemorrhagic patches in the lung parenchyma but did not lead to pulmonary edema. There was a decrease in general activity, observed in the activity box after venom injection...
December 22, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001231/arachnidism-scorpionism-and-ophidism-in-ouro-preto-municipality-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#19
Gabriela Fernanda Evangelista, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study shows the profile of arachnidism, ophidism, and scorpionism in the Ouro Preto Municipality, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013. METHODS: The data were gathered from forms of the Epidemiological Surveillance Sector of the town's Health's Municipal Secretary. RESULTS: Of the 412 envenomations, 308 were caused by spiders, 78 by scorpions, and 26 by snakes. The highest number of incidents involved people aged 20-34 years...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964733/an-examination-of-the-effectiveness-of-health-warning-labels-on-smokeless-tobacco-products-in-four-states-in-india-findings-from-the-tcp-india-cohort-survey
#20
Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Pete Driezen, Steve Xu, Anne C K Quah, Genevieve Sansone, Prakash C Gupta, Mangesh S Pednekar
BACKGROUND: In 2009, after many delays and changes, India introduced a single pictorial health warning label (HWL) on smokeless tobacco (SLT) packing-a symbolic image of a scorpion covering 40% of the front surface. In 2011, the scorpion was replaced with 4 graphic images. This paper tested the effectiveness of SLT HWLs in India and whether the 2011 change from symbolic to graphic images increased their effectiveness. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of 4733 adult SLT users (age15+) of the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Survey from 4 states...
December 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
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