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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142737/cloning-expression-and-identification-of-ktx-sp4-a-selective-kv1-3-peptidic-blocker-from-scorpiops-pococki
#1
Yan Zou, Feng Zhang, Yaxian Li, Yuanfang Wang, Yi Li, Zhengtao Long, Shujuan Shi, Li Shuai, Jiukai Liu, Zhiyong Di, Shijin Yin
Background: Specific and selective peptidic blockers of Kv1.3 channels can serve as a valuable drug lead for treating T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, and scorpion venom is an important source of kv1.3 channel inhibitors. Through conducting transcriptomic sequencing for the venom gland of Scorpiops pococki from Xizang province of China, this research aims to discover a novel functional gene encoding peptidic blocker of Kv1.3, and identify its function. Results: We screened out a new peptide toxin KTX-Sp4 which had 43 amino acids including six cysteine residues...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137120/aspidosperma-pyrifolium-has-anti-inflammatory-properties-an-experimental-study-in-mice-with-peritonitis-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-venom-or-carrageenan
#2
Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de Souza Lima, Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt, Allanny Alves Furtado, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Emerson Michell da Silva Siqueira, Ruth Medeiros Oliveira, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Keyla Borges Ferreira Rocha, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134028/a-new-species-of-physoctonus-mello-leit%C3%A3-o-1934-from-the-campos-formations-of-southern-amazonia-scorpiones-buthidae
#3
Wilson R Lourenço
Further studies on new specimens of the rare genus Physoctonus Mello-Leitão, 1934, lead to the description of a third new species. Until now only Physoctonus debilis (C. L. Koch, 1840) and Physoctonus striatus Esposito et al., 2017, were known from sites located in the caatingas of the north-east region of Brazil. The new species of Physoctonus was collected by the French arachnologist J. Vellard in the Campos do Pará during his field trips back to the 1920/1930, and entrusted to the author in the early 1980s...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125204/molecular-barium-hydrido-complex-stabilized-by-a-super-bulky-hydrotris-pyrazolyl-borate-ligand
#4
Xianghui Shi, Cuiping Hou, Chulu Zhou, Yanyao Song, Jianhua Cheng
Hydrogenolysis of the scorpionate-supported barium alkyl complex (Tp^Ad,iPr)Ba[CH(SiMe3)2](THF) (Tp^Ad,iPr = hydrotris(3-adamantyl-5-isopropyl-pyrazolyl)borate) afforded the dinuclear barium hydrido complex [(Tp^Ad,iPr)Ba(µ-H)]2 (2), which was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray analysis. Exposure of 2 with 1 atm of CO resulted in a reductive coupling process to form the cis-ethendiolate dianion (3). Reaction of 2 with one equivalent of PhCC-CCPh gave barium 1,4-diphenyl-2-butyne-1,4-diyl complex {[(Tp^Ad,iPr)Ba]2(PhCH-CC-CHPh) (4)...
November 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120170/cationic-ti-complexes-with-three-n-o-type-tetrazolyl-ligands-ti%C3%A2-fe-transmetalation-within-fe-metallascorpionate-complexes
#5
Yu Jin Park, Ji Yeon Ryu, Sam Hwang, Ka Hyun Park, Ji Min Lee, Sung Cho, Sunwoo Lee, Manik Lal Saha, Peter J Stang, Junseong Lee
Herein, we report the synthesis of two novel ionic Ti complexes possessing three [N,O]-type bidentate ligands from the reaction of Fe metallascorpionate ligands possessing extended alcohol groups and TiCl4. The reaction of substituted hydroxyphenyl tetrazole and Fe(ClO4)3 in a molar ratio of 3:1 afforded iron scorpionate metalloligands possessing extended arms, which were characterized by IR spectroscopy and ESI-TOF-MS spectrometry. Their molecular structures were also confirmed as neutral Fe-centered scorpionate complexes by X-ray crystallography, in which the extended alcohol groups adopted a tripodal geometry...
November 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114353/a-chromosomal-analysis-of-nepa-cinerea-linnaeus-1758-and-ranatra-linearis-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-nepidae
#6
Robert B Angus, Constance Jeangirard, Desislava Stoianova, Snejana Grozeva, Valentina G Kuznetsova
An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae). A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂) / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀), whereas R...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109389/overlooked-short-toxin-like-proteins-a-shortcut-to-drug-design
#7
Michal Linial, Nadav Rappoport, Dan Ofer
Short stable peptides have huge potential for novel therapies and biosimilars. Cysteine-rich short proteins are characterized by multiple disulfide bridges in a compact structure. Many of these metazoan proteins are processed, folded, and secreted as soluble stable folds. These properties are shared by both marine and terrestrial animal toxins. These stable short proteins are promising sources for new drug development. We developed ClanTox (classifier of animal toxins) to identify toxin-like proteins (TOLIPs) using machine learning models trained on a large-scale proteomic database...
October 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107080/genotoxicity-evaluation-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-in-mice
#8
Nathalia Coral Galvani, Thais Ceresér Vilela, Angelino Chitoma Domingos, Mírian Ívens Fagundes, Luiza Macarini Bosa, Indiani Conti Della Vechia, Rahisa Scussel, Márcia Pereira, Bethina Trevisol Steiner, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vanessa Moraes De Andrade, Ricardo Andrez Machado de Ávila
Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion associated with the most severe cases of scorpion envenoming in Brazil. However, there are no studies reporting the genotoxic effects of this venom in natural or experimental envenomations. It is well known that DNA-damage responses are providing opportunities for improving disease detection and management. In this study was evaluating the genotoxicity of the T. serrulatus venom in different organs (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, blood, heart, lung, liver and kidney) and periods in mice experimentally envenomed...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104247/molecular-dynamics-simulation-reveals-specific-interaction-sites-between-scorpion-toxins-and-kv1-2-channel-implications-for-design-of-highly-selective-drugs
#9
Shouli Yuan, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
The Kv1.2 channel plays an important role in the maintenance of resting membrane potential and the regulation of the cellular excitability of neurons, whose silencing or mutations can elicit neuropathic pain or neurological diseases (e.g., epilepsy and ataxia). Scorpion venom contains a variety of peptide toxins targeting the pore region of this channel. Despite a large amount of structural and functional data currently available, their detailed interaction modes are poorly understood. In this work, we choose four Kv1...
November 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101740/low-molecular-weight-compounds-with-anticoagulant-activity-from-the-scorpion-heterometrus-laoticus-venom
#10
Tran Vu Thien, Hoang Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Thi Thuy Trang, Phung Van Trung, Nguyen Cuu Khoa, A V Osipov, P V Dubovskii, I A Ivanov, A S Arseniev, V I Tsetlin, Yu N Utkin
Low-molecular-weight compounds with anticoagulant activity were isolated from the scorpion Heterometrus laoticus venom. The determination of the structure of the isolated compounds by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry showed that one of the isolated compounds is adenosine, and the other two are dipeptides leucyl-tryptophan and isoleucyl-tryptophan. The anticoagulant properties of adenosine, which is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, is well known, but its presence in scorpion venom is shown for the first time...
September 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095780/a-stinging-suspicion-something-was-just-not-right-methamphetamine-toxicity-in-infant-mimics-scorpion-envenomation
#11
Holly E Pariury, Aimee M Steiniger, Merlin C Lowe
The sting from Centuroides sculpturatus, commonly known as the bark scorpion, is a serious medical problem and can be potentially fatal to young children. Centuroides sculpturatus envenomation can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, often including autonomic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, and somatic motor abnormalities. We discuss a 6-month-old male infant who presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bark scorpion envenomation, later found to be secondary to methamphetamine toxicity. Emergency pediatricians should be aware of the strong similarities between scorpion envenomation and methamphetamine toxicity in pediatric patients residing in or having visited the southwestern region of the United States...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079902/structural-models-of-ligand-bound-sodium-channels
#12
Boris S Zhorov
X-ray and cryo-EM structures of tetrameric and pseudo-tetrameric P-loop channels are used to elaborate homology models of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels with drugs and neurotoxins. Such models integrate experimental data, assist in planning new experiments, and may facilitate drug design. This chapter outlines sodium channel models with local anesthetics, anticonvulsants, and antiarrhythmics, which are used to manage pain and treat sodium channelopathies. Further summarized are sodium channel models with tetrodotoxin, mu-conotoxins, batrachotoxin, scorpion toxins, and insecticides...
September 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079184/scorpion-envenoming-in-morona-santiago-amazonian-ecuador-molecular-phylogenetics-confirms-involvement-of-the-tityus-obscurus-group
#13
Juan P Román, Fernanda García, Doris Medina, Manolo Vásquez, José García, Matthew R Graham, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Pedro P de Oliveira Pardal, Edna A Y Ishikawa, Adolfo Borges
Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported...
October 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072627/anticoagulant-activity-of-low-molecular-weight-compounds-from-heterometrus-laoticus-scorpion-venom
#14
Thien Vu Tran, Anh Ngoc Hoang, Trang Thuy Thi Nguyen, Trung Van Phung, Khoa Cuu Nguyen, Alexey V Osipov, Igor A Ivanov, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Scorpion venoms are complex polypeptide mixtures, the ion channel blockers and antimicrobial peptides being the best studied components. The coagulopathic properties of scorpion venoms are poorly studied and the data about substances exhibiting these properties are very limited. During research on the Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom, we have isolated low-molecular compounds with anticoagulant activity. Determination of their structure has shown that one of them is adenosine, and two others are dipeptides LeuTrp and IleTrp...
October 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068170/antidote-availability-in-saudi-arabia-hospitals-in-the-riyadh-province
#15
Abdullah AlTamimi, Nidal K Malhis, Najla M Khojah, Saleh A Manea, Abdulrahman AlTamimi, Sami Ayed AlShammary
Inadequate antidote stocking is a global problem in hospitals. Insufficient supplies and delays in the administration of antidotes could lead to death and additional potentially negative clinical consequences. Our objective was to determine the availability of antidotes in hospitals listed on the Saudi Ministry of Health website in the Riyadh Province and to evaluate the leading poison in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to pharmacist directors and emergency room-treating physicians in 17 public hospitals throughout the Riyadh Province...
October 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068018/mono-and-binuclear-chiral-n-n-o-scorpionate-zinc-alkyls-as-efficient-initiators-for-the-rop-of-rac-lactide
#16
Antonio Otero, Juan Fernández-Baeza, Luis F Sánchez-Barba, Sonia Sobrino, Andrés Garcés, Agustín Lara-Sánchez, Ana M Rodríguez
The preparation of new chiral bis(pyrazol-1-yl)methane-based N,N,O-donor scorpionate ligands in the form of the alcohol compounds bpzampeH (1) {2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethanol}, bpzaepeH (2) {2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]ethanol}, and bpzimeH (3) {2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-[1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl]ethanol} has been carried out by the 1,2-addition reactions of a series of aldehydes. These new chiral heteroscorpionate ligands reacted with [ZnR2] (R = Me, Et, CH2SiMe3) in a 1 : 1 molar ratio in toluene to give the mononuclear monoalkyl zinc complexes [Zn(R)(κ(3)-NNO)] (4-12)...
November 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062849/fauna-and-geographical-distribution-of-scorpions-in-ilam-province-south-western-iran
#17
Narges Sharifinia, Iman Gowhari, Manijeh Hoseiny-Rad, Ali Ashraf Aivazi
BACKGROUND: Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. METHODS: In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062844/a-retrospective-study-on-scropionism-in-iran-2002-2011
#18
Rouhullah Dehghani, Javad Rafinejad, Behrooz Fathi, Morteza Panjeh Shahi, Mehrdad Jazayeri, Afsaneh Hashemi
BACKGROUND: Scorpion sting is a common medical emergency in Iran. The epidemiological features and control of such cases vary from south to north. This review will provide new information about the epidemiology of scorpion stings in different provinces of Iran. METHODS: In this descriptive retrospective study, data on scorpionism including incidence rates, mortality as well as locality from 2002 to 2011were collected. RESULTS: Overall, 433203 victims of scorpion stings had been referred to health centers from of all of the 31 provinces...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061448/scorpions-pectines-idiosyncratic-chemo-and-mechanosensory-organs
#19
REVIEW
Harald Wolf
Scorpions possess specialised chemosensory appendages, the pectines. These comb-shaped limbs are located ventrally behind the walking legs. Like the antennae of mandibulate arthropods, they also serve mechanosensory function. However, more than 90% of the sometimes well above 100,000 sensory neurons projecting from a pectine to the central nervous system are chemosensory. There are two primary projection neuropils. The posterior one, immediately adjacent to the pectine nerve entrance, has an intriguing substructure reminiscent of the olfactory glomeruli observed in the primary chemosensory neuropils of many arthropods and indeed of most bilaterian animals...
October 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061347/reactogenicity-and-safety-assessment-of-an-attenuated-nanovaccine-against-scorpion-envenomation-preclinical-study
#20
Faez Amokrane Nait Mohamed, Abdelmounaim Nouri, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
An attenuated nanovaccine (Nps - V(∗)) has been developed to protect humans from fatal scorpion envenomation in at-risk regions. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and the local reactogenicity of the Nps - V(∗) nanovaccine developed against Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom. Assessment of the systemic inflammatory response and serum cytokine levels were evaluated in vaccinated mice with 100μg of irradiated Aah venom (V(∗)) encapsulated or not into polymeric calcium-alginate nanoparticles (Nps) and injected by subcutaneous (s...
October 20, 2017: Vaccine
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