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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438053/scorpion-venom-causes-upregulation-of-p53-and-downregulation-of-bcl-xl-and-bid-protein-expression-by-modulating-signaling-proteins-erk-1-2-and-stat3-and-dna-damage-in-breast-and-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#1
Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari, Anvarbatcha Riyasdeen, Mozaffarul Islam
Scorpion venoms efficiently block the normal neurotransmitter signaling pathway by prejudicing the ion channel operating mechanism in the body system. Besides its negative effect, venoms also possess some beneficial qualities for humans. They have also been shown to exhibit anticancer properties in various cancer types. This unique property of the venom as an anticancer agent is mainly a result of its role in initiating apoptosis and inhibiting several signaling cascade mechanisms that promote cancer cell proliferation and growth...
April 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425546/variable-coordination-of-tris-2-pyridyl-phosphine-and-its-oxide-toward-m-hfac-2-a-metal-specifiable-switching-between-the-formation-of-mono-and-bis-scorpionate-complexes
#2
Alexander V Artem'ev, Alexey V Kashevskii, Artem S Bogomyakov, Alexander Yu Safronov, Anastasiya O Sutyrina, Anton A Telezhkin, Irina V Sterkhova
An unexpected substitution of the anionic chelating ligands at the M(II) centre by a neutral tripodal ligand has been observed in the reaction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonates (hfac) with tris(2-pyridyl)phosphine (Py3P) or its oxide (Py3P = O). The nature of the metal ion in M(hfac)2 and the M/L ratio determine the degree of substitution of hfac-anions (partial vs. total) and therefore, the structure of the complex formed (scorpionate vs. bis-scorpionate ones, respectively). Hence, the reaction of the ligands with [Cu(hfac)2(H2O)2] in an equimolar ratio affords scorpionate [Cu(N,N',N''-Py3P = X)(O,O'-hfac)(O-hfac)], wherein one hfac-ligand chelates metal, while the other hfac acts as an O-monodentate one...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416444/the-pharmacology-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-activators
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer R Deuis, Alexander Mueller, Mathilde R Israel, Irina Vetter
Toxins and venom components that target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels have evolved numerous times due to the importance of this class of ion channels in the normal physiological function of peripheral and central neurons as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle. NaV channel activators in particular have been isolated from the venom of spiders, wasps, snakes, scorpions, cone snails and sea anemone and are also produced by plants, bacteria and algae. These compounds have provided key insight into the molecular structure, function and pathophysiological roles of NaV channels and are important tools due to their at times exquisite subtype-selectivity...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415833/molecular-characterization-and-biodiversity-of-a-putative-chlorotoxin-from-the-iranian-yellow-scorpion-odontobuthus-doriae
#4
Maryam Naderi Soorki, Amir Jalali, Hamid Galehdari
BAckground: Chloride channels have already been over-expressed in the different types of cancer. Chlorotoxins, as the blocking agent of these channels, have been indicated to be an effective drug against tumors. In this study, we characterized a putative chlorotoxin from a cDNA library of the venom glands obtained from the Iranian scorpion Odontobuthus doriae. Methods: A cDNA library was constructed from venom gland transcriptome of six scorpions. The cDNA encoding Odontobuthus doriae chlorotoxin was isolated from the library, and its putative peptide was characterized by some bioinformatics software such as protein blast, SignalP4...
April 18, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412934/karyotype-diversity-and-chromosomal-organization-of-repetitive-dna-in-tityus-obscurus-scorpiones-buthidae
#5
Bruno Rafael Ribeiro de Almeida, Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão, Renata Coelho Rodrigues Noronha, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues da Costa, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal, Johne Souza Coelho, Julio Cesar Pieczarka
BACKGROUND: Holocentric chromosomes occur in approximately 750 species of eukaryotes. Among them, the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) has a labile karyotype that shows complex multivalent associations during male meiosis. Thus, taking advantage of the excellent model provided by the Buthidae scorpions, here we analyzed the chromosomal distribution of several repetitive DNA classes on the holocentric chromosomes of different populations of the species Tityus obscurus Gervais, 1843, highlighting their involvement in the karyotypic differences found among them...
April 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412597/peptide-blockers-of-kv1-3-channels-in-t-cells-as-therapeutics-for-autoimmune-disease
#6
REVIEW
K George Chandy, Raymond S Norton
The voltage-gated Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes is a validated therapeutic target for diverse autoimmune diseases. Here we review the discovery of Kv1.3, its physiological role in T cells, and why it is an attractive target for modulating autoimmune responses. We focus on peptide inhibitors because the first Kv1.3-selective inhibitor in human trials is a peptide derived from a marine organism. Two broad classes of peptides block Kv1.3, the first from scorpions and the second from sea anemones. We describe their structures, their binding site in the external vestibule of Kv1...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#7
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405853/age-related-changes-in-inflammatory-response-after-experimental-envenomation-impact-on-the-susceptibility-to-androctonus-australis-hector-venom
#8
Wassila Haddad-Ishak-Boushaki, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
In regions at risk of scorpion envenomation, children remain the principal victims; they exhibit severe symptoms and represent a higher mortality rate compared to adults. The pathophysiology of envenomation is related to an excessive inflammatory response; however, no studies have identified the differences in immune responses to scorpion stings and mainly the mechanisms of inflammation between children and adults, which may be a determinant key of the susceptibility of children to scorpion envenomation. In this study, we compared the systemic (blood and lung) and the central (brain) inflammatory responses after injection of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom to 7 and 21 postnatal days (pnds) and adult mice by subcutaneous route...
April 13, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398099/enhancing-the-therapeutic-potential-of-peptide-toxins
#9
Raymond S Norton
Peptide toxins are potent and often exquisitely selective probes of the structure and function of ion channels and receptors, and as such are of significant interest to the pharmaceutical and biotech industries as both therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools. Their progression as clinical candidates, however, faces many of the challenges that are common to peptide drugs generally. Areas covered: The attributes of peptide toxins as therapeutic leads are outlined, as well as some of the limiting factors that have hampered the clinical development of many promising candidates...
April 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391553/effect-of-a-bradykinin-potentiating-factor-isolated-from-scorpion-venom-leiurus-quinquestriatus-on-some-blood-indices-and-lipid-profile-in-irradiated-rats
#10
Muhammad M A Salman, Ahmed M Kotb, Mohie A M Haridy, Klaus Golka, Seddik Hammad
Bradykinin appears to be an important regulator of cardiovascular function. It is also being increasingly noted as a participant in actions of drugs that affect the liver, kidney, and circulation. In our previous studies, bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) isolated from scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus) has been shown to be protective against hepato- and nephrotoxicity as well as healing skin burns by reducing oxidative stress in hyperglycemic conditions. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the ability of BPF in treating irradiated rats...
April 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390429/management-of-scorpion-envenoming-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-clinical-trials
#11
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Ariaranee Gnanathasan
BACKGROUND: Scorpion stings cause an estimated 3000 deaths per annum worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of all controlled clinical trials related to scorpion sting management. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL and included controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized). The following interventions were assessed: adults and children with scorpion stings treated with (a) steroids vs. placebo, (b) different methods of pain relief, (c) antivenom vs...
April 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389388/prolonged-immunomodulation-in-inflammatory-arthritis-using-the-selective-kv1-3-channel-blocker-hstx1-r14a-and-its-pegylated-analog
#12
Mark R Tanner, Rajeev B Tajhya, Redwan Huq, Elizabeth J Gehrmann, Kathia E Rodarte, Mustafa A Atik, Raymond S Norton, Michael W Pennington, Christine Beeton
Effector memory T lymphocytes (TEM cells) that lack expression of CCR7 are major drivers of inflammation in a number of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The Kv1.3 potassium channel is a key regulator of CCR7(-) TEM cell activation. Blocking Kv1.3 inhibits TEM cell activation and attenuates inflammation in autoimmunity, and as such, Kv1.3 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of TEM cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. The scorpion venom-derived peptide HsTX1 and its analog HsTX1[R14A] are potent Kv1...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382285/anti-proliferative-effects-of-androctonus-amoreuxi-scorpion-and-cerastes-cerastes-snake-venoms-on-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Hassan Akef, Nahla Kotb, Dina Abo-Elmatty, Sayed Salem
The present study evaluated the effects of Androctonus amoreuxi scorpion venom, Cerastes cerastes snake venom and their mixture on prostate cancer cells (PC3). An MTT assay was used to determine the anti-proliferative effect of the venoms, while quantitative real time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2). Furthermore, colorimetric assays were used to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes. Our results show that the venoms significantly reduced PC3 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner...
March 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376654/enhancement-of-recombinant-bmk-angm1-production-in-pichia-pastoris-by-regulating-gene-dosage-co-expressing-with-chaperones-and-fermenting-in-fed-batch-mode
#14
Qing-Hua Wang, Lan Liang, Wan-Cang Liu, Ting Gong, Jing-Jing Chen, Qi Hou, Jin-Ling Yang, Ping Zhu
The scorpion peptide BmK AngM1 was reported to exhibit evident analgesic effect, but its yield by extraction from scorpion venom limits the research and application. The heterologous expression of BmK AngM1 was achieved in Pichia pastoris in our previous study. In order to realize high-level expression of recombinant BmK AngM1 (rBmK AngM1), the gene dosage of BmK AngM1 was optimized in engineered strains. The yield of rBmK AngM1 in the four-copy strain reached up to 100 mg/L, which was further enhanced to 190 mg/L by co-expressing with chaperones of PDI, BiP, and HAC1...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366549/scorpions-snakes-and-fontan-failure-the-dawn-of-a-new-era
#15
EDITORIAL
Edward Buratto, Xin Tao Ye, Igor E Konstantinov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363794/adaptive-evolution-of-insect-selective-excitatory-%C3%AE-type-sodium-channel-neurotoxins-from-scorpion-venom
#16
Wenlan Wu, Zhongjie Li, Yibao Ma
Insect selective excitatory β-type sodium channel neurotoxins from scorpion venom (β-NaScTxs) are composed of about 70-76 amino acid residues and share a common scaffold stabilized by four unique disulfide bonds. The phylogenetic analysis of these toxins was hindered by limited sequence data. In our recent study, two new insect selective excitatory β-NaScTxs, LmIT and ImIT, were isolated from Lychas mucronatus and Isometrus maculatus, respectively. With the sequences previously reported, we examined the adaptive molecular evolution of insect selective excitatory β-NaScTxs by estimating the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous rate ratio (ω=dN/dS)...
March 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352186/tyrosine-kinase-domain-mutations-of-egfr-gene-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Chittibabu Vatte, Ali M Al Amri, Cyril Cyrus, Shahanas Chathoth, Sadananda Acharya, Tariq Mohammad Hashim, Zhara Al Ali, Saleh Tawfeeq Alshreadah, Ahmed Alsayyah, Amein K Al-Ali
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a commonly altered gene that is identified in various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Therefore, EGFR is a promising molecular marker targeted by monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in HNSCC patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338061/heteroleptic-copper-i-complexes-of-scorpionate-bis-pyrazolyl-carboxylate-ligand-with-auxiliary-phosphine-as-potential-anticancer-agents-an-insight-into-cytotoxic-mode
#18
Rais Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Usman, Rajakumar Dhivya, Perumalsamy Balaji, Ali Alsalme, Hamad AlLohedan, Farukh Arjmand, Khalid AlFarhan, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha, Fabio Marchetti, Claudio Pettinari, Sartaj Tabassum
New copper(I) complexes [CuCl(PPh3)(L)] (1: L = LA = 4-carboxyphenyl)bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane; (2: L = LB = 3-carboxyphenyl)bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane) were prepared and characterised by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and ESI-MS. The molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were analyzed by theoretical B3LYP/DFT method. Furthermore, in vitro DNA binding studies were carried out to check the ability of complexes 1 and 2 to interact with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using absorption titration, fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism, which is indicative of more avid binding of the complex 1...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335389/characteristics%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lethality%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-recombinant%C3%A2-dermonecrotic%C3%A2-venom%C3%A2-phospholipase%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-hemiscorpius%C3%A2-lepturus
#19
Elham Torabi, Mahdi Behdani, Mohammad Hosseininejad Chafi, Reza Moazzami, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Vahid Khalaj, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
Hemoscorpius lepturus is the most medically important scorpion in Iran. The clinical signs of H. lepturus envenomation are remarkably similar to those reported for brown spiders, including dermonecrosis, hematuria, renal failure and even death. The lethality and toxicity of brown spiders' venom have been attributed to its phospholipase D activity. This study aims to identify a phospholipase D with possible lethality and dermonecrotic activity in H. lepturus venom. In this study, a cDNA library of the venom glands was generated by Illumina RNA sequencing...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322221/venom-from-cuban-blue-scorpion-has-tumor-activating-effect-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Catia Giovannini, Michele Baglioni, Marco Baron Toaldo, Matteo Cescon, Luigi Bolondi, Laura Gramantieri
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term used to describe many kinds of products, practices, and systems that are not part of conventional medicine. Cancer patients usually do everything they can to combat the disease, manage its symptoms, and cope with the side effects of treatment. Unfortunately, patients who use CAM underestimate the risk of interaction with cancer therapy or worse they omit conventional therapy thus reducing the possibility of cancer remission. Herein we analyzed the effects of Vidatox 30 CH (venom extracted from the Junceus Rhopalurus scorpion) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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