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Dominik Naglav, Briac Tobey, Kevin Dzialkowski, Dieter Bläser, Christoph Wölper, Georg Jansen, Stephan Schulz
Spontaneous ion separation of the scorpionate beryllium complex, TpBeI 1 (Tp = 1-trispyrazolylborate), occurs upon treatment with THF, yielding [TpBe(thf)]I 2, which was characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy (1H, 9Be, 13C) and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 2 represents a rare example of a structurally characterized monocationic beryllium complex, and to the best of our knowledge, the synthesis of 2 by a solvent-induced ion separation has previously only been observed in the reactions of beryllium dihalides with strong Lewis bases...
May 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zhiyong Di, Gregory D Edgecombe, Prashant P Sharma
BACKGROUND: The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a key role in the diversification of arthropods. While the ancestral arthropod appendage is held to be polyramous, terrestriality is associated with the reduction or loss of appendage rami, which may obscure the homology of different appendage derivatives. Proxies for appendage homology have included surveys of cross-reactive antibodies for wing markers like Nubbin/PDM, which have suggested that the abdominal appendages of arachnids (e...
May 21, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Andrew Z Ontano, Mark S Harvey, Prashant P Sharma
Transcriptomic and genomic analyses have illuminated the diversity of venoms in three of the four venomous arachnid orders (scorpions, spiders, and ticks). To date, no venom gland transcriptome analysis has been available for pseudoscorpions, the fourth venomous arachnid lineage. To redress this gap, we sequenced an mRNA library generated from the venom glands of the species Synsphyronus apimelus (Garypidae). High-throughput sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 238,331 transcripts...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
Bin Gao, Julie Dalziel, Simone Tanzi, Shunyi Zhu
Besides key roles in prey capture and predator defense, scorpion venom also functions as internal immune agents protecting the venom gland from infection and external immune agents cleaning saprophytic microbes from their own body surfaces. However, antimicrobials (typically antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) in the venom often exist in low abundance that might exclude their immune role alone, leaving an open question with regard to their in vivo biological function. Here, we report the bactericidal activity of seven peptides isolated from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus venom, including one classical α-helical AMP and five ion channel-targeted neurotoxins...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
Yanzhen Lai, Xueping Wang, Tao Zeng, Shan Xing, Shuqin Dai, Junye Wang, Shulin Chen, Xiaohui Li, Ying Xie, Yuanying Zhu, Wanli Liu
Background: Effective biomarkers are essential to the differential diagnosis and severity assessment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study explored the use of the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels as a biomarker with the aim of achieving better management of NSCLC. Methods: Serum VEGF levels were assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 180 patients with NSCLC, 136 patients with benign pulmonary nodules, and 119 healthy controls. We additionally detected the serum concentration of three traditional biomarkers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA)-125, and cytokeratin 19 fragments (Cyfra 21-1)-to comparatively evaluate the efficiency and diagnostic value of VEGF in patients with NSCLC...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Ronel Pienaar, Albert W H Neitz, Ben J Mans
In comparison to other arachnids, ticks are major vectors of disease, but less than 8% of the known species are capable of inducing paralysis, as compared to the ~99⁻100% arachnids that belong to venomous classes. When considering the potential monophyly of venomous Arachnida, this review reflects on the implications regarding the classification of ticks as venomous animals and the possible origin of toxins. The origin of tick toxins is compared with scorpion and spider toxins and venoms based on their significance, functionality, and structure in the search to find homologous venomous characters...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Akram Aboutorabi, Nima Naderi, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Hossein Zolfagharian, Hossein Vatanpour
Bothutous Schach  (BS) scorpion venom consists of several polypeptides that could modulate ion channels. In this study, the effects of BS crude venom on passive and active electrophysiological properties of rat neurons in supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hypothalamus was investigated using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that bath application of BS venom produced significant change in passive properties of SON neurons, namely a decrease in resting membrane potential and an increase in input resistance of the cells...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Karina F Zoccal, Luiz G Gardinassi, Carlos A Sorgi, Alyne F G Meirelles, Karla C F Bordon, Isaias Glezer, Palmira Cupo, Alessandra K Matsuno, Valdes R Bollela, Eliane C Arantes, Francisco S Guimarães, Lúcia Helena Faccioli
Interleukin (IL)-1β is a potential target for treatment of several inflammatory diseases, including envenomation by the scorpion Tityus serrulatus . In this context, bioactive lipids such as prostaglandin (PG)E2 and leukotriene (LT)B4 modulate the production of IL-1β by innate immune cells. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that perceive T. serrulatus venom (TsV), and orchestrate LTB4 , PGE2 , and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production to regulate IL-1β release are unknown. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms driving human cell responses to TsV remain uncharacterized...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau
The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Andrew Allan Walker, Max Rosenthal, Eivind E A Undheim, Glenn F King
Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
The consequences of scorpion stings on the affected victims, including humans, have been known since ancient times. The effects of the venom, first on neurotransmission and thereafter on many physiological processes at the organism, tissue, cellular or molecular levels, have been the subject of intense research. It is, therefore, not surprising that a large number of toxins acting on a variety of ion channels have been isolated and described to date. Many of these toxins show high specificities and affinities towards their natural targets...
April 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Najeh Krayem, Zaineb Abdelkefi-Koubaa, Naziha Marrakchi, Youssef Gargouri, José Luis
We recently purified an heterodimeric phospholipase A2 named Sm-PLGV from the venom glands of scorpion Scorpio maurus containing a Long chain, a penta-peptide insertion, which is cut out during the maturation, followed by a short chain. Three recombinant forms of Sm-PLGV were produced in Escherichia coli: rPLA2 (+5) containing the full-length sequence including the penta-peptide insert, rPLA2 (-5) a fused continuous chain of the Long and the short chains without the penta-peptide and the Long chain alone without the short one...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sinem S Gökay, Hayri L Yilmaz, Riza D Yildizdaş, Tuğçe Çelik, Faruk Ekinci, Özlem T Kendir, Özden Ö Horoz
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion stings are an important health problem in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine cases of scorpion stings to evaluate their epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features and to determine strategies that can reduce morbidity and mortality in these cases. METHODS: Scorpion stings experienced by children between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were categorized into groups based on severities of toxicities, and demographic, clinical, and laboratory features were compared between the groups...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Seiichi Takeda, Takao Toda, Kazuki Nakamura
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory action of medium molecular weight heparinyl amino acid derivatives (MHADs) on scorpion venom (SV)-induced acute pulmonary edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SV was injected into the tail vein of rats after MHAD pre-treatment. An hour later, lungs were removed from each experimental animal, followed by measurement of the lung/body index (LBI) and Na+ /K+ ratio of the pulmonary tissue as indices for acute pulmonary edema...
May 2018: In Vivo
Vasiliy B Kolesnikov, Ilya S Turbanov
Based on morphological and molecular studies of material from caves in three karst regions of Crimea, the small, apparently relictual, Euro-Mediterranean and Macaronesian false scorpion genus Pseudoblothrus Beier, 1931 is shown to contain only one troglobiont species there, P. roszkovskii (Redikorzev, 1918), of which P. ljovuschkini Krumpál, 1984 and Obisium tauricum Lebedev, 1927 are junior subjective synonyms. A detailed redescription of the adults and tritonymph of P. roszkovskii is provided, together with phylogenetic and zoogeographical analyses...
January 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Juan-Ramón Jiménez, Akira Sugahara, Masashi Okubo, Atsuo Yamada, Lise-Marie Chamoreau, Laurent Lisnard, Rodrigue Lescouëzec
Using a scorpionate-based complex, [FeIII(Tp)(CN)3]-, as a building block, a new cyanide-based molecular material [{FeIII(Tp)(CN)3}2NiII(H2O)2]·4H2O (1), which can be viewed as a lower dimensional model of Prussian blue analogues, was investigated as a lithium-ion storage host.
April 24, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zeeshan A Mirza
Scorpions of the genus Liocheles Sundevall, 1833 are widespread in forests of the Indo-Pacific region; however, its species diversity is poorly resolved. A new species of the genus Liocheles is herein described from northeast India after examination of freshly collected specimens and available museum material. The new species, Liocheles schalleri sp. nov., occurs in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, a region that has been poorly explored for its arachnid diversity.
December 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Robert W Bryson Jr, Dustin A Wood, Matthew R Graham, Michael E Soleglad, John E McCormack
Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages...
2018: ZooKeys
Adriana M S Parente, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Allanny A Furtado, Menilla A Melo, Ariane F Lacerda, Moacir Queiroz, Cláudia Moreno, Elizabeth Santos, Hugo A O Rocha, Euzébio G Barbosa, Eneas Carvalho, Arnobio A Silva-Júnior, Marcelo S Silva, Matheus de F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Scorpion venom is a rich source of biologically active components and various peptides with high-potential therapeutic use that have been characterized for their antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Stigmurin is a peptide identified from the Tityus stigmurus venom gland with high antibacterial and antiproliferative activities and low toxicity. Amino acid substitutions in peptides without a disulfide bridge sequence have been made with the aim of reducing their toxicity and increasing their biological activities...
April 18, 2018: Toxins
Paul J Fischer, Shuruthi Senthil, Jeremy T Stephan, McKinley L Swift, Meghan D Storlie, Emily T Chan, Matthew V Vollmer, Victor G Young
A series of zerovalent group VI metal complexes of tris(diisopropylphosphinomethyl)phenylborate ([PhB(CH2PiPr2)3]-, PhBPiPr3), including [PPN][M(CO)3(PhBPiPr3)] (M = Cr, Mo, W) and the first bimetallics in which PhBPiPr3 serves as a bridging ligand via binding M(CO)3 units at the three phosphorus atoms and the borate phenyl substituent, have been synthesized and fully characterized. Two new tris(phosphinomethyl)borates featuring 3,5-dimethylphenyl and 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl borate substituents were prepared as crystallographically characterized thallium salts, and metallated giving their inaugural transition metal complexes [PPN][M(CO)3(((3,5-Me)C6H3)BPPh3)] and [PPN][M(CO)3(((3,5-CF3)C6H3)BPPh3)]...
April 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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