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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924048/a-mutant-of-the-bmk-antitumor-analgesic-peptide-exhibits-reduced-inhibition-to-hnav1-4-and-hnav1-5-channels-while-retaining-analgesic-activity
#1
Yijia Xu, Xiangxue Meng, Xue Hou, Jianfang Sun, Xiaohua Kong, Yuqi Sun, Zeyu Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Ye Niu, Yongbo Song, Yong Cui, Mingyi Zhao, Jinghai Zhang
Scorpion toxins can kill other animals by inducing paralysis and arrhythmia, which limits the potential applications of these agents in the clinical management of diseases. Antitumor-analgesic peptide (AGAP), purified from Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK), has been proved to possess analgesic and antitumor activities. Trp38, a conserved aromatic residue of AGAP, might play an important role in mediating AGAP activities according to the sequence and homology modeling analyses. Therefore, an AGAP mutant W38G was generated, and effects of both AGAP and the mutant W38G were examine by whole-cell patch clamp techniques on the sodium channels hNav1...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918200/profiling-the-short-linear-non-disulfide-bond-containing-peptidome-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-tityus-obscurus
#2
Nathalia Baptista Dias, Bibiana Monson de Souza, Fernando Kamimura Cocchi, Hipócrates M Chalkidis, Valquíria Abrão Coronado Dorce, Mario Sergio Palma
Many scorpion accidents occur in the Brazilian Amazonian region and are frequently caused by Tityus obscurus. Approximately 5% of the crude venom of this species is composed of short linear, non-disulfide-bridged peptides, which have not been intensively investigated. As a consequence, only a few of these peptides have been structurally and functionally characterized to date. In the present paper, the peptide fraction of the venom was subjected to peptide profiling using an LCMS-IT-TOF/MS and MS(n) system. The analysis detected 320 non-disulfide bond-containing peptides (NDBPs), of which twenty-seven had their sequences assigned; among them, thirteen peptides were characterized, constituting novel toxins in T...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910674/the-inhibitory-activity-of-hl-7-and-hl-10-peptide-from-scorpion-venom-hemiscorpius-lepturus-on-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-kinetic-and-docking-study
#3
Zahra Setayesh-Mehr, Ahmad Asoodeh
The hypertension is one of the highest risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has an important role in the physiological regulation of cardiovascular system. ACE inhibition is a key purpose for hypertension treatment. In this study, two peptides named HL-7 with the sequence of YLYELAR (MW: 927.07Da) and HL-10 with the sequence of AFPYYGHHLG (MW: 1161.28Da) were identified from scorpion venom of H. lepturus. The inhibitory activity of HL-7 and HL-10 was examined on rabbit ACE...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905655/inverted-takotsubo-syndrome-in-androctonus-australis-scorpion-envenomation
#4
Fekri Abroug, Islem Ouanes, Mezri Maatouk, Mondher Golli, Lamia Ouanes-Besbes
CONTEXT: The nature of scorpion-related cardiomyopathy is still a matter of debate where specific toxin-induced cardiomyopathy, ischemic, or catecholaminergic cardiomyopathy is advocated as well. We report two cases of Takotsubo syndrome following envenomation by Androctonus australis, bringing new evidence for the fundamental role of catecholamines in the pathogenesis of this cardiomyopathy. Case 1: A woman aged 36 presented with pulmonary edema and shock following scorpion envenomation...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902889/on-specimen-killing-in-the-era-of-conservation-crisis-a-quantitative-case-for-modernizing-taxonomy-and-biodiversity-inventories
#5
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901157/reaction-of-amines-with-aldehydes-and-ketones-revisited-access-to-a-class-of-non-scorpionate-tris-pyrazolyl-methane-and-related-ligands
#6
Basil Mohammed Ahmed, Nicholas A Rudell, Ixtlazihuatl Soto, Gellert Mezei
The reaction of amines with aldehydes and ketones has been exploited for over 150 years to produce Schiff bases, one of the most popular classes of compounds in both organic and coordination chemistry. In certain cases, however, compounds other than Schiff bases have been reported to result from such reactions. After conducting a representative reaction under various different conditions and identifying several reaction intermediates by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography, we now report a unified picture that explains the scattered and often inconsistent results obtained with 3(5)-aminopyrazole derivatives and other related molecules...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894524/spider-bite-in-iran
#7
EDITORIAL
Hossein Sanaei-Zadeh
Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus)...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881731/detection-of-braf-nras-kit-gnaq-gna11-and-map2k1-2-mutations-in-russian-melanoma-patients-using-lna-pcr-clamp-and-biochip-analysis
#8
Marina Emelyanova, Lilit Ghukasyan, Ivan Abramov, Oxana Ryabaya, Evgenia Stepanova, Anna Kudryavtseva, Asiya Sadritdinova, Cholpon Dzhumakova, Tatiana Belysheva, Sergey Surzhikov, Lyudmila Lyubchenko, Alexander Zasedatelev, Tatiana Nasedkina
Target inhibitors are used for melanoma treatment, and their effectiveness depends on the tumor genotype. We developed a diagnostic biochip for the detection of 39 clinically relevant somatic mutations in the BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, GNA11, MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 genes. We used multiplex locked nucleic acid (LNA) PCR clamp for the preferable amplification of mutated over wild type DNA. The amplified fragments were labeled via the incorporation of fluorescently labeled dUTP during PCR and were hybridized with specific oligonucleotides immobilized on a biochip...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871821/centruroides-sculpturatus-envenomation-in-three-adult-patients-requiring-treatment-with-antivenom
#9
Nicholas B Hurst, Demis N Lipe, Stephen R Karpen, Asad E Patanwala, Ann M Taylor, Keith J Boesen, F Mazda Shirazi
CONTEXT: Envenomation by Centruroides sculpturatus can manifest with cranial nerve dysfunction and neuromuscular hyperactivity. While these symptoms are most commonly seen in young children, they may also be seen in adults. CASE DETAILS: Three cases of adult patients are presented with grades III & IV scorpion envenomation. They reported symptoms including disconjugate, roving eye movements, and motor involvement. Also reported were hyposmia, difficulty with fine motor movements, and dysgeusia...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866287/dangerous-arachnids-fake-news-or-reality
#10
REVIEW
Tobias J Hauke, Volker Herzig
The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans...
September 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857644/recombinant-scorpion-toxins-focus-on-four-disulfide-peptide-blockers-of-kv1-channels
#11
Oksana Nekrasova, Sergey Yakimov, Mikhail Kirpichnikov, Alexey Feofanov
We have recently developed a simple and effective bioengineering approach to large-scale production of alpha-KTx, peptide toxins from scorpion venoms, that block voltage-gated potassium channels with high affinity and specificity. This approach was successfully approved for different peptides containing three disulfide bonds. To extend this method to production of peptide toxins with four disulfide bridges, in particular, maurotoxin and hetlaxin, appropriate conditions of a cleavage reaction with tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease need to be found...
August 31, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855813/saudi-medicinal-plants-for-the-treatment-of-scorpion-sting-envenomation
#12
REVIEW
Abdulrahman Al-Asmari, Rajamohamed Abbas Manthiri, Nasreddien Abdo, Fawzi Abdullah Al-Duaiji, Haseeb Ahmad Khan
Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854259/arizona-bark-scorpion-venom-resistance-in-the-pallid-bat-antrozous-pallidus
#13
Bradley H Hopp, Ryan S Arvidson, Michael E Adams, Khaleel A Razak
The pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus), a gleaning bat found in the western United States and Mexico, hunts a wide variety of ground-dwelling prey, including scorpions. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the pallid bat is resistant to scorpion venom, but no systematic study has been performed. Here we show with behavioral measures and direct injection of venom that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus. Our results show that the pallid bat is stung multiple times during a hunt without any noticeable effect on behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852405/predictive-determinants-of-scorpion-stings-in-a-tropical-zone-of-south-iran-use-of-mixed-seasonal-autoregressive-moving-average-model
#14
Vahid Ebrahimi, Esmael Hamdami, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard, Shahrokh Ezzatzadegan Jahromi
BACKGROUND: More than 1.2 million scorpion stings occur annually worldwide, particularly in tropical regions. In the absence of proper medical care, mortality due to venomous scorpion stings is an important public health issue. The aim of the present study is to explore the temporal trend of scorpionism with time series models and determine the effective factors on this event using regression models. METHODS: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted on 853 scorpion stung patients...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837113/orally-delivered-scorpion-antimicrobial-peptides-exhibit-activity-against-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-and-its-bacterial-symbionts
#15
Karen Luna-Ramirez, Marisa Skaljac, Jens Grotmann, Phillipp Kirfel, Andreas Vilcinskas
Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites...
August 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811167/differences-in-mating-behavior-between-two-allopatric-populations-of-a-neotropical-scorpion
#16
Paola A Olivero, Camilo I Mattoni, Alfredo V Peretti
Courtship and mating behavior generally evolve rapidly in diverging populations and species. The adaptation to different environments may cause behavioral divergence in characteristics involved in mate choice. Our objective in this study was to compare the sexual behavior of two distant populations of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis. This species has a broad distribution in South America, inhabiting Central Argentina, Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil. It is known that in this species there is a divergence in morphological patterns (body size, coloration, allometry and fluctuating asymmetry indexes) among distant populations...
July 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807098/protective-effect-of-ozone-against-hemiscorpius-lepturus-envenomation-in-mice
#17
Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Farshad Shahi, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mostafa Ghanei, Khadijeh Ashtari, Yoones Panahi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Morteza Izadi
OBJECTIVE: Scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) stings are a public health concern in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern regions of Iran. The gold standard for the treatment of a scorpion sting is anti-venom therapy. However, immunotherapy can have serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock (which can sometimes even lead to death). The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the protective effect of ozone against toxicity induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) venom in mice...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793026/epidemiological-study-of-scorpion-stings-in-the-rio-grande-do-norte-state-northeastern-brazil
#18
Kaliany Adja Medeiros de Araújo, Aluska Vieira Tavares, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos Marques, Alecxandro Alves Vieira, Renner de Souza Leite
This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790503/mast-cells-and-ige-can-enhance-survival-during-innate-and-acquired-host-responses-to-venoms
#19
Stephen J Galli, Philipp Starkl, Thomas Marichal, Mindy Tsai
Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are thought to promote health by contributing to host responses to certain parasites, but other beneficial functions have remained obscure. Venoms provoke innate inflammatory responses and pathology reflecting the activities of the contained toxins. Venoms also can induce allergic sensitization and development of venom-specific IgE antibodies, which can predispose some subjects to exhibit anaphylaxis upon subsequent exposure to the relevant venom. We found that innate functions of mast cells, including degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, enhanced survival in mice injected with venoms from the honeybee, two species of scorpion, three species of poisonous snakes, or the Gila monster...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782041/a-bimodal-activation-mechanism-underlies-scorpion-toxin-induced-pain
#20
Shilong Yang, Fan Yang, Bei Zhang, Bo Hyun Lee, Bowen Li, Lei Luo, Jie Zheng, Ren Lai
Venomous animals use peptide toxins for hunting and self-defense. To achieve these goals, toxins need to bind to their targets with high affinity due to the small amount that a single bite or sting can deliver. The scorpion toxin BmP01 is linked to sting-induced excruciating pain; however, the reported minimum concentrations for activating TRPV1 channel or inhibiting voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (both in the micromolar range) appear too high to be biologically relevant. We show that the effective concentration of BmP01 is highly pH-dependent-it increases by about 10-fold in inhibiting Kv channels upon a 1-U drop in pH but decreases more than 100-fold in activating TRPV1...
August 2017: Science Advances
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