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Rouhullah Dehghani, Hamid Kassiri
Background: Scorpions are among the world's venomous arthropods, they sting humans every year, suffering painful symptoms or losing their lives because of the venom. Odontobuthus doriae Thorell 1876 (Arachnida: Scorpionida: Buthidae) is a scorpion of medical importance and therefore its geographical distribution in Isfahan Province has been studied. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed between Mar and Jun in 2012 and 2013 in Province of Isfahan, central Iran...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Mulood Mohammadi Bavani, Javad Rafinejad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Shahrokh Navidpour, Farrokh Dabiri, Mehdi Badakhshan, Esmaeil Ghorbani, Masoomeh Bagheri
Background: Scorpions are one of the most important medical arthropods in Iran. This study aimed to determine the fauna, spatial distribution and some morphological characteristics of these venomous arthropods in the study area. Methods: Scorpions were collected using Ultra Violet light, rock rolling and digging methods in West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, and Ardabil Provinces during 2015-2016. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethyl alcohol and transferred to the laboratory for species identification and morphological studies...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Wilson R Lourenço
This contribution attempts to bring some general information on the evolution and, in particular, on the geographic distribution of scorpion species noxious to humans. Since 95% of the scorpions incidents are generated by specimens of the family Buthidae C. L. Koch, the analysis will be limited to this familial group. As in previous similar contributions, the content of this work is mostly addressed to non-specialists whose research embraces scorpions in several fields such as venom toxins and public health...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Yuchen Deng, Jiawei Gu, Zhenpeng Yan, Mengdi Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Jiafeng Zhang, Guixian Jiang, Mengxiao Ge, Shuogui Xu, Zheng Xu, Liang Xiao
Scorpion, as an ancient species, has been widely used on dozens of human diseases in traditional Chinese Medicine. Although the scorpion venom from the Buthidae family with the potent toxicity attracts more interests, toxins from the non-Buthidae family draw great attention as well because of its abundance and complexity even without harm to mammals. Moreover, several toxic components of scorpion venom have been identified as valuable scaffolds for the drug design and development. Using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique, here we reported the transcriptome of the venomous glands of Heterometrus spinifer, a non-Buthidae scorpion that only a few toxic and complete components have been identified known-to-date...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Stephan Holger Drukewitz, Nico Fuhrmann, Eivind A B Undheim, Alexander Blanke, Julien Giribaldi, Rosanna Mary, Guillaume Laconde, Sébastien Dutertre, Björn Marcus von Reumont
Predatory robber flies (Diptera, Asilidae) have been suspected to be venomous due to their ability to overpower well-defended prey. However, details of their venom composition and toxin arsenal remained unknown. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the venom system of robber flies through the application of comparative transcriptomics, proteomics and functional morphology. Our results reveal asilid venoms to be dominated by peptides and non-enzymatic proteins, and that the majority of components in the crude venom is represented by just ten toxin families, which we have named Asilidin1-10...
January 5, 2018: Toxins
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
W Sackmann
The veterinary manuals by Vegetius, Pelagonius and Chiron Kentauros, all three dating from the 4th century, contain remarks about livestock being poisoned by animal venoms. It is suggested, that livestock bitten by contaminated shrews, reptiles, scorpions, beetles and spiders shows signs of poisoning. The authors present various possible therapies for the sick livestock.
January 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Zhengyang Zeng, Runhong Zhang, Wei Hong, Yuting Cheng, Huijuan Wang, Yange Lang, Zhenglin Ji, Yingliang Wu, Wenxin Li, Youli Xie, Zhijian Cao
Rationale: HSV is one of the most widespread human viral pathogens. HSV-1 infects a large portion of the human population and causes severe diseases. The current clinical treatment for HSV-1 is based on nucleoside analogues, the use of which is limited due to drug resistance, side effects and poor bioavailability. AMPs have been identified as potential antiviral agents that may overcome these limitations. Therefore, we screened anti-HSV-1 peptides from a scorpion-derived AMP library and engineered one candidate into a histidine-rich peptide with significantly improved antiviral activity and development potential...
2018: Theranostics
Alexis Díaz-García, Jenny Laura Ruiz-Fuentes, Hermis Rodríguez-Sánchez, José A Fraga Castro
Rhopalurus junceus scorpion venom has demonstrated high cytotoxic activity in epithelial cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of scorpion venom on cell viability and apoptosis was evaluated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line. Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The cell death event was examined trough end-point RT-PCR to identify the expression of apoptosis-related genes, fluorescent microscopy and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) alteration. The results demonstrated that scorpion venom induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
Sina Jami, Andelain Erickson, Stuart M Brierley, Irina Vetter
Venoms are produced by a wide variety of species including spiders, scorpions, reptiles, cnidarians, and fish for the purpose of harming or incapacitating predators or prey. While some venoms are of relatively simple composition, many contain hundreds to thousands of individual components with distinct pharmacological activity. Pain-inducing or "algesic" venom compounds have proven invaluable to our understanding of how physiological nociceptive neural networks operate. In this review, we present an overview of some of the diverse nociceptive pathways that can be modulated by specific venom components to evoke pain...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
Wei-Jia Su, Lan-Chang Liang
The reaction of AlCl3 with [(2-HO-3,5-tBu2C6H2)3P] (H3[O3P]) results in AlCl[O3PH] ([O3PH]2- = [(2-O-3,5-tBu2C6H2)3PH]2-), which is a zwitterionic molecule containing an unprecedented C3-symmetric but formally dianionic chelate. Derivatization of [O3PH]2- gives [O3PR]2- (R = hydrocarbon), demonstrating the development of a novel class of long elusive scorpionates.
December 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Edson Norberto Carcamo-Noriega, Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Ashlee Rowe, Selene Jocelyn Uribe-Romero, Baltazar Becerril, Lourival Domingos Possania
This study investigated geographic variability in the venom of Centruroides sculpturatus scorpions from different biotopes. Venom from scorpions collected from two different regions in Arizona; Santa Rita Foothills (SR) and Yarnell (Yar) were analyzed. We found differences between venoms, mainly in the two most abundant peptides; SR (CsEv2e and CsEv1f) and Yar (CsEv2 and CsEv1c) identified as natural variants of CsEv1 and CsEv2. Sequence analyses of these peptides revealed conservative amino acid changes between variants, which may underlie biological activity against arthropods...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Phil Liebing, Marcel Kühling, Josef Takats, Liane Hilfert, Frank T Edelmann
The reaction of EuI2(THF)2 with potassium hydro-tris-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-yl)borate (K[HB(3,5- iPr2pz)3] (= KTp iPr2, pz = pyrazol-yl) in a molar ratio of 1:1.5 resulted in extensive ligand fragmentation and formation of the europium(II) mono(scorpionate) complex bis-(3,5-diisopropyl-1H-pyrazole)[hydro-tris-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-yl)borato]iodido-europium(II), [Eu(C27H46BN6)I(C9H16N2)2] or (Tp iPr2)(3,5- iPr2pzH)2EuIII, 1, in high yield (78%). As a typical by-product, small amounts of the sterically crowded pyraza-bole derivative trans-4,8-bis-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5,7-tetra-iso-propyl-pyraza-bole, C36H62B2H8 or trans-{(3,5- iPr2pz)HB(μ-3,5- iPr2pz)}2, 2, were formed...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Micaiah J Ward, Schyler A Ellsworth, Darin R Rokyta
Of the 14 extant scorpion families, Buthidae has the most thoroughly characterized venoms. Most of this characterization, however, has been limited to species with medically significant stings, including members of the Centruroides genus, which have caused human deaths (e.g., Centruroides sculpturatus). To understand the origin and evolution of highly toxic venoms, we should also characterize the more harmless venoms of close relatives. We used Illumina sequencing to separately characterize the venom-gland transcriptomes of a male and female Hentz striped scorpion (Centruroides hentzi) and performed independent quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the venom from each individual, providing the first full venom characterization of a Centruroides species that poses no serious threat to humans...
December 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ting Wan, Luocheng Li, Zhanyong Zhu, Siyang Liu, Yueqiang Zhao, Mosheng Yu
Background: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) is recognized medicine of therapy in ulcer. However, its efficacy has been challenged. We compared scorpion venom active polypeptide and EGF of therapeutic effects in diabetic ulcer. Methods: The scorpion venom active polypeptide is made into gel. Fourteen diabetic SD rats were randomly divided into scorpion peptide gel group (SPG group) and EGF group. Before treatment, the rat model of diabetic ulcer was created. The levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the wound tissue were measured at different time points during the treatment, secretions of wound were collected for bacterial culture, and the wound healing was recorded...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Teresa Romero-Gutierrez, Esteban Peguero-Sanchez, Miguel A Cevallos, Cesar V F Batista, Ernesto Ortiz, Lourival D Possani
This communication reports a further examination of venom gland transcripts and venom composition of the Mexican scorpion Thorellius atrox using RNA-seq and tandem mass spectrometry. The RNA-seq, which was performed with the Illumina protocol, yielded more than 20,000 assembled transcripts. Following a database search and annotation strategy, 160 transcripts were identified, potentially coding for venom components. A novel sequence was identified that potentially codes for a peptide with similarity to spider ω-agatoxins, which act on voltage-gated calcium channels, not known before to exist in scorpion venoms...
December 12, 2017: Toxins
Chaoyue Liang, Zhuolin Wu, Xiaohong Gan, Yuanbin Liu, You You, Chenxian Liu, Chengzhi Zhou, Ying Liang, Haiyun Mo, Allen M Chen, Jiexia Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer that went undetected by amplification refractory mutation system-Scorpion real-time PCR (ARMS-PCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 specimens were obtained from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from August 2014 to August 2015. In total, 100 ARMS-negative and 100 ARMS-positive specimens were evaluated for EGFR gene mutations by Sanger sequencing...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Samuel H Lewis, Kaycee A Quarles, Yujing Yang, Melanie Tanguy, Lise Frézal, Stephen A Smith, Prashant P Sharma, Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert, Isabelle Giraud, David H Collins, Phillip D Zamore, Eric A Miska, Peter Sarkies, Francis M Jiggins
In animals, small RNA molecules termed PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposable elements (TEs), protecting the germline from genomic instability and mutation. piRNAs have been detected in the soma in a few animals, but these are believed to be specific adaptations of individual species. Here, we report that somatic piRNAs were probably present in the ancestral arthropod more than 500 million years ago. Analysis of 20 species across the arthropod phylum suggests that somatic piRNAs targeting TEs and messenger RNAs are common among arthropods...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Babak Mahshidfar, Hamed Basir Ghafouri, Mohammad Reza Yasinzadeh, Mani Mofidi, Mahdi Rezai, Davood Farsi, Saeed Abbasi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam
Introduction: Scorpion sting is an important public health problem in some countries, including Iran. This study aimed to describe the demographics of a large number of these victims in some endemic areas of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated baseline characteristics, clinical findings, management, and disposition of scorpion stung cases in 26 cities of 4 provinces in the southwest quarter of Iran, during one year. Results: 3008 cases of scorpion sting with mean age of 27...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
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