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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332472/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-gliomatosis-do-we-miss-the-diagnosis
#1
Sébastien Lepreux, Sharmilla Sagnier, Jean-Thomas Perez, François Léger, Igor Sibon, Anne Vital
Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeningeal space by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of intra-parenchymatous primary tumor. We report a case of PDLG in a 68-year-old man, who died 1 month after onset of symptoms. The diagnosis was made on autopsy data. We discuss the particularities of this entity, which is not registered in the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016). In case of an unexplained inflammatory meningeal process and in the presence of atypical cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, PDLG needs to be considered...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250735/glial-kon-ng2-gene-network-for-central-nervous-system-repair
#2
REVIEW
Maria Losada-Perez, Neale Harrison, Alicia Hidalgo
The glial regenerative response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, although limited, can be harnessed to promote regeneration and repair. Injury provokes the proliferation of ensheathing glial cells, which can differentiate to remyelinate axons, and partially restore function. This response is evolutionarily conserved, strongly implying an underlying genetic mechanism. In mammals, it is elicited by NG2 glia, but most often newly generated cells fail to differentiate. Thus an important goal had been to find out how to promote glial differentiation following the proliferative response...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151467/augmented-trophoblast-cell-death-in-preeclampsia-can-proceed-via-ceramide-mediated-necroptosis
#3
Liane Jennifer Bailey, Sruthi Alahari, Andrea Tagliaferro, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
Preeclampsia, a serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is characterized by elevated ceramide (CER) content that is responsible for heightened trophoblast cell death rates via apoptosis and autophagy. Whether trophoblast cells undergo necroptosis, a newly characterized form of regulated necrosis, and the potential role of CER in this process remain to be established. Herein, we report that exposure of both JEG3 cells and primary isolated cytotrophoblasts to C16:0 CER in conjunction with a caspase-8 inhibitor (Q-VD-OPh) promoted necroptotic cell death, as evidenced by increased expression and association of receptor-interacting protein kinases RIP1 and RIP3, as well as phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein...
February 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095299/african-and-asian-zika-virus-strains-differentially-induce-early-antiviral-responses-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#4
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liégeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
January 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076778/axl-mediates-zika-virus-entry-in-human-glial-cells-and-modulates-innate-immune-responses
#5
Laurent Meertens, Athena Labeau, Ophelie Dejarnac, Sara Cipriani, Laura Sinigaglia, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Mohamed Lamine Hafirassou, Alessia Zamborlini, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Muriel Coulpier, Dorothée Missé, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Ray Tabibiazar, Pierre Gressens, Olivier Schwartz, Ali Amara
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051179/the-hypoparathyroidism-associated-mutation-in-drosophila-gcm-compromises-protein-stability-and-glial-cell-formation
#6
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996093/dlx3-and-gcm-1-functionally-coordinate-the-regulation-of-placental-growth-factor-in-human-trophoblast-derived-cells
#7
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
Placental growth factor (PGF) is abundantly expressed by trophoblast cells within human placentae and is important for trophoblast development and placental vascularization. Circulating maternal serum levels of PGF are dynamically upregulated across gestation in normal pregnancies, whereas low circulating levels and placental production of PGF have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other gestational diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of regulating PGF expression in the human placenta remains poorly understood...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917469/association-of-dysfunctional-synapse-defective-1-syde1-with-restricted-fetal-growth-syde1-regulates-placental-cell-migration-and-invasion
#8
Hsiao-Fan Lo, Ching-Yen Tsai, Chie-Pein Chen, Liang-Jie Wang, Yun-Shien Lee, Chia-Yu Chen, Chung-Tiang Liang, Mei-Leng Cheong, Hungwen Chen
The transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) regulates trophoblast differentiation and function during placentation. Decreased GCM1 expression is associated with pre-eclampsia, suggesting that abnormal expression of GCM1 target genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. Here we identified a novel GCM1 target gene, synapse defective 1 (SYDE1), which encodes a RhoGAP that is highly expressed in human placenta, and demonstrated that SYDE1 promotes cytoskeletal remodelling and cell migration and invasion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791094/primate-specific-mir-515-family-members-inhibit-key-genes-in-human-trophoblast-differentiation-and-are-upregulated-in-preeclampsia
#9
Ming Zhang, Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Alison C Wortman, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation can result in preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality for mother and offspring. miRNA microarray analysis of RNA from human cytotrophoblasts (CytT), before and after differentiation to syncytiotrophoblast (SynT) in primary culture, revealed that members of miR-515 family-including miR-515-5p, miR-519e-5p, miR-519c-3p, and miR-518f, belonging to the primate- and placenta-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC)-were significantly down-regulated upon human SynT differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679579/calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-regulation-of-expression
#10
REVIEW
Geoffrey N Hendy, Lucie Canaff
The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes-promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation-as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662313/neuroprotective-effect-of-trem-2-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#11
Animesh Alexander Raha, James W Henderson, Simon R W Stott, Romina Vuono, Simona Foscarin, Robert P Friedland, Shahid H Zaman, Ruma Raha-Chowdhury
Neuroinflammation and activation of innate immunity are early events in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a rare mutation in the gene Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) has been associated with a substantial increase in the risk of developing late onset AD. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we investigated the RNA and protein expression of TREM2 in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Our findings suggest that TREM2 not only plays a critical role in inflammation, but is also involved in neuronal cell survival and in neurogenesis...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564458/a-comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-astrocytes-differentiation-from-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#12
Marco Magistri, Nathalie Khoury, Emilia Maria Cristina Mazza, Dmitry Velmeshev, Jae K Lee, Silvio Bicciato, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Mohammad Ali Faghihi
Astrocytes are a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in neurodevelopment and in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis. Studies of human astrocytes have been hampered by the lack of specific molecular markers and by the difficulties associated with purifying and culturing astrocytes from adult human brains. Human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewal and multipotent properties represent an appealing model system to gain insight into the developmental genetics and function of human astrocytes, but a comprehensive molecular characterization that confirms the validity of this cellular system is still missing...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992674/twist1-is-involved-in-trophoblast-syncytialization-by-regulating-gcm1
#13
Xiaoyin Lu, Yuxia He, Cheng Zhu, Hongmei Wang, Shiling Chen, Hai-Yan Lin
INTRODUCTION: The multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is maintained and regenerated by the fusion of underlying cytotrophoblast cells (CTBs) and is responsible for a number of functions in the human placenta. Deficiencies in this structure may result in pregnancy-associated diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying trophoblast syncytialization await further investigation. METHODS: The location of the transcription factor Twist1 in human placental tissues was identified by immunohistochemistry...
March 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26653761/aberrant-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-contributes-to-altered-trophoblast-differentiation-in-preeclampsia
#14
Jing Xu, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Yoav Yinon, Andrea Tagliaferro, Jocelyn Ray, Ori Nevo, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
TGFβ has been implicated in preeclampsia, but its intracellular signaling via phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (SMADs) and SMAD-independent proteins in the placenta remains elusive. Here we show that TGFβ receptor-regulated SMAD2 was activated (Ser(465/467) phosphorylation) in syncytiotrophoblast and proliferating extravillous trophoblast cells of first-trimester placenta, whereas inhibitory SMAD7 located primarily to cytotrophoblast cells. SMAD2 phosphorylation decreased with advancing gestation, whereas SMAD7 expression increased and shifted to syncytiotrophoblasts toward term...
February 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503785/a-positive-feedback-loop-between-glial-cells-missing-1-and-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-hcg-regulates-placental-hcg%C3%AE-expression-and-cell-differentiation
#15
Mei-Leng Cheong, Liang-Jie Wang, Pei-Yun Chuang, Ching-Wen Chang, Yun-Shien Lee, Hsiao-Fan Lo, Ming-Song Tsai, Hungwen Chen
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is composed of a common α subunit and a placenta-specific β subunit. Importantly, hCG is highly expressed in the differentiated and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed via trophoblast cell fusion and stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although the ubiquitous activating protein 2 (AP2) transcription factors TFAP2A and TFAP2C may regulate hCGβ expression, it remains unclear how cAMP stimulates placenta-specific hCGβ gene expression and trophoblastic differentiation...
January 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26281227/-stem-cells-in-the-brain-of-mammals-and-human-fundamental-and-applied-aspects
#16
REVIEW
M A Aleksandrova, M V Marey
Brain stem cells represent an extremely intriguing phenomenon. The aim of our review is to present an integrity vision of their role in the brain of mammals and humans, and their clinical perspectives. Over last two decades, investigations of biology of the neural stem cells produced significant changes in general knowledge about the processes of development and functioning of the brain. Researches on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of NSC differentiation and behavior led to new understanding of their involvement in learning and memory...
May 2015: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26219575/altered-structure-and-function-of-astrocytes-following-status-epilepticus
#17
REVIEW
Karen S Wilcox, James M Gee, Meredith B Gibbons, Petr Tvrdik, John A White
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating seizure disorder that is often caused by status epilepticus (SE). Temporal lobe epilepsy can be very difficult to control with currently available antiseizure drugs, and there are currently no disease-modifying therapies that can prevent the development of TLE in those patients who are at risk. While the functional changes that occur in neurons following SE and leading to TLE have been well studied, only recently has research attention turned to the role in epileptogenesis of astrocytes, the other major cell type of the brain...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26156160/isolation-purification-and-in-vitro-differentiation-of-cytotrophoblast-cells-from-human-term-placenta
#18
Liping Li, Danny J Schust
BACKGROUND: The syncytialization of cytotrophoblast cells to syncytiotrophoblast is central to human placental transport and hormone production. Many techniques for in vitro study of this process have been proposed and new investigators to the field may find the literature in the field daunting. Here, we present a straightforward and reliable method to establish this important model using modern but readily available tools and reagents. METHODS: Villous cytotrophoblast cells are obtained from term placenta using mild enzymatic degradation, Percoll gradient centrifugation, negative magnetic cell sorting using an antibody against classical major histocompatibility complex molecules and in vitro culture on a matrix-coated growth surface...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152853/iodine-affects-differentiation-and-migration-process-in-trophoblastic-cells
#19
Zendy Evelyn Olivo-Vidal, Roció Coutiño Rodríguez, Omar Arroyo-Helguera
Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h...
February 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26109245/systemic-inflammation-activates-satellite-glial-cells-in-the-mouse-nodose-ganglion-and-alters-their-functions
#20
Rachel Feldman-Goriachnik, Vitali Belzer, Menachem Hanani
Satellite glial cell (SGCs) in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia are altered structurally and functionally under pathological conditions associated with chronic pain. These changes include reactive gliosis, augmented coupling by gap junctions, and increased responses to ATP via purinergic P2 receptors. Similar information for nodose ganglia (NG), which receive sensory inputs from internal organs via the vagus nerves, is missing. Here, we investigated changes in SGCs in mouse NG after the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which induces systemic inflammation...
June 23, 2015: Glia
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