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Glial cells missing

Jeremy Gingrich, Yong Pu, Jennifer Roberts, Rajendiran Karthikraj, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Richard Ehrhardt, Almudena Veiga-Lopez
Exposure to bisphenolic chemicals during pregnancy occurs in > 90% of pregnancies. Bisphenolic compounds can cross the placental barrier reaching fetal circulation. However, the effects of emerging bisphenolic compounds, such as bisphenol S (BPS), on placental function remain untested. The aim was to determine if bisphenol A (BPA) or BPS, at an environmentally relevant dose, impairs placental function. Pregnant sheep were randomly distributed into three treatment groups (n = 7-8/group): control, BPA, and BPS...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Donají Chi-Castañeda, Arturo Ortega
Circadian rhythms are biological oscillations with a period of ~24 h. These rhythms are orchestrated by a circadian timekeeper in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the circadian " master clock ," which exactly adjusts clock outputs to solar time via photic synchronization. At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are generated by the interaction of positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional and translational processes of the so-called " clock genes ." A large number of clock genes encode numerous proteins that regulate their own transcription and that of other genes, collectively known as " clock-controlled genes ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Luigia Cinque, Angelo Sparaneo, Laura Penta, Amedea Mencarelli, Daniela Rogaia, Susanna Esposito, Federico Pio Fabrizio, Filomena Baorda, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Falorni, Gabriela Stangoni, Geoffrey N Hendy, Vito Guarnieri, Paolo Prontera
Context: Familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (FIH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), glial cells missing-2 (GCM2), guanine nucleotide binding protein α11 (GNA11), or parathyroid hormone (PTH) genes. Thus far, only four cases with homozygous and two cases with heterozygous mutations in the PTH gene have been reported. Objective: To clinically describe an FIH family and identify and characterize the causal gene mutation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Urszula Grabiec, Tim Hohmann, Niels Hammer, Faramarz Dehghani
In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC), the morphological and functional characteristics of both neurons and glial cells are well preserved. This model is suitable for addressing different research questions that involve studies on neuroprotection, electrophysiological experiments on neurons, neuronal networks or tumor invasion. The hippocampal architecture and neuronal activity in multisynaptic circuits are well conserved in OHSC, even though the slicing procedure itself initially lesions and leads to formation of a glial scar...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
The placental transcription factors Distal-less 3 (DLX3) and Glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) have been shown to coordinate the specific regulation of PGF in human trophoblast cell lines. While both factors independently have a positive effect on PGF gene expression, when combined, DLX3 acts as an antagonist to GCM. Despite this understanding, potential mechanisms accounting for this regulatory interaction remain unexplored. We identify physical and functional interactions between specific domains of DLX3 and GCM1 in human trophoblast-derived cells by performing immunoprecipitation and mammalian one hybrid assays...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Naglaa M Kamal, Hamed A Alghamdi, Abdulrahman A Halabi, Ayman A Bakkar, Ali Algarni, Abdullah Alharbi, Abdulla A Alharthi, Rawan A Alharbi, Laila M Sherief
RATIONALE: Pediatric idiopathic hypoparathyroidism with extensive intracranial calcifications outside the basal ganglia (BG) is extremely rare with less than 10 cases worldwide. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-year-old Saudi male child presented with tetany with otherwise normal neurological and other body system examination diagnoses severe hypocalcemia for differential diagnosis. INTERVENTIONS: Further investigations revealed hyperphosphatemia and undetectable serum intact parathyroid hormone...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shrey Kohli, Juliane Hoffmann, Franziska Lochmann, Paulina Markmeyer, Hanna Huebner, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Ihsan Gadi, Jayakumar Manoharan, Michael Löttge, Ana C Zenclussen, Anat Aharon, Benjamin Brenner, Khurrum Shahzad, Matthias Ruebner, Berend Isermann
Placental insufficiency jeopardizes prenatal development, potentially leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and stillbirth. Surviving fetuses are at an increased risk for chronic diseases later in life. IUGR is closely linked with altered trophoblast and placental differentiation. However, due to a paucity of mechanistic insights, suitable biomarkers and specific therapies for IUGR are lacking. The transcription factor p45 NF-E2 (nuclear factor erythroid derived 2) has been recently found to regulate trophoblast differentiation in mice...
April 6, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Sudha Saryu Malhotra, Priyanka Banerjee, Piyush Chaudhary, Rahul Pal, Satish Kumar Gupta
PROBLEM: To study the involvement of specific Wnt(s) ligand during trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation. METHOD OF STUDY: BeWo cells on treatment with forskolin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were studied for cell fusion by desmoplakin I+II staining and/or hCG secretion by ELISA. Levels of Wnt10b/β-catenin/glial cell missing a (GCMa)/syncytin-1 were studied by qPCR/Western blotting in forskolin-/hCG-treated control siRNA and Wnt10b silenced BeWo cells. RESULTS: BeWo cells on treatment with hCG (5 IU/mL) led to a 94-fold increase in Wnt10b transcript...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Sébastien Lepreux, Sharmilla Sagnier, Jean-Thomas Perez, François Léger, Igor Sibon, Anne Vital
Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeningeal space by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of intra-parenchymatous primary tumor. We report a case of PDLG in a 68-year-old man, who died 1 month after onset of symptoms. The diagnosis was made on autopsy data. We discuss the particularities of this entity, which is not registered in the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016). In case of an unexplained inflammatory meningeal process and in the presence of atypical cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, PDLG needs to be considered...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
Maria Losada-Perez, Neale Harrison, Alicia Hidalgo
The glial regenerative response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, although limited, can be harnessed to promote regeneration and repair. Injury provokes the proliferation of ensheathing glial cells, which can differentiate to remyelinate axons, and partially restore function. This response is evolutionarily conserved, strongly implying an underlying genetic mechanism. In mammals, it is elicited by NG2 glia, but most often newly generated cells fail to differentiate. Thus an important goal had been to find out how to promote glial differentiation following the proliferative response...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Liane Jennifer Bailey, Sruthi Alahari, Andrea Tagliaferro, Martin Post, Isabella Caniggia
Preeclampsia, a serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is characterized by elevated ceramide (CER) content that is responsible for heightened trophoblast cell death rates via apoptosis and autophagy. Whether trophoblast cells undergo necroptosis, a newly characterized form of regulated necrosis, and the potential role of CER in this process remain to be established. Herein, we report that exposure of both JEG3 cells and primary isolated cytotrophoblasts to C16:0 CER in conjunction with a caspase-8 inhibitor (Q-VD-OPh) promoted necroptotic cell death, as evidenced by increased expression and association of receptor-interacting protein kinases RIP1 and RIP3, as well as phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein...
February 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Rodolphe Hamel, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Fodé Diop, Loïc Talignani, Julien Pompon, Déborah Garcia, Florian Liégeois, Amadou A Sall, Hans Yssel, Dorothée Missé
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is a newly emerging arbovirus. Since its discovery 60years ago in Uganda, it has spread throughout the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions worldwide. Although infection with ZIKV often leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has coincided with an increase in adults developing Guillain-Barré syndrome and neurological complications in new-borns, such as congenital microcephaly. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the complications caused by different primary isolates of ZIKV...
April 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Laurent Meertens, Athena Labeau, Ophelie Dejarnac, Sara Cipriani, Laura Sinigaglia, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Mohamed Lamine Hafirassou, Alessia Zamborlini, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Muriel Coulpier, Dorothée Missé, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Ray Tabibiazar, Pierre Gressens, Olivier Schwartz, Ali Amara
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
Placental growth factor (PGF) is abundantly expressed by trophoblast cells within human placentae and is important for trophoblast development and placental vascularization. Circulating maternal serum levels of PGF are dynamically upregulated across gestation in normal pregnancies, whereas low circulating levels and placental production of PGF have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other gestational diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of regulating PGF expression in the human placenta remains poorly understood...
October 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Hsiao-Fan Lo, Ching-Yen Tsai, Chie-Pein Chen, Liang-Jie Wang, Yun-Shien Lee, Chia-Yu Chen, Chung-Tiang Liang, Mei-Leng Cheong, Hungwen Chen
The transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) regulates trophoblast differentiation and function during placentation. Decreased GCM1 expression is associated with pre-eclampsia, suggesting that abnormal expression of GCM1 target genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. Here we identified a novel GCM1 target gene, synapse defective 1 (SYDE1), which encodes a RhoGAP that is highly expressed in human placenta, and demonstrated that SYDE1 promotes cytoskeletal remodelling and cell migration and invasion...
February 2017: Journal of Pathology
Ming Zhang, Sribalasubashini Muralimanoharan, Alison C Wortman, Carole R Mendelson
Dysregulation of human trophoblast invasion and differentiation can result in preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality for mother and offspring. miRNA microarray analysis of RNA from human cytotrophoblasts (CytT), before and after differentiation to syncytiotrophoblast (SynT) in primary culture, revealed that members of miR-515 family-including miR-515-5p, miR-519e-5p, miR-519c-3p, and miR-518f, belonging to the primate- and placenta-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC)-were significantly down-regulated upon human SynT differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Geoffrey N Hendy, Lucie Canaff
The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2-7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes-promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation-as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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