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Trophoblast stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430877/the-accessible-chromatin-landscape-during-conversion-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-trophoblast-by-bmp4
#1
Yajun Liu, Dewu Ding, Hongde Liu, Xiao Sun
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) exposed to the growth factor bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have been used as a model to study the development of placental development. However, little is known about the cis-regulatory mechanisms underlying this important process. In this study, we used the public available chromatin accessibility data of hESC H1 cells and BMP4-induced trophoblast (TB)cell lines to identify DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the two cell lines, as well as the transcription factor binding sites within the DHSs...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429768/reassembling-embryos-in-vitro-from-component-stem-cells
#2
Caroline Kubaczka, George Q Daley
Researchers at the University of Cambridge, UK have succeeded in reconstructing mouse embryos by combining pluripotent embryonic and multipotent trophoblast stem cells in a 3D scaffold; the study from the laboratory of Professor Zernicka-Goetz, recently published in Science, provides a break-through tool to probe early mammalian development outside the uterus. Achieving a similar feat with human cells might necessitate reconsideration of the 14-day rule as a limitation of such research.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425063/blastocyst-derived-stem-cell-populations-under-stress-impact-of-nutrition-and-metabolism-on-stem-cell-potency-loss-and-miscarriage
#3
REVIEW
Yu Yang, Alan Bolnick, Alexandra Shamir, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Quanwen Li, G C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, D A Rappolee
Data from in vitro and in vivo models suggest that malnutrition and stress trigger adaptive responses, leading to small for gestational age (SGA) blastocysts with fewer cell numbers. These stress responses are initially adaptive, but become maladaptive with increasing stress exposures. The common stress responses of the blastocyst-derived stem cells, pluripotent embryonic and multipotent placental trophoblast stem cells (ESCs and TSCs), are decreased growth and potency, and increased, imbalanced and irreversible differentiation...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362386/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-trophoblastic-cells
#4
Jianle Wang, Montserrat C Anguera
The placenta is the first organ to develop during embryogenesis and is required for the survival of the developing embryo. The placenta is comprised of various trophoblastic cells that differentiate from the extra-embryonic trophectoderm cells of the preimplantation blastocyst. As such, our understanding of the early differentiation events of the human placenta is limited because of ethical and legal restrictions on the isolation and manipulation of human embryogenesis. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a robust model system for investigating human development and can also be differentiated in vitro into trophoblastic cells that express markers of the various trophoblast cell types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295048/cardiac-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-trophoblast-stem-cells
#5
Guannan Li, Jianzhou Chen, Xinlin Zhang, Guixin He, Wei Tan, Han Wu, Ran Li, Yuhan Chen, Rong Gu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Various stem cells have been explored for the purpose of cardiac repair. However, any individual stem cell population has not been considered as the ideal source. Recently, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), a newly described stem cell type, have demonstrated extensive plasticity. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of TSCs transplantation for heart regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) and made a direct comparison with the most commonly used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Transplantation of TSCs and MSCs led to a remarkably improved cardiac function in contrast with the PBS control, but only the TSCs exhibited the potential of differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292466/generation-of-trophoblast-like-cells-from-the-amnion-in%C3%A2-vitro-a-novel-cellular-model-for-trophoblast-development
#6
Yanxing Wei, Xiaohua Zhou, Wenhao Huang, Ping Long, Lu Xiao, Tian Zhang, Mei Zhong, Guangjin Pan, Yanlin Ma, Yanhong Yu
Despite the high incidence of trophoblast-related diseases, the molecular mechanism of inadequate early trophoblast development is still unclear due to the lack of an appropriate cellular model in vitro. In the present study, we reprogrammed the amniotic cells to be induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via a non-virus and non-integrated method and subsequently differentiated them into trophoblast-like cells by a modified BMP4 strategy in E6 medium. Compared with the previously studied trophoblast-like cells from ESCs, the iPSCs derived trophoblast-like cells behave similarly in terms of gene expression profiles and biofunctions...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287888/mir-942-decreased-before-20-weeks-gestation-in-women-with-preeclampsia-and-was-associated-with-the-pathophysiology-of-preeclampsia-in-vitro
#7
Yonggang Zhang, Guoqing Huang, Yipeng Zhang, Hongling Yang, Yan Long, Qihua Liang, Zaoxiong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between miR-942 levels and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia using in vitro assays and to investigate circulating miR-942 levels in the early phase of mid-of pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia and in women with uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from pregnant women between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation. MiR-942 levels were determined by stem-loop real-time PCR for 26 cases who subsequently developed preeclampsia as well as for 52 controls...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287635/efficient-production-of-trophoblast-lineage-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Junya Kojima, Atsushi Fukuda, Hayato Taira, Tomoyuki Kawasaki, Hiroe Ito, Naoaki Kuji, Keiichi Isaka, Akihiro Umezawa, Hidenori Akutsu
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in both clinical applications and basic biological research. hiPSCs can differentiate into extra-embryonic cells in the presence of BMP4. However, the differentiation potential of hiPSCs can be affected by culture conditions or genetic variation. In this study, we investigated the effect of various BMP4 concentrations on the expression states of trophoblast markers and the optimal conditions for trophoblast induction. A high-fidelity gene expression assay using hiPSC lines showed that the expression levels of various trophoblast marker genes, such as KRT7, GCM1, CGB, and HLA-G, were upregulated by BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner in all types of hiPSCs used in this study...
March 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273454/map3k4-controls-the-chromatin-modifier-hdac6-during-trophoblast-stem-cell-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Robert J Mobley, Deepthi Raghu, Lauren D Duke, Kayley Abell-Hart, Jon S Zawistowski, Kyla Lutz, Shawn M Gomez, Sujoy Roy, Ramin Homayouni, Gary L Johnson, Amy N Abell
The first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in trophoblast stem (TS) cells during implantation. Inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase MAP3K4 in TS cells (TS(KI4) cells) induces an intermediate state of EMT, where cells retain stemness, lose epithelial markers, and gain mesenchymal characteristics. Investigation of relationships among MAP3K4 activity, stemness, and EMT in TS cells may reveal key regulators of EMT. Here, we show that MAP3K4 activity controls EMT through the ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC6...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254784/assembly-of-embryonic-and-extra-embryonic-stem-cells-to-mimic-embryogenesis-in-vitro
#10
Sarah Ellys Harrison, Berna Sozen, Neophytos Christodoulou, Christos Kyprianou, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
Mammalian embryogenesis requires intricate interactions between embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues to orchestrate and coordinate morphogenesis with changes in developmental potential. Here, we combine mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and extra-embryonic trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) in a 3D-scaffold to generate structures whose morphogenesis is remarkably similar to natural embryos. By using genetically-modified stem cells and specific inhibitors, we show embryogenesis of ESC- and TSC-derived embryos, ETS-embryos, depends on crosstalk involving Nodal signaling...
March 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244611/suppression-of-fgf2-by-ets2-repressor-factor-erf-is-required-for-chorionic-trophoblast-differentiation
#11
Elena Vorgia, Andreas Zaragkoulias, Ioanna Peraki, George Mavrothalassitis
ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) is a ubiquitous transcriptional repressor regulated by Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Homozygous deletion of Erf in mice blocks chorionic trophoblast differentiation, resulting in the failure of chorioallantoic fusion and subsequent embryo death. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is important for proper trophoblast stem cell (TSC) differentiation and development of the hemochorial placenta. Lack of Fgf2 promotes TSC differentiation, while FGF4 or FGF2 is required for murine TSC maintenance...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230862/inactivation-of-lsd1-triggers-senescence-in-trophoblast-stem-cells-by-induction-of-sirt4
#12
Josefina Castex, Dominica Willmann, Toufike Kanouni, Laura Arrigoni, Yan Li, Marcel Friedrich, Michael Schleicher, Simon Wöhrle, Mark Pearson, Norbert Kraut, Michaël Méret, Thomas Manke, Eric Metzger, Roland Schüle, Thomas Günther
Coordination of energy metabolism is essential for homeostasis of stem cells, whereas an imbalance in energy homeostasis causes disease and accelerated aging. Here we show that deletion or enzymatic inactivation of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) triggers senescence in trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of TSCs following Lsd1 inhibition shows gene set enrichment of aging and metabolic pathways. Consistently, global metabolomic and phenotypic analyses disclose an unbalanced redox status, decreased glutamine anaplerosis and mitochondrial function...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225815/different-characteristics-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-different-layers-of-full-term-placenta
#13
Yoo Shin Choi, Yong-Beom Park, Chul-Won Ha, Jin A Kim, Jin-Chul Heo, Woo-Jung Han, Soo-Young Oh, Suk-Joo Choi
BACKGROUND: The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#14
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176360/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-promotes-proliferation-angiogenesis-and-immunosuppressive-properties-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-inducing-vegf-and-ido
#15
Xiujun Li, Yuxian Song, Fei Liu, Dan Liu, Huishuang Miao, Jing Ren, Jingjing Xu, Liang Ding, Yali Hu, Zhiqun Wang, Yayi Hou, Guangfeng Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in regulating angiogenesis and immune balance. The abnormal MSCs in proliferation and function were reported at maternal fetal interface in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE). Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 was known to regulate the function of trophoblast cells. However, it is not clear whether MALAT1 regulates MSCs to be related to PE. In the present study, we found that the expression of MALAT1 was significantly reduced in both umbilical cord tissues and MSCs in patients with severe PE...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167044/hypoxia-directs-human-extravillous-trophoblast-differentiation-in-a-hypoxia-inducible-factor-dependent-manner
#16
Anna K Wakeland, Francesca Soncin, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Ching-Wen Chang, Mariko Horii, Don Pizzo, Katharine K Nelson, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
Villous cytotrophoblasts are epithelial stem cells of the early human placenta, able to differentiate either into syncytiotrophoblasts in floating chorionic villi or extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) at the anchoring villi. The signaling pathways regulating differentiation into these two lineages are incompletely understood. The bulk of placental growth and development in the first trimester occurs under low oxygen tension. One major mechanism by which oxygen regulates cellular function is through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor complex stabilized under low oxygen tension to mediate cellular responses, including cell fate decisions...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161054/mir-136-contributes-to-pre-eclampsia-through-its-effects-on-apoptosis-and-angiogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Liqin Ji, Liping Zhang, Yani Li, Li Guo, Ni Cao, Zhiying Bai, Yingchun Song, Zhao Xu, Juan Zhang, Chunhua Liu, Xiaoxing Ma
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in the pathology of preeclampsia (PE). The survival of MSCs and angiogenesis in the maternal-fetal interface are important for a successful pregnancy. MicroRNA-136 (miR-136) is highly expressed in decidua-derived MSCs (MSCs) from PE compared with healthy donors (NC). The role of the MSCs aberrant expressed miR-136 in PE development is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the impact of miR-136 on the survival of MSCs and angiogenesis in the maternal-fetal interface...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152035/nik-related-kinase-regulates-trophoblast-proliferation-and-placental-development-by-modulating-akt-phosphorylation
#18
Yuka Morioka, Jin-Min Nam, Takashi Ohashi
Nik-related kinase (Nrk) is a Ser/Thr kinase and was initially discovered as a molecule that was predominantly detected in skeletal muscles during development. A recent study using Nrk-null mice suggested the importance of Nrk in proper placental development; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that differentiated trophoblasts from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) endogenously expressed Nrk and that Nrk disruption led to the enhanced proliferation of differentiated trophoblasts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117145/notch-signalling-in-placental-development-and-gestational-diseases
#19
S Haider, J Pollheimer, M Knöfler
Activation of Notch signalling upon cell-cell contact of neighbouring cells controls a plethora of cellular processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell lineage determination, cell proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathway also critically regulates these events during placental development and differentiation. Herein, we summarize our present knowledge about Notch signalling in murine and human placentation and discuss its potential role in the pathophysiology of gestational disorders...
January 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110754/transcription-factors-that-regulate-trophoblast-development-and-function
#20
K J Baines, S J Renaud
The placenta is a transient organ that plays a critical role in sustaining pregnancy and supporting fetal growth and nutrition. The placental epithelium is comprised of trophoblast cells. Trophoblast cells are the first cell type to differentiate during embryogenesis and ultimately diversify into a heterogeneous population of cells specializing in distinct functions essential for placentation. The emergence of the trophoblast lineage and subsequent specialization into distinct trophoblast sublineages is tightly regulated by transcription factors...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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