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Trophoblast stem cell

Lyubov A Suldina, Ksenia N Morozova, Aleksei G Menzorov, Elena A Kizilova, Elena Kiseleva
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used in developmental biology and transgenic research. Despite numerous studies, ultrastructural reorganization of inner cell mass (ICM) cells during in vitro culture has not yet been described in detail. Here, we for the first time performed comparative morphological and morphometric analyses of three ES cell lines during their derivation in vitro. We compared morphological characteristics of blastocyst ICM cells at 3.5 and 4.5 days post coitum on feeder cells (day 6, passage 0) with those of ES cells at different passages (day 19, passage 2; day 25, passage 4; and passage 15)...
March 16, 2018: Protoplasma
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Shuangbo Kong, Guixian Liang, Zhaowei Tu, Dunjin Chen, Haibin Wang, Jinhua Lu
Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells...
March 13, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Uros Midic, Benjamin Goheen, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are crucial for embryo implantation and placentation. Environmental toxicants that compromise TSC function could impact fetal viability, pregnancy, and progeny health. Understanding the effects of low, chronic EDC exposures on TSCs and pregnancy is a priority in developmental toxicology. Differences in early implantation between primates and other mammals make a nonhuman primate model ideal. We examined effects of chronic low-level exposure to atrazine, tributyltin, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorooctanoic acid on rhesus monkey TSCs in vitro by RNA sequencing...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Jennifer Watts, Alyson Lokken, Alexandra Moauro, Amy Ralston
Cells of the early embryo are totipotent because they will differentiate to produce the fetus and its surrounding extraembryonic tissues. By contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to be merely pluripotent because they lack the ability to efficiently produce extraembryonic cell types. The relatively limited developmental potential of ES cells can be explained by the observation that ES cells are derived from the embryo after its cells have already begun to specialize and lose totipotency. Meanwhile, at the time that pluripotent ES cell progenitors are specified, so are the multipotent progenitors of two extraembryonic stem cell types: trophoblast stem (TS) cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Reham M Balahmar, David J Boocock, Clare Coveney, Sankalita Ray, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Tarik Regad, Selman Ali, Shiva Sivasubramaniam
Treatment of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although, these therapeutic approaches are highly successful, drug resistance and toxicity remain a concern for high risk patients. This Chemoresistance has also been observed in the presence of cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for cases of cancer recurrence. In this study, we report the presence of previously unknown populations of trophoblastic stem-like cells (SLCs) that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Yue Wang, Hongmei Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Marwa Khater, Francesca Soncin, Donald Pizzo, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Jonathan Pham, Orysya Stus, Pooja Iyer, Veronique Tache, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
INTRODUCTION: Placental insufficiency, arising from abnormal trophoblast differentiation and function, is a major cause of fetal growth restriction. Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) is a ubiquitously-expressed NAD-dependent protein deacetylase which plays a key role in numerous cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and metabolism. Though Sirt1 has been widely studied, its role in placentation and trophoblast differentiation is unclear. METHOD: Sirt1-heterozygous mice were mated and evaluated at various points during embryogenesis...
February 2018: Placenta
Mónica S Ventura Ferreira, Michaela Bienert, Katrin Müller, Björn Rath, Tamme Goecke, Christian Opländer, Till Braunschweig, Petra Mela, Tim H Brümmendorf, Fabian Beier, Sabine Neuss
BACKGROUND: Studies in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from the placenta are compared with multiple MSC types from other sources are rare. The chorionic plate of the human placenta is mainly composed of fetal blood vessels embedded in fetal stroma tissue, lined by trophoblastic cells and organized into chorionic villi (CV) structures. METHODS: We comprehensively characterized human MSC collected from postnatal human chorionic villi of placenta (CV-MSC) by analyzing their growth and proliferation potential, differentiation, immunophenotype, extracellular matrix production, telomere length, aging phenotype, and plasticity...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Shoko Jitsumori, Michihisa Shiro, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Nami Ota, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
We report a rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) with fetal growth restriction (FGR) in one placenta of a dichorionic diamniotic (DD) twin pregnancy. A 24-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 24 weeks' gestation due to FGR and ipsilateral placental abnormality in DD twins. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed one placenta of the FGR fetus was bulky and had multiple cysts, while the other fetus placenta appeared normal. Cesarean section was performed at 32 weeks' gestation; the first and second neonates weighted 1799 and 1215 g, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Damayanti Chakraborty, Regan L Scott, Michael J Soares
Oxygen is an essential nutrient for cells. Oxygen is delivered to tissues via red blood cells through the vasculature. Molecular mechanisms mediating cellular responses to low oxygen tension have been identified. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are activated by low oxygen and promote transcriptional regulation of downstream effector genes, which lead to cellular adaptations. Controlled hypoxia exposure is utilized as an experimental tool to investigate biological processes, regulating cellular adaptations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ching-Wen Chang, Anna K Wakeland, Mana M Parast
Development of the early embryo takes place under low oxygen tension. Under such conditions, the embryo implants and the trophectoderm, the outer layer of blastocyst, proliferate, forming the cytotrophoblastic shell, the early placenta. The cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) are the so-called epithelial 'stem cells' of the placenta, which, depending on the signals they receive, can differentiate into either extravillous trophoblast (EVT) or syncytiotrophoblast (STB). EVTs anchor the placenta to the uterine wall and remodel maternal spiral arterioles in order to provide ample blood supply to the growing fetus...
January 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Hiroaki Okae, Hidehiro Toh, Tetsuya Sato, Hitoshi Hiura, Sota Takahashi, Kenjiro Shirane, Yuka Kabayama, Mikita Suyama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takahiro Arima
Trophoblast cells play an essential role in the interactions between the fetus and mother. Mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells have been derived and used as the best in vitro model for molecular and functional analysis of mouse trophoblast lineages, but attempts to derive human TS cells have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that activation of Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and EGF and inhibition of TGF-β, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) enable long-term culture of human villous cytotrophoblast (CT) cells...
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Justin Brumbaugh, Bruno Di Stefano, Xiuye Wang, Marti Borkent, Elmira Forouzmand, Katie J Clowers, Fei Ji, Benjamin A Schwarz, Marian Kalocsay, Stephen J Elledge, Yue Chen, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Steven P Gygi, Guang Hu, Yongsheng Shi, Konrad Hochedlinger
Cell fate transitions involve rapid gene expression changes and global chromatin remodeling, yet the underlying regulatory pathways remain incompletely understood. Here, we identified the RNA-processing factor Nudt21 as a novel regulator of cell fate change using transcription-factor-induced reprogramming as a screening assay. Suppression of Nudt21 enhanced the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, facilitated transdifferentiation into trophoblast stem cells, and impaired differentiation of myeloid precursors and embryonic stem cells, suggesting a broader role for Nudt21 in cell fate change...
January 11, 2018: Cell
Ashish Jain, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Geetu Tuteja
Differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) continue to provide a model for studying early trophoblast cells (TB), but many questions have been raised regarding their true identity. Therefore, we carried out a global and unbiased analysis on previously published transcriptomic profiles for hESC differentiated to TB by means of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and inhibitors of activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling (BAP treatment). Our results confirm that BAP treated hESC (ESCd) lack a mesoderm signature and are a subtype of placental cells unlike those present at term...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daosheng Huang, Guoji Guo, Ping Yuan, Amy Ralston, Lingang Sun, Mikael Huss, Tapan Mistri, Luca Pinello, Huck Hui Ng, Guocheng Yuan, Junfeng Ji, Janet Rossant, Paul Robson, Xiaoping Han
The first cellular differentiation event in mouse development leads to the formation of the blastocyst consisting of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). The transcription factor CDX2 is required for proper TE specification, where it promotes expression of TE genes, and represses expression of Pou5f1 (OCT4). However its downstream network in the developing embryo is not fully characterized. Here, we performed high-throughput single embryo qPCR analysis in Cdx2 null embryos to identify CDX2-regulated targets in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gina D Kusuma, Mohamed H Abumaree, Mark D Pertile, Bill Kalionis
The decidua basalis and placental chorionic villi are critical components of maternal-fetal interface, which plays a critical role in normal placental development. Failure to form a proper maternal-fetal interface is associated with clinically important placental pathologies including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Placental trophoblast cells are well known for their critical roles in establishing the maternal-fetal interface; however accumulating evidence also implicates mesenchymal stem/stromal cells that envelop the maternal and fetal blood vessels as playing an important role in the formation and efficient functioning of the interface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dongmei Zhu, Xia Gong, Liyun Miao, Junshun Fang, Jian Zhang
The syncytiotrophoblast layer is the most critical and prominent tissue in placenta. SynT cells are differentiated from trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) during early embryogenesis. Mouse TSCs can spontaneously differentiate into cells of mixed lineages in vitro upon withdrawal of stemness-maintaining factors. However, differentiation into defined placental cell lineages remains challenging. We report here that canonical Wnt signaling activation robustly induces expression of SynT-II lineage-specific genes Gcm1 and SynB and suppresses markers of other placental lineages...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
Jia-Li You, Wei Wang, Min-Yue Tang, Ying-Hui Ye, Ai-Xia Liu, Yi-Min Zhu
Galectin-1 is highly expressed in blastocysts and trophoblast giant cells during implantation, and dysregulated galectin-1 is associated with many pregnancy-related abnormalities. Elevated galectin-1 contributes to cancer cells invasion. Here, we found that galectin-1 is expressed in mouse oocytes, preimplantation embryos (all stages), and trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Peak levels of galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected on day 4 and day 5 after the induction of TS cells differentiation. Overexpression of galectin-1 increased TS cells migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of galectin-1 attenuated these effects...
November 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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