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Trophoblast stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635985/experiences-of-women-with-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-treated-with-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation-a-qualitative-study
#1
Kam Singh, Clare Warnock, Jane Ireson, Sarah Strickland, Delia Short, Michael J Seckl, Barry W Hancock
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia during and after treatment to understand their perspectives, priorities, and concerns.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: A descriptive, exploratory study using in-depth semistructured interviews.
. SETTING: All interviews were conducted in a quiet, designated room at Weston Park Hospital in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.
. PARTICIPANTS: Women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who had received stem cell transplantation from 2003 to 2013...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626751/feeder-cell-type-affects-the-growth-of-in-vitro-cultured-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#2
Islam M Saadeldin, Ahmed Abdelfattah-Hassan, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum
Trophectoderm cells are the foremost embryonic cells to differentiate with prospective stem-cell properties. In the current study, we aimed at improving the current approach for trophoblast culture by using granulosa cells as feeders. Porcine granulosa cells (PGCs) compared to the conventional mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to grow trophectoderm cells from hatched bovine blastocysts. Isolated trophectoderm cells were monitored and displayed characteristic epithelial/cuboidal morphology. The isolated trophectoderm cells expressed mRNA of homeobox protein (CDX2), cytokeratin-8 (KRT8), and interferon tau (IFNT)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596585/tetraploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-contribute-to-the-development-of-chimeric-fetuses-and-chimeric-extraembryonic-tissues
#3
Bingqiang Wen, Ruiqi Li, Keren Cheng, Enhong Li, Shaopeng Zhang, Jinzhu Xiang, Yanliang Wang, Jianyong Han
Our study examined the in vivo chimeric and survival capacities of chimeras created by injecting tetraploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into diploid embryos. At 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and 4.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs were able to contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) just as diploid ESCs tagged with GFP. At 6.5 dpc, 8.0 dpc and 10.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs manifested in the same location as the diploid ESCs. The GFP cells in the extraembryonic tissues and fetuses of tetraploid ESC chimeras were tetraploid as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592902/ggnbp2-is-necessary-for-testis-morphology-and-sperm-development
#4
Anqi Chen, Jixi Li, Lesheng Song, Chaoneng Ji, Marion Böing, Jinzhong Chen, Beate Brand-Saberi
Gametogenetin Binding Protein 2 (GGNBP2) was identified as a tumor suppressor and verified as such by several studies. GGNBP2 has also been reported to be essential for pregnancy maintenance via regulation of trophoblast stem cells. Gametogenetin (GGN) is a testicular germ cell-specific gene expressed in adult testes. As a potential GGN1-interacting protein, the role of GGNBP2 in spermatogenesis has not yet been clarified. We generated heterozygous GGNBP2 knockout mice and bred them by intercrossing. We found that among the offspring, homozygous GGNBP2 knockout (KO) mice were present in severely reduced numbers...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578177/the-impact-of-uterine-immaturity-on-obstetrical-syndromes-during%C3%A2-adolescence
#5
Ivo Brosens, Joanne Muter, Caroline Gargett, Patrick Puttemans, Giuseppe Benagiano, Jan J Brosens
Pregnant nulliparous adolescents are at increased risk, inversely proportional to their age, of major obstetric syndromes, including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. Emerging evidence indicates that biological immaturity of the uterus accounts for the increased incidence of obstetrical disorders in very young mothers, possibly compounded by sociodemographic factors associated with teenage pregnancy. The endometrium in most newborns is intrinsically resistant to progesterone signaling, and the rate of transition to a fully responsive tissue likely determines pregnancy outcome during adolescence...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542501/a-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-kinases-rock-inhibitor-y-27632-enhances-adhesion-viability-and-differentiation-of-human-term-placenta-derived-trophoblasts-in-vitro
#6
Kenichiro Motomura, Naoko Okada, Hideaki Morita, Mariko Hara, Masato Tamari, Keisuke Orimo, Go Matsuda, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Akio Matsuda, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Mikiya Fujieda, Haruhiko Sago, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto
Although human term placenta-derived primary cytotrophoblasts (pCTBs) represent a good human syncytiotrophoblast (STB) model, in vitro culture of pCTBs is not always easily accomplished. Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), reportedly prevented apoptosis and improved cell-to-substrate adhesion and culture stability of dissociated cultured human embryonic stem cells and human corneal endothelial cells. The Rho kinase pathway regulates various kinds of cell behavior, some of which are involved in pCTB adhesion and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#7
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524367/transplantation-of-human-villous-trophoblasts-preserves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Zegen Wang, Ningzheng Dong, Yayan Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, Ce Zhang, Meng Liu, Tiantian Zhou, Qingyu Wu, Ke Cheng
Over the past decade, cell therapies have provided promising strategies for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Particularly, the beneficial effects of stem cells, including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been demonstrated by substantial preclinical and clinical studies. Nevertheless stem cell therapy is not always safe and effective. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of cells to promote cardiac regeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#9
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515049/a-generalized-linear-model-for-decomposing-cis-regulatory-parent-of-origin-and-maternal-effects-on-allele-specific-gene-expression
#10
Yasuaki Takada, Ryutaro Miyagi, Aya Takahashi, Toshinori Endo, Naoki Osada
Joint quantification of genetic and epigenetic effects on gene expression is important for understanding the establishment of complex gene regulation systems in living organisms. In particular, genomic imprinting and maternal effects play important roles in the developmental process of mammals and flowering plants. However, the influence of these effects on gene expression are difficult to quantify because they act simultaneously with cis-regulatory mutations. Here we propose a simple method to decompose cis-regulatory (i...
May 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494860/overexpression-of-trophoblast-stem-cell-enriched-micrornas-promotes-trophoblast-fate-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Ursula Nosi, Fredrik Lanner, Tsu Huang, Brian Cox
The first cell fate choice of the preimplantation embryo generates the extraembryonic trophoblast and embryonic epiblast lineages. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can be utilized to investigate molecular mechanisms of this first cell fate decision. It has been established that ESCs can be induced to acquire trophoblast lineage characteristics upon manipulation of lineage-determining transcription factors. Here, we have interrogated the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) to drive trans-differentiation of ESCs into the trophoblast lineage...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487025/mouse-prolyl-oligopeptidase-plays-a-role-in-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation-into-trophoblast-giant-cell-and-spongiotrophoblast
#12
Yuki Maruyama, Shin Matsubara, Atsushi P Kimura
INTRODUCTION: Prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl endopeptidase, Prep), a multifunctional protease hydrolyzing -Pro-X- peptide bonds, is highly expressed in the mouse placenta, but the function during development is not known. We explored the possibility of Prep's involvement in placental differentiation. METHODS: We cultured trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) derived from the E6.5 mouse embryo and investigated the detailed expression pattern of Prep during their differentiation...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475880/synthetic-embryos-windows-into-mammalian-development
#13
Aryeh Warmflash
Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-organize in vitro, but whether they can recreate early embryonic morphogenesis is unclear. Harrison et al. recently demonstrate in Science that 3D co-cultures of mouse ESCs and trophoblast stem cells self-organize into embryo-like structures that recreate many features of early mouse development.
May 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468635/prc2-represses-transcribed-genes-on-the-imprinted-inactive-x-chromosome-in-mice
#14
Emily Maclary, Michael Hinten, Clair Harris, Shriya Sethuraman, Srimonta Gayen, Sundeep Kalantry
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. RESULTS: Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation...
May 3, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430877/the-accessible-chromatin-landscape-during-conversion-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-trophoblast-by-bmp4
#15
Yajun Liu, Dewu Ding, Hongde Liu, Xiao Sun
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) exposed to the growth factor bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have been used as a model to study the development of placental development. However, little is known about the cis-regulatory mechanisms underlying this important process. In this study, we used the public available chromatin accessibility data of hESC H1 cells and BMP4-induced trophoblast (TB)cell lines to identify DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the two cell lines, as well as the transcription factor binding sites within the DHSs...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429768/reassembling-embryos-in-vitro-from-component-stem-cells
#16
Caroline Kubaczka, George Q Daley
Researchers at the University of Cambridge, UK have succeeded in reconstructing mouse embryos by combining pluripotent embryonic and multipotent trophoblast stem cells in a 3D scaffold; the study from the laboratory of Professor Zernicka-Goetz, recently published in Science, provides a break-through tool to probe early mammalian development outside the uterus. Achieving a similar feat with human cells might necessitate reconsideration of the 14-day rule as a limitation of such research.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425063/blastocyst-derived-stem-cell-populations-under-stress-impact-of-nutrition-and-metabolism-on-stem-cell-potency-loss-and-miscarriage
#17
REVIEW
Yu Yang, Alan Bolnick, Alexandra Shamir, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Quanwen Li, G C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, D A Rappolee
Data from in vitro and in vivo models suggest that malnutrition and stress trigger adaptive responses, leading to small for gestational age (SGA) blastocysts with fewer cell numbers. These stress responses are initially adaptive, but become maladaptive with increasing stress exposures. The common stress responses of the blastocyst-derived stem cells, pluripotent embryonic and multipotent placental trophoblast stem cells (ESCs and TSCs), are decreased growth and potency, and increased, imbalanced and irreversible differentiation...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362386/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-trophoblastic-cells
#18
Jianle Wang, Montserrat C Anguera
The placenta is the first organ to develop during embryogenesis and is required for the survival of the developing embryo. The placenta is comprised of various trophoblastic cells that differentiate from the extra-embryonic trophectoderm cells of the preimplantation blastocyst. As such, our understanding of the early differentiation events of the human placenta is limited because of ethical and legal restrictions on the isolation and manipulation of human embryogenesis. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a robust model system for investigating human development and can also be differentiated in vitro into trophoblastic cells that express markers of the various trophoblast cell types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295048/cardiac-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-trophoblast-stem-cells
#19
Guannan Li, Jianzhou Chen, Xinlin Zhang, Guixin He, Wei Tan, Han Wu, Ran Li, Yuhan Chen, Rong Gu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Various stem cells have been explored for the purpose of cardiac repair. However, any individual stem cell population has not been considered as the ideal source. Recently, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), a newly described stem cell type, have demonstrated extensive plasticity. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of TSCs transplantation for heart regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) and made a direct comparison with the most commonly used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Transplantation of TSCs and MSCs led to a remarkably improved cardiac function in contrast with the PBS control, but only the TSCs exhibited the potential of differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292466/generation-of-trophoblast-like-cells-from-the-amnion-in%C3%A2-vitro-a-novel-cellular-model-for-trophoblast-development
#20
Yanxing Wei, Xiaohua Zhou, Wenhao Huang, Ping Long, Lu Xiao, Tian Zhang, Mei Zhong, Guangjin Pan, Yanlin Ma, Yanhong Yu
Despite the high incidence of trophoblast-related diseases, the molecular mechanism of inadequate early trophoblast development is still unclear due to the lack of an appropriate cellular model in vitro. In the present study, we reprogrammed the amniotic cells to be induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via a non-virus and non-integrated method and subsequently differentiated them into trophoblast-like cells by a modified BMP4 strategy in E6 medium. Compared with the previously studied trophoblast-like cells from ESCs, the iPSCs derived trophoblast-like cells behave similarly in terms of gene expression profiles and biofunctions...
March 2017: Placenta
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