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Trophoblast stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153986/efficient-induction-of-syncytiotrophoblast-layer-ii-cells-from-trophoblast-stem-cells-by-canonical-wnt-signaling-activation
#1
Dongmei Zhu, Xia Gong, Liyun Miao, Junshun Fang, Jian Zhang
The syncytiotrophoblast layer is the most critical and prominent tissue in placenta. SynT cells are differentiated from trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) during early embryogenesis. Mouse TSCs can spontaneously differentiate into cells of mixed lineages in vitro upon withdrawal of stemness-maintaining factors. However, differentiation into defined placental cell lineages remains challenging. We report here that canonical Wnt signaling activation robustly induces expression of SynT-II lineage-specific genes Gcm1 and SynB and suppresses markers of other placental lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151149/impact-of-xist-rna-on-chromatin-modifications-and-transcriptional-silencing-maintenance-at-different-stages-of-imprinted-x-chromosome-inactivation-in-vole-microtus-levis
#2
Alexander I Shevchenko, Elena V Grigor'eva, Sergey P Medvedev, Irina S Zakharova, Elena V Dementyeva, Eugeny A Elisaphenko, Anastasia A Malakhova, Sophia V Pavlova, Suren M Zakian
In vole Microtus levis, cells of preimplantation embryo and extraembryonic tissues undergo imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) which is triggered by a long non-coding nuclear RNA, Xist. At early stages of iXCI, chromatin of vole inactive X chromosome is enriched with the HP1 heterochromatin-specific protein, trimethylated H3K9 and H4K20 attributable to constitutive heterochromatin. In the study, using vole trophoblast stem (TS) cells as a model of iXCI, we further investigated chromatin of the inactive X chromosome of M...
November 18, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122660/a-potential-role-of-galectin-1-in-promoting-mouse-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation
#3
Jia-Li You, Wei Wang, Min-Yue Tang, Ying-Hui Ye, Ai-Xia Liu, Yi-Min Zhu
Galectin-1 is highly expressed in blastocysts and trophoblast giant cells during implantation, and dysregulated galectin-1 is associated with many pregnancy-related abnormalities. Elevated galectin-1 contributes to cancer cells invasion. Here, we found that galectin-1 is expressed in mouse oocytes, preimplantation embryos (all stages), and trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Peak levels of galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected on day 4 and day 5 after the induction of TS cells differentiation. Overexpression of galectin-1 increased TS cells migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of galectin-1 attenuated these effects...
November 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105384/hypoxic-stress-forces-adaptive-and-maladaptive-placental-stress-responses-in-early-pregnancy
#4
Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Awoniyi Awonuga, Alan Bolnick, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
This review focuses on hypoxic stress and its effects on the placental lineage and the earliest differentiation events in mouse and human placental trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Although the placenta is a decidual organ at the end of pregnancy, its earliest rapid growth and function at the start of pregnancy precedes and supports growth and function of the embryo. Earliest function requires that TSCs differentiate, however, "hypoxia" supports rapid growth, but not differentiation of TSCs. Most of the literature on earliest placental "hypoxia" studies used 2% oxygen which is normoxic for TSCs...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105383/hypoxia-and-placental-development
#5
REVIEW
Michael J Soares, Khursheed Iqbal, Keisuke Kozai
Hemochorial placentation is orchestrated through highly regulated temporal and spatial decisions governing the fate of trophoblast stem/progenitor cells. Trophoblast cell acquisition of specializations facilitating invasion and uterine spiral artery remodeling is a labile process, sensitive to the environment, and represents a process that is vulnerable to dysmorphogenesis in pathologic states. Hypoxia is a signal guiding placental development, and molecular mechanisms directing cellular adaptations to low oxygen tension are integral to trophoblast cell differentiation and placentation...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101413/the-gestational-power-of-mast-cells-in-the-injured-tissue
#6
Maria-Angeles Aller, Natalia Arias, Vicente Martínez, Patri Vergara, Jaime Arias
The inflammatory response expressed after wound healing would be the recapitulation of systemic extra-embryonic functions, which would focus on the interstitium of the injured tissue. In the injured tissue, mast cells, provided for a great functional heterogeneity, could play the leading role in the re-expression of extra-embryonic functions, i.e., coelomic-amniotic and trophoblastic-vitelline. Moreover, mast cells would favor the production of a gastrulation-like process, which in certain tissues and organs would induce the regeneration of the injured tissue...
November 3, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078328/gata2-3-tfap2a-c-transcription-factor-network-couples-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-to-trophectoderm-with-repression-of-pluripotency
#7
Christian Krendl, Dmitry Shaposhnikov, Valentyna Rishko, Chaido Ori, Christoph Ziegenhain, Steffen Sass, Lukas Simon, Nikola S Müller, Tobias Straub, Kelsey E Brooks, Shawn L Chavez, Wolfgang Enard, Fabian J Theis, Micha Drukker
To elucidate the molecular basis of BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) toward progeny with trophectoderm characteristics, we produced transcriptome, epigenome H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and CpG methylation maps of trophoblast progenitors, purified using the surface marker APA. We combined them with the temporally resolved transcriptome of the preprogenitor phase and of single APA+ cells. This revealed a circuit of bivalent TFAP2A, TFAP2C, GATA2, and GATA3 transcription factors, coined collectively the "trophectoderm four" (TEtra), which are also present in human trophectoderm in vivo...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076502/derivation-of-hypermethylated-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-with-high-potency
#8
Siqin Bao, Walfred Wc Tang, Baojiang Wu, Shinseog Kim, Jingyun Li, Lin Li, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Caroline Lee, Yanglin Chen, Mengyi Wei, Shudong Li, Sabine Dietmann, Fuchou Tang, Xihe Li, M Azim Surani
Naive hypomethylated embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ESCs) are developmentally closest to the preimplantation epiblast of blastocysts, with the potential to contribute to all embryonic tissues and the germline, excepting the extra-embryonic tissues in chimeric embryos. By contrast, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) resembling postimplantation epiblast are relatively more methylated and show a limited potential for chimerism. Here, for the first time, we reveal advanced pluripotent stem cells (ASCs), which are developmentally beyond the pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass but with higher potency than EpiSCs...
October 27, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055961/plac1-expression-pattern-at-the-mouse-fetomaternal-interface-and-involvement-in-trophoblast-differentiation
#9
Yanli Gu, Junhui Wan, Lv Yao, Nan-Ni Peng, Wen-Lin Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is well known that Plac1 is a placenta-specific gene; however, its spatiotemporal expression pattern and exact role at t h e mouse fetomaternal interface r e m a i n s unclear. METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize the Plac1 mRNA at the mouse fetomaternal interface. A trophoblast stem cell (TS) differentiation model with Plac1 shRNA-overexpressing lentivirus was employed to investigate the possible role of Plac1 in placentation...
October 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019987/establishment-of-mouse-expanded-potential-stem-cells
#10
Jian Yang, David J Ryan, Wei Wang, Jason Cheuk-Ho Tsang, Guocheng Lan, Hideki Masaki, Xuefei Gao, Liliana Antunes, Yong Yu, Zhexin Zhu, Juexuan Wang, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Lia S Campos, Cui Wang, Fengtang Yang, Zhen Zhong, Beiyuan Fu, Melanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Michael Woods, Yosuke Tanaka, Xi Chen, Adam C Wilkinson, James Bussell, Jacqui White, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Wolf Reik, Berthold Göttgens, Sarah A Teichmann, Patrick P L Tam, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Xiangang Zou, Liming Lu, Pentao Liu
Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay...
October 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973471/mechanisms-of-transcription-factor-mediated-direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-to-trophoblast-stem-like-cells
#11
Catherine Rhee, Bum-Kyu Lee, Samuel Beck, Lucy LeBlanc, Haley O Tucker, Jonghwan Kim
Direct reprogramming can be achieved by forced expression of master transcription factors. Yet how such factors mediate repression of initial cell-type-specific genes while activating target cell-type-specific genes is unclear. Through embryonic stem (ES) to trophoblast stem (TS)-like cell reprogramming by introducing individual TS cell-specific 'CAG' factors (Cdx2, Arid3a and Gata3), we interrogate their chromosomal target occupancies, modulation of global transcription and chromatin accessibility at the initial stage of reprogramming...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962134/placenta-derived-multipotent-cells-have-no-effect-on-the-size-and-number-of-dmh-induced-colon-tumors-in-rats
#12
Hanna Svitina, Vitaliy Kyryk, Inessa Skrypkina, Maria Kuchma, Tetiana Bukreieva, Pavlo Areshkov, Yulia Shablii, Yevheniy Denis, Pavlo Klymenko, Liudmyla Garmanchuk, Liudmyla Ostapchenko, Galina Lobintseva, Volodymyr Shablii
Transplantation of placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) is a promising approach for cell therapy to treat inflammation-associated colon diseases. However, the effect of PDMCs on colon cancer cells remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize PDMCs obtained from human (hPDMCs) and rat (rPDMCs) placentas and to evaluate their impact on colon cancer progression in rats. PDMCs were obtained from human and rat placentas by tissue explant culturing. Stemness- and trophoblast-related gene expression was studied using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and surface markers and intracellular proteins were detected using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, respectively...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936481/controlling-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-acetylation-of-histone-h2bk5
#13
Robert J Mobley, Amy N Abell
Large-scale epigenetic changes take place when epithelial cells with cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity transition into invasive, individual, mesenchymal cells through a process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, cancers with stem cell properties disseminate and form distant metastases by reactivating the developmental EMT program. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic histone modification, H2BK5 acetylation (H2BK5Ac), is important in the regulation of EMT...
September 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863999/isolation-and-characterization-of-the-trophectoderm-from-the-arabian-camel-camelus-dromedarius
#14
Islam M Saadeldin, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Mona Elsafadi, Abdullah F Moumen, Faisal A Alzahrani, Amer Mahmood, Musaad Alfayez, Abdullah N Alowaimer
We isolated and characterized trophoblast from in vivo-derived camel embryos and compared with embryonic stem-like cells. Camel embryos were flushed on day 8 post-insemination and used to derive trophectoderm and embryonic stem-like cells under feeder-free culture conditions using a basement membrane matrix. Embryos were evaluated for the expression of POU5F1, MYC, KLF4, SOX2, CDX2, and KRT8 mRNA transcripts by relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Camel embryos grew and expanded to ∼4.5 mm and maintained their vesicular shape in vitro for 21 days post-insemination...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826368/impact-of-galectin-1-on-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation-and-invasion-in-in-vitro-implantation-model
#15
Minyue Tang, Jiali You, Wei Wang, Yongchao Lu, Xiaoling Hu, Chunyan Wang, Aixia Liu, Yimin Zhu
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) differentiate in an orderly manner, which plays an important role in the process of embryo implantation, placentation, and early pregnancy maintenance. At the maternal-fetal interface, the dialogue is crucial between trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelial cells. Previous studies suggested that galectin-1 (Gal-1) may play an important role in placental development. In this study, we used Ishikawa (IK) cells-TSC coculture model to simulate the maternal-fetal interface and induce the differentiation of TSCs by differentiation media...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754907/mapping-the-chromatin-landscape-and-blimp1-transcriptional-targets-that-regulate-trophoblast-differentiation
#16
Andrew C Nelson, Arne W Mould, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) give rise to specialized cell types within the placenta. However, the regulatory mechanisms that guide trophoblast cell fate decisions during placenta development remain ill defined. Here we exploited ATAC-seq and transcriptional profiling strategies to describe dynamic changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility during TSC differentiation. We detect significantly increased chromatin accessibility at key genes upregulated as TSCs exit from the stem cell state. However, downregulated gene expression is not simply due to the loss of chromatin accessibility in proximal regions...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717241/sca-1-identifies-a-trophoblast-population-with-multipotent-potential-in-the-mid-gestation-mouse-placenta
#17
Bryony V Natale, Christina Schweitzer, Martha Hughes, Maria A Globisch, Ramie Kotadia, Emilie Tremblay, Priscilla Vu, James C Cross, David R C Natale
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells in the mouse derive from the polar trophectoderm of the blastocyst and persist through early gestation (to E8.5) to support placental development. Further development and growth is proposed to rely on layer-restricted progenitor cells. Stem cell antigen (Sca) -1 is a member of the Ly6 gene family and a known marker of stem cells in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic mouse tissues. Having identified that Sca-1 mRNA was highly expressed in mouse TS cells in culture, we found that it was also expressed in a subset of trophoblast within the chorion and labyrinth layer of the mouse placenta...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662446/acquisition-of-the-pluripotent-and-trophectoderm-states-in-the-embryo-and-during-somatic-nuclear-reprogramming
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Jaber, Shulamit Sebban, Yosef Buganim
How the first cell fate decision of an embryo occurs is one of the most fascinating biological questions examined over the last few decades, with numerous in vivo models proposed and many factors tested for their role in the process. In this review, we will primarily focus on the mouse model and discuss the role that transcription factors play during establishment and maintenance of the first lineage segregation in the embryo, towards inner cell mass or trophectoderm. We will also overview recent developments in somatic nuclear reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells, the inner cell mass (epiblast) equivalent, and into induced trophoblast stem cells, the trophectoderm equivalent, and discuss potential correspondences between the in vivo and in vitro models...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647356/optimizing-bone-morphogenic-protein-4-mediated-human-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-into-trophoblast-like-cells-using-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-nodal-signalling-inhibition
#19
Mariann Koel, Urmo Võsa, Kaarel Krjutškov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Juha Kere, Juha Tapanainen, Shintaro Katayama, Sulev Ingerpuu, Viljar Jaks, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Karolina Lundin, Timo Tuuri, Andres Salumets
Several studies have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be differentiated into trophoblast-like cells if exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and/or inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin/nodal signalling pathways. The goal of this study was to investigate how the inhibitors of these pathways improve the efficiency of hESC differentiation when compared with basic BMP4 treatment. RNA sequencing was used to analyse the effects of all possible inhibitor combinations on the differentiation of hESC into trophoblast-like cells over 12 days...
September 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635985/experiences-of-women-with-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-treated-with-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation-a-qualitative-study
#20
Kam Singh, Clare Warnock, Jane Ireson, Sarah Strickland, Delia Short, Michael J Seckl, Barry W Hancock
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia during and after treatment to understand their perspectives, priorities, and concerns.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: A descriptive, exploratory study using in-depth semistructured interviews.
. SETTING: All interviews were conducted in a quiet, designated room at Weston Park Hospital in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.
. PARTICIPANTS: Women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who had received stem cell transplantation from 2003 to 2013...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
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