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Trophoblast stem cell

Hicham El Costa, Jordi Gouilly, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Qian Chen, Claude Levy, Géraldine Cartron, Francisco Veas, Reem Al-Daccak, Jacques Izopet, Nabila Jabrane-Ferrat
The outbreak of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) and its association with fetal abnormalities have raised worldwide concern. However, the cellular tropism and the mechanisms of ZIKV transmission to the fetus during early pregnancy are still largely unknown. Therefore, we ex vivo modeled the ZIKV transmission at the maternal-fetal interface using organ culture from first trimester pregnancy samples. Here, we provide evidence that ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil infects and damages tissue architecture of the maternal decidua basalis, the fetal placenta and umbilical cord...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
J I Kalisch-Smith, J E Outhwaite, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
Maternal alcohol consumption is common prior to pregnancy recognition and in the rat results in altered placental development and fetal growth restriction. To assess the effect of ethanol (EtOH) exposure on the differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells, mouse TS lines were differentiated in vitro for 6 days in 0%, 0.2% or 1% EtOH. This reduced both trophoblast survival and expression of labyrinth and junctional zone trophoblast subtype-specific genes. This suggests that fetal growth restriction and altered placental development associated with maternal alcohol consumption in the periconceptional period could be mediated in part by direct effects on trophoblast development...
October 2016: Placenta
Yu Yang, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Jing Dai, Graham C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Hypoxic, hyperosmotic, and genotoxic stress slow mouse trophoblast stem cell (mTSC) proliferation, decrease potency/stemness and increase differentiation. Previous reports suggest a period of reversibility in stress-induced mTSC differentiation. Here we show that hypoxic stress at 0.5% O2 decreased potency factor protein by ~60-90% and reduced growth to nil. Hypoxia caused a 35-fold increase in apoptosis at Day 3 and a 2-fold increase at Day 6 above baseline. The baseline apoptosis rate was only 0.3%. Total protein was never less than baseline during hypoxic treatment, suggesting 0...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Xiaoyu Liu, Chenfei Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Jingyi Li, Chong Li, Xiaochen Kou, Jiayu Chen, Yanhong Zhao, Haibo Gao, Hong Wang, Yong Zhang, Yawei Gao, Shaorong Gao
Histone modifications have critical roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during embryo development in mammals. However, genome-wide analyses of histone modifications in pre-implantation embryos have been impeded by the scarcity of the required materials. Here, by using a small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) method, we map the genome-wide profiles of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), which are associated with gene activation and repression, respectively, in mouse pre-implantation embryos...
September 14, 2016: Nature
Leonard Y M Cheung, Hideyuki Okano, Sally A Camper
The hypothalamic-pituitary axes are the coordinating centers for multiple endocrine gland functions and physiological processes. Defects in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can cause reduced growth and severe short stature, affecting approximately 1 in 4000 children, and a large percentage of cases of pituitary hormone deficiencies do not have an identified genetic cause. SOX21 is a protein that regulates hair, neural, and trophoblast stem cell differentiation. Mice lacking Sox21 have reduced growth, but the etiology of this growth defect has not been described...
September 8, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Mitsuko Hirosawa, Koji Hayakawa, Chikako Yoneda, Daisuke Arai, Hitoshi Shiota, Takehiro Suzuki, Satoshi Tanaka, Naoshi Dohmae, Kunio Shiota
We report here newly discovered O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of histone H2A at Ser(40) (H2AS40Gc). The mouse genome contains 18 H2A isoforms, of which 13 have Ser(40) and the other five have Ala(40). The combination of production of monoclonal antibody and mass spectrometric analyses with reverse-phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation indicated that the O-GlcNAcylation is specific to the Ser(40) isoforms. The H2AS40Gc site is in the L1 loop structure where two H2A molecules interact in the nucleosome...
2016: Scientific Reports
Boris Novakovic, Christine E Napier, Regan Vryer, Eva Dimitriadis, Ursula Manuelpillai, Andrew Sharkey, Jeffrey M Craig, Roger R Reddel, Richard Saffery
STUDY QUESTION: What factors regulate elongated telomere length in the human placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hypomethylation of TERRA promoters in the human placenta is associated with high expression TERRA genes, however, no clear mechanistic link between these phenomena and elongated telomere length in the human placenta was found. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human placenta tissue and trophoblasts show longer telomere lengths compared to gestational age-matched somatic cells...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Teena Kjb Gamage, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: The human placenta is vital for fetal development, yet little is understood about how it forms successfully to ensure a healthy pregnancy or why this process is inadequate in 1 in 10 pregnancies, leading to miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. Trophoblasts are placenta-specific epithelial cells that maximize nutrient exchange. All trophoblast lineages are thought to arise from a population of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). However, whilst the isolation of murine TSC has led to an explosion in understanding murine placentation, the isolation of an analogous human TSC has proved more difficult...
September 2, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
E V Svirshchevskaya, R A Poltavtseva, I P Beletskii, I I Selezneva, G T Sukhikh
We analyzed the interactions between peripheral blood lymphocytes from heterologous donors with mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the tooth pulp and trophoblast. In mixed cultures, proliferation of both lymphocytes and mesenchymal stem cells was suppressed. Similar suppressive effects were observed in lymphocyte cultures mixed with epithelial cells (hepatocytes HeG2 and renal epithelial cells HEK293). This suppression can be determined by impairment of normal adhesion contacts between cells of different origin...
August 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Eun-Yeong Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Tae-Wook Chung, Jun-Yong Choi, Hyung Sik Kim, Yeon-Seop Jung, Syng-Ook Lee, Ki-Tae Ha
The leaves and stems of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo (PF) have been used to prevent threatened abortion in traditional medicine in the East Asian countries. Because reduced receptivity of endometrium is a cause of abortion, we analyzed the action of PF on the endometrial receptivity. PF increased the level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a major cytokine regulating endometrial receptivity, and LIF receptor in human endometrial Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced LIF expression was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Caroline Kubaczka, Hubert Schorle
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) arise as a consequence of the first cell fate decision in mammalian development. They can be cultured in vitro, retaining the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all subtypes of the trophoblast lineage, equivalent to the in vivo stem cell population giving rise to the fetal portion of the placenta. Therefore, TSCs offer a unique model to study placental development and embryonic versus extra-embryonic cell fate decision in vitro. From the blastocyst stage onwards, a distinct epigenetic barrier consisting of DNA methylation and histone modifications tightly separates both lineages...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu Yang, Graham C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
Xiawei Li, Zhiying Li, Dongxia Hou, Yuhang Zhao, Chen Wang, Xueling Li
Endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) cultured in vitro are valuable tools for investigating embryo implantation and trophoblast differentiation. In this study, we have established the bovine EECs and trophoblast stem-like (TS) coculture system, and used it to investigate the binucleate cell formation of ungulates. The EECs was derived from the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum by using collagenase I and deoxyribonuclease I, which exhibited typical epithelial morphology and were expressing bovine uterine epithelial marker such as IFNAR1, IFNAR2, Erα, PGR, ESR1 and KRT18...
July 29, 2016: Cytotechnology
Prasenjit Sarkar, Adam Mischler, Shan M Randall, Timothy S Collier, Karen F Dorman, Kim A Boggess, David C Muddiman, Balaji M Rao
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been used to derive trophoblasts through differentiation in vitro. Intriguingly, mouse ESCs are prevented from differentiation to trophoblasts by certain epigenetic factor proteins such as Dnmt1, thus necessitating the study of epigenetic factor proteins during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and quantitative proteomics to study changes in the nuclear proteome during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts and identified changes in the expression of 30 epigenetic factor proteins...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Mariko Horii, Yingchun Li, Anna K Wakeland, Donald P Pizzo, Katharine K Nelson, Karen Sabatini, Louise Chang Laurent, Ying Liu, Mana M Parast
Trophoblast is the primary epithelial cell type in the placenta, a transient organ required for proper fetal growth and development. Different trophoblast subtypes are responsible for gas/nutrient exchange (syncytiotrophoblasts, STBs) and invasion and maternal vascular remodeling (extravillous trophoblasts, EVTs). Studies of early human placental development are severely hampered by the lack of a representative trophoblast stem cell (TSC) model with the capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into both STBs and EVTs...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xia Wu, Miao Song, Xi Yang, Xin Liu, Kun Liu, Cuihua Jiao, Jinze Wang, Chunling Bai, Guanghua Su, Xuefei Liu, Guangpeng Li
Bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs) have not been successfully established yet. One reason could be that CDX2, as the trophectoderm regulator, expresses in bovine inner cell mass (ICM), which probably becomes a technical barrier for maintaining the pluripotency of bESCs in vitro. We hypothesized that CDX2 knockdown (CDX2-KD) could remove such negative effort, which will be helpful for capturing complete and permanent capacity of pluripotency. Expression and localization of pluripotent genes were not affected in CDX2-KD blastocysts...
2016: Scientific Reports
Laura M Desrochers, François Bordeleau, Cynthia A Reinhart-King, Richard A Cerione, Marc A Antonyak
Communication between the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophoblast layer of the blastocyst is known to occur, but its functional consequences on early developmental events is unclear. Here we demonstrate that embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM generate and shed microvesicles (MVs), a major class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which influence trophoblast behaviour during the implantation process. The MV cargo proteins laminin and fibronectin interact with integrins along the surfaces of the trophoblasts, triggering the activation of two signalling kinases, JNK and FAK, and stimulating trophoblast migration...
2016: Nature Communications
Arun Rajendra Chavan, Günter P Wagner
BACKGROUND: The evolution of invasive placentation in the stem lineage of eutherian mammals entailed resolution of the incompatibility between a semi-allogenic fetus and the maternal immune system. The haemochorial placenta of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is thought to conceal itself from the maternal immune system to some degree by developing inside a preformed blood sinus, with minimal contact with the uterine connective tissue. In the present study, we elucidate the micro-anatomical relationship between fetal and maternal tissue of the nine-banded armadillo using histochemical and immunohistochemical tools...
2016: Zoological Letters
Teresa Rayon, Sergio Menchero, Isabel Rollán, Inmaculada Ors, Anne Helness, Miguel Crespo, Andres Nieto, Véronique Azuara, Janet Rossant, Miguel Manzanares
The first intercellular differences during mammalian embryogenesis arise in the blastocyst, producing the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The trophectoderm is the first extraembryonic tissue and does not contribute to the embryo proper, its differentiation instead forming tissues that sustain embryonic development. Crucial roles in extraembryonic differentiation have been identified for certain transcription factors, but a comprehensive picture of the regulation of this early specification is still lacking...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jifeng Liu, Xinlong Luo, Yanli Xu, Junjie Gu, Fan Tang, Ying Jin, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: Intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals which control unlimited self-renewal and developmental pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been extensively investigated. However, a much smaller number of factors involved in extra-embryonic trophoblast differentiation from ESCs have been studied. In this study, we investigated the role of the single-stranded DNA binding protein, Ssbp3, for the induction of trophoblast-like differentiation from mouse ESCs. METHODS: Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were carried out through overexpression or knockdown of Ssbp3 in mouse ESCs under self-renewal culture conditions...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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