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Trophoblast stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751777/high-efficiency-derivation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-using-a-culture-system-with-minimized-trophoblast-cell-proliferation
#1
Chuti Laowtammathron, Pimjai Chingsuwanrote, Roungsin Choavaratana, Suphadtra Phornwilardsiri, Ketsara Sitthirit, Chidchanok Kaewjunun, Orawan Makemaharn, Papussorn Terbto, Supaporn Waeteekul, Chanchao Lorthongpanich, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Pimonwan Srisook, Pakpoom Kheolamai, Surapol Issaragrisil
BACKGROUND: Due to their extensive self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have great potential for studying developmental biology, disease modeling, and developing cell replacement therapy. The first hESC line was generated in 1998 by culturing inner cell mass (ICM) cells isolated from human blastocysts using an immunosurgery technique. Since then, many techniques including mechanical ICM isolation, laser dissection, and whole embryo culture have been used to derive hESC lines...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748167/kdm5b-decommissions-the-h3k4-methylation-landscape-of-self-renewal-genes-during-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation
#2
Jian Xu, Benjamin L Kidder
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells derived from the trophectoderm (TE) of mammalian embryos have the ability to self-renew indefinitely or differentiate into fetal lineages of the placenta. Epigenetic control of gene expression plays an instrumental role in dictating the fate of TS cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, the roles of histone demethylases and activating histone modifications such as methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3/me2) in regulating TS cell expression programs, and in priming the epigenetic landscape for trophoblast differentiation, are largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720634/blastocyst-like-structures-generated-solely-from-stem-cells
#3
Nicolas C Rivron, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Erik J Vrij, Jean-Charles Boisset, Jeroen Korving, Judith Vivié, Roman K Truckenmüller, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Niels Geijsen
The blastocyst (the early mammalian embryo) forms all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, including the placenta. It consists of a spherical thin-walled layer, known as the trophectoderm, that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity sheltering the embryonic cells 1 . From mouse blastocysts, it is possible to derive both trophoblast 2 and embryonic stem-cell lines 3 , which are in vitro analogues of the trophectoderm and embryonic compartments, respectively. Here we report that trophoblast and embryonic stem cells cooperate in vitro to form structures that morphologically and transcriptionally resemble embryonic day 3...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643413/nucleosomes-of-polyploid-trophoblast-giant-cells-mostly-consist-of-histone-variants-and-form-a-loose-chromatin-structure
#4
Koji Hayakawa, Kanae Terada, Tomohiro Takahashi, Hidehiro Oana, Masao Washizu, Satoshi Tanaka
Trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are one of the cell types that form the placenta and play multiple essential roles in maintaining pregnancy in rodents. TGCs have large, polyploid nuclei resulting from endoreduplication. While previous studies have shown distinct gene expression profiles of TGCs, their chromatin structure remains largely unknown. An appropriate combination of canonical and non-canonical histones, also known as histone variants, allows each cell to exert its cell type-specific functions. Here, we aimed to reveal the dynamics of histone usage and chromatin structure during the differentiation of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) into TGCs...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579154/specification-of-trophoblast-from-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-bmp4
#5
R Michael Roberts, Toshihiko Ezashi, Megan Sheridan, Ying Yang
Trophoblast (TB) comprises the outer cell layers of the mammalian placenta that make direct contact with the maternal uterus and, in species with a highly invasive placenta, maternal blood. It has its origin as trophectoderm, a single epithelial layer of extra-embryonic ectoderm that surrounds the embryo proper at the blastocyst stage of development. Here, we briefly compare the features of TB specification and determination in the mouse and the human. We then review research on a model system that has been increasingly employed to study TB emergence, namely the BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4)-directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCd) and discuss why outcomes using it have proved so uneven...
March 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576538/a-critical-role-of-tet1-2-proteins-in-cell-cycle-progression-of-trophoblast-stem-cells
#6
Stephanie Chrysanthou, Claire E Senner, Laura Woods, Elena Fineberg, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Sarah Burge, Vicente Perez-Garcia, Myriam Hemberger
The ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are well known for their role in maintaining naive pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that, jointly, TET1 and TET2 also safeguard the self-renewal potential of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and have partially redundant roles in maintaining the epithelial integrity of TSCs. For the more abundantly expressed TET1, we show that this is achieved by binding to critical epithelial genes, notably E-cadherin, which becomes hyper-methylated and downregulated in the absence of TET1...
March 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549502/mitochondria-structural-reorganization-during-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-derivation
#7
Lyubov A Suldina, Ksenia N Morozova, Aleksei G Menzorov, Elena A Kizilova, Elena Kiseleva
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are widely used in developmental biology and transgenic research. Despite numerous studies, ultrastructural reorganization of inner cell mass (ICM) cells during in vitro culture has not yet been described in detail. Here, we for the first time performed comparative morphological and morphometric analyses of three ES cell lines during their derivation in vitro. We compared morphological characteristics of blastocyst ICM cells at 3.5 and 4.5 days post coitum on feeder cells (day 6, passage 0) with those of ES cells at different passages (day 19, passage 2; day 25, passage 4; and passage 15)...
March 16, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539633/placentation-defects-are-highly-prevalent-in-embryonic-lethal-mouse-mutants
#8
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 22, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532590/generation-of-elf5-cre-knockin-mouse-strain-for-trophoblast-specific-gene-manipulation
#9
Shuangbo Kong, Guixian Liang, Zhaowei Tu, Dunjin Chen, Haibin Wang, Jinhua Lu
Placental development is a complex and highly controlled process during which trophoblast stem cells differentiate to various trophoblast subtypes. The early embryonic death of systemic gene knockout models hampers the investigation of these genes that might play important roles during placentation. A trophoblast specific Cre mouse model would be of great help for dissecting out the potential roles of these genes during placental development. For this purpose, we generate a transgenic mouse with the Cre recombinase inserted into the endogenous locus of Elf5 gene that is expressed specifically in placental trophoblast cells...
April 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505797/changes-in-gene-expression-following-long-term-in-vitro-exposure-of-macaca-mulatta-trophoblast-stem-cells-to-biologically-relevant-levels-of-endocrine-disruptors
#10
Uros Midic, Benjamin Goheen, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are crucial for embryo implantation and placentation. Environmental toxicants that compromise TSC function could impact fetal viability, pregnancy, and progeny health. Understanding the effects of low, chronic EDC exposures on TSCs and pregnancy is a priority in developmental toxicology. Differences in early implantation between primates and other mammals make a nonhuman primate model ideal. We examined effects of chronic low-level exposure to atrazine, tributyltin, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorooctanoic acid on rhesus monkey TSCs in vitro by RNA sequencing...
April 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477163/capturing-and-interconverting-embryonic-cell-fates-in-a-dish
#11
Jennifer Watts, Alyson Lokken, Alexandra Moauro, Amy Ralston
Cells of the early embryo are totipotent because they will differentiate to produce the fetus and its surrounding extraembryonic tissues. By contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to be merely pluripotent because they lack the ability to efficiently produce extraembryonic cell types. The relatively limited developmental potential of ES cells can be explained by the observation that ES cells are derived from the embryo after its cells have already begun to specialize and lose totipotency. Meanwhile, at the time that pluripotent ES cell progenitors are specified, so are the multipotent progenitors of two extraembryonic stem cell types: trophoblast stem (TS) cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467949/identification-and-characterisation-of-nanog-oct-4-high-sox2-doxorubicin-resistant-stem-like-cells-from-transformed-trophoblastic-cell-lines
#12
Reham M Balahmar, David J Boocock, Clare Coveney, Sankalita Ray, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Tarik Regad, Selman Ali, Shiva Sivasubramaniam
Treatment of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although, these therapeutic approaches are highly successful, drug resistance and toxicity remain a concern for high risk patients. This Chemoresistance has also been observed in the presence of cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for cases of cancer recurrence. In this study, we report the presence of previously unknown populations of trophoblastic stem-like cells (SLCs) that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438487/successful-derivation-of-human-trophoblast-stem-cells
#13
Yue Wang, Hongmei Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405961/sirtuin1-is-required-for-proper-trophoblast-differentiation-and-placental-development-in-mice
#14
Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Marwa Khater, Francesca Soncin, Donald Pizzo, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Jonathan Pham, Orysya Stus, Pooja Iyer, Veronique Tache, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
INTRODUCTION: Placental insufficiency, arising from abnormal trophoblast differentiation and function, is a major cause of fetal growth restriction. Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) is a ubiquitously-expressed NAD-dependent protein deacetylase which plays a key role in numerous cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and metabolism. Though Sirt1 has been widely studied, its role in placentation and trophoblast differentiation is unclear. METHOD: Sirt1-heterozygous mice were mated and evaluated at various points during embryogenesis...
February 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402304/comprehensive-characterization-of-chorionic-villi-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-human-placenta
#15
Mónica S Ventura Ferreira, Michaela Bienert, Katrin Müller, Björn Rath, Tamme Goecke, Christian Opländer, Till Braunschweig, Petra Mela, Tim H Brümmendorf, Fabian Beier, Sabine Neuss
BACKGROUND: Studies in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from the placenta are compared with multiple MSC types from other sources are rare. The chorionic plate of the human placenta is mainly composed of fetal blood vessels embedded in fetal stroma tissue, lined by trophoblastic cells and organized into chorionic villi (CV) structures. METHODS: We comprehensively characterized human MSC collected from postnatal human chorionic villi of placenta (CV-MSC) by analyzing their growth and proliferation potential, differentiation, immunophenotype, extracellular matrix production, telomere length, aging phenotype, and plasticity...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400416/placental-mesenchymal-dysplasia-with-severe-fetal-growth-restriction-in-one-placenta-of-a-dichorionic-diamniotic-twin-pregnancy
#16
Shoko Jitsumori, Michihisa Shiro, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Nami Ota, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
We report a rare case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) with fetal growth restriction (FGR) in one placenta of a dichorionic diamniotic (DD) twin pregnancy. A 24-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 24 weeks' gestation due to FGR and ipsilateral placental abnormality in DD twins. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging showed one placenta of the FGR fetus was bulky and had multiple cysts, while the other fetus placenta appeared normal. Cesarean section was performed at 32 weeks' gestation; the first and second neonates weighted 1799 and 1215 g, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330799/hypoxia-signaling-and-placental-adaptations
#17
Damayanti Chakraborty, Regan L Scott, Michael J Soares
Oxygen is an essential nutrient for cells. Oxygen is delivered to tissues via red blood cells through the vasculature. Molecular mechanisms mediating cellular responses to low oxygen tension have been identified. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are activated by low oxygen and promote transcriptional regulation of downstream effector genes, which lead to cellular adaptations. Controlled hypoxia exposure is utilized as an experimental tool to investigate biological processes, regulating cellular adaptations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259074/trophoblast-lineage-specification-differentiation-and-their-regulation-by-oxygen-tension
#18
REVIEW
Ching-Wen Chang, Anna K Wakeland, Mana M Parast
Development of the early embryo takes place under low oxygen tension. Under such conditions, the embryo implants and the trophectoderm, the outer layer of blastocyst, proliferate, forming the cytotrophoblastic shell, the early placenta. The cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) are the so-called epithelial 'stem cells' of the placenta, which, depending on the signals they receive, can differentiate into either extravillous trophoblast (EVT) or syncytiotrophoblast (STB). EVTs anchor the placenta to the uterine wall and remodel maternal spiral arterioles in order to provide ample blood supply to the growing fetus...
January 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249463/derivation-of-human-trophoblast-stem-cells
#19
Hiroaki Okae, Hidehiro Toh, Tetsuya Sato, Hitoshi Hiura, Sota Takahashi, Kenjiro Shirane, Yuka Kabayama, Mikita Suyama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takahiro Arima
Trophoblast cells play an essential role in the interactions between the fetus and mother. Mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells have been derived and used as the best in vitro model for molecular and functional analysis of mouse trophoblast lineages, but attempts to derive human TS cells have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that activation of Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and EGF and inhibition of TGF-β, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) enable long-term culture of human villous cytotrophoblast (CT) cells...
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249356/nudt21-controls-cell-fate-by-connecting-alternative-polyadenylation-to-chromatin-signaling
#20
Justin Brumbaugh, Bruno Di Stefano, Xiuye Wang, Marti Borkent, Elmira Forouzmand, Katie J Clowers, Fei Ji, Benjamin A Schwarz, Marian Kalocsay, Stephen J Elledge, Yue Chen, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Steven P Gygi, Guang Hu, Yongsheng Shi, Konrad Hochedlinger
Cell fate transitions involve rapid gene expression changes and global chromatin remodeling, yet the underlying regulatory pathways remain incompletely understood. Here, we identified the RNA-processing factor Nudt21 as a novel regulator of cell fate change using transcription-factor-induced reprogramming as a screening assay. Suppression of Nudt21 enhanced the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, facilitated transdifferentiation into trophoblast stem cells, and impaired differentiation of myeloid precursors and embryonic stem cells, suggesting a broader role for Nudt21 in cell fate change...
January 11, 2018: Cell
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