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Trophoblast stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863999/isolation-and-characterization-of-the-trophectoderm-from-the-arabian-camel-camelus-dromedarius
#1
Islam M Saadeldin, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Mona Elsafadi, Abdullah F Moumen, Faisal A Alzahrani, Amer Mahmood, Musaad Alfayez, Abdullah N Alowaimer
We isolated and characterized trophoblast from in vivo-derived camel embryos and compared with embryonic stem-like cells. Camel embryos were flushed on day 8 post-insemination and used to derive trophectoderm and embryonic stem-like cells under feeder-free culture conditions using a basement membrane matrix. Embryos were evaluated for the expression of POU5F1, MYC, KLF4, SOX2, CDX2, and KRT8 mRNA transcripts by relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Camel embryos grew and expanded to ∼4.5 mm and maintained their vesicular shape in vitro for 21 days post-insemination...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826368/impact-of-galectin-1-on-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation-and-invasion-in-in-vitro-implantation-model
#2
Minyue Tang, Jiali You, Wei Wang, Yongchao Lu, Xiaoling Hu, Chunyan Wang, Aixia Liu, Yimin Zhu
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) differentiate in an orderly manner, which plays an important role in the process of embryo implantation, placentation, and early pregnancy maintenance. At the maternal-fetal interface, the dialogue is crucial between trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelial cells. Previous studies suggested that galectin-1 (Gal-1) may play an important role in placental development. In this study, we used Ishikawa (IK) cells-TSC coculture model to simulate the maternal-fetal interface and induce the differentiation of TSCs by differentiation media...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754907/mapping-the-chromatin-landscape-and-blimp1-transcriptional-targets-that-regulate-trophoblast-differentiation
#3
Andrew C Nelson, Arne W Mould, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) give rise to specialized cell types within the placenta. However, the regulatory mechanisms that guide trophoblast cell fate decisions during placenta development remain ill defined. Here we exploited ATAC-seq and transcriptional profiling strategies to describe dynamic changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility during TSC differentiation. We detect significantly increased chromatin accessibility at key genes upregulated as TSCs exit from the stem cell state. However, downregulated gene expression is not simply due to the loss of chromatin accessibility in proximal regions...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717241/sca-1-identifies-a-trophoblast-population-with-multipotent-potential-in-the-mid-gestation-mouse-placenta
#4
Bryony V Natale, Christina Schweitzer, Martha Hughes, Maria A Globisch, Ramie Kotadia, Emilie Tremblay, Priscilla Vu, James C Cross, David R C Natale
Trophoblast stem (TS) cells in the mouse derive from the polar trophectoderm of the blastocyst and persist through early gestation (to E8.5) to support placental development. Further development and growth is proposed to rely on layer-restricted progenitor cells. Stem cell antigen (Sca) -1 is a member of the Ly6 gene family and a known marker of stem cells in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic mouse tissues. Having identified that Sca-1 mRNA was highly expressed in mouse TS cells in culture, we found that it was also expressed in a subset of trophoblast within the chorion and labyrinth layer of the mouse placenta...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662446/acquisition-of-the-pluripotent-and-trophectoderm-states-in-the-embryo-and-during-somatic-nuclear-reprogramming
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Jaber, Shulamit Sebban, Yosef Buganim
How the first cell fate decision of an embryo occurs is one of the most fascinating biological questions examined over the last few decades, with numerous in vivo models proposed and many factors tested for their role in the process. In this review, we will primarily focus on the mouse model and discuss the role that transcription factors play during establishment and maintenance of the first lineage segregation in the embryo, towards inner cell mass or trophectoderm. We will also overview recent developments in somatic nuclear reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells, the inner cell mass (epiblast) equivalent, and into induced trophoblast stem cells, the trophectoderm equivalent, and discuss potential correspondences between the in vivo and in vitro models...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647356/optimizing-bone-morphogenic-protein-4-mediated-human-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-into-trophoblast-like-cells-using-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-nodal-signalling-inhibition
#6
Mariann Koel, Urmo Võsa, Kaarel Krjutškov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Juha Kere, Juha Tapanainen, Shintaro Katayama, Sulev Ingerpuu, Viljar Jaks, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Karolina Lundin, Timo Tuuri, Andres Salumets
Several studies have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be differentiated into trophoblast-like cells if exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and/or inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin/nodal signalling pathways. The goal of this study was to investigate how the inhibitors of these pathways improve the efficiency of hESC differentiation when compared with basic BMP4 treatment. RNA sequencing was used to analyse the effects of all possible inhibitor combinations on the differentiation of hESC into trophoblast-like cells over 12 days...
September 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635985/experiences-of-women-with-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-treated-with-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation-a-qualitative-study
#7
Kam Singh, Clare Warnock, Jane Ireson, Sarah Strickland, Delia Short, Michael J Seckl, Barry W Hancock
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia during and after treatment to understand their perspectives, priorities, and concerns.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: A descriptive, exploratory study using in-depth semistructured interviews.
. SETTING: All interviews were conducted in a quiet, designated room at Weston Park Hospital in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.
. PARTICIPANTS: Women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who had received stem cell transplantation from 2003 to 2013...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626751/feeder-cell-type-affects-the-growth-of-in-vitro-cultured-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#8
Islam M Saadeldin, Ahmed Abdelfattah-Hassan, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum
Trophectoderm cells are the foremost embryonic cells to differentiate with prospective stem-cell properties. In the current study, we aimed at improving the current approach for trophoblast culture by using granulosa cells as feeders. Porcine granulosa cells (PGCs) compared to the conventional mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were used to grow trophectoderm cells from hatched bovine blastocysts. Isolated trophectoderm cells were monitored and displayed characteristic epithelial/cuboidal morphology. The isolated trophectoderm cells expressed mRNA of homeobox protein (CDX2), cytokeratin-8 (KRT8), and interferon tau (IFNT)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596585/tetraploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-contribute-to-the-development-of-chimeric-fetuses-and-chimeric-extraembryonic-tissues
#9
Bingqiang Wen, Ruiqi Li, Keren Cheng, Enhong Li, Shaopeng Zhang, Jinzhu Xiang, Yanliang Wang, Jianyong Han
Our study examined the in vivo chimeric and survival capacities of chimeras created by injecting tetraploid embryonic stem cells (ESCs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into diploid embryos. At 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and 4.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs were able to contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) just as diploid ESCs tagged with GFP. At 6.5 dpc, 8.0 dpc and 10.5 dpc, the tetraploid ESCs manifested in the same location as the diploid ESCs. The GFP cells in the extraembryonic tissues and fetuses of tetraploid ESC chimeras were tetraploid as determined by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592902/ggnbp2-is-necessary-for-testis-morphology-and-sperm-development
#10
Anqi Chen, Jixi Li, Lesheng Song, Chaoneng Ji, Marion Böing, Jinzhong Chen, Beate Brand-Saberi
Gametogenetin Binding Protein 2 (GGNBP2) was identified as a tumor suppressor and verified as such by several studies. GGNBP2 has also been reported to be essential for pregnancy maintenance via regulation of trophoblast stem cells. Gametogenetin (GGN) is a testicular germ cell-specific gene expressed in adult testes. As a potential GGN1-interacting protein, the role of GGNBP2 in spermatogenesis has not yet been clarified. We generated heterozygous GGNBP2 knockout mice and bred them by intercrossing. We found that among the offspring, homozygous GGNBP2 knockout (KO) mice were present in severely reduced numbers...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578177/the-impact-of-uterine-immaturity-on-obstetrical-syndromes-during%C3%A2-adolescence
#11
Ivo Brosens, Joanne Muter, Caroline E Gargett, Patrick Puttemans, Giuseppe Benagiano, Jan J Brosens
Pregnant nulliparous adolescents are at increased risk, inversely proportional to their age, of major obstetric syndromes, including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. Emerging evidence indicates that biological immaturity of the uterus accounts for the increased incidence of obstetrical disorders in very young mothers, possibly compounded by sociodemographic factors associated with teenage pregnancy. The endometrium in most newborns is intrinsically resistant to progesterone signaling, and the rate of transition to a fully responsive tissue likely determines pregnancy outcome during adolescence...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542501/a-rho-associated-coiled-coil-containing-kinases-rock-inhibitor-y-27632-enhances-adhesion-viability-and-differentiation-of-human-term-placenta-derived-trophoblasts-in-vitro
#12
Kenichiro Motomura, Naoko Okada, Hideaki Morita, Mariko Hara, Masato Tamari, Keisuke Orimo, Go Matsuda, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Akio Matsuda, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Mikiya Fujieda, Haruhiko Sago, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto
Although human term placenta-derived primary cytotrophoblasts (pCTBs) represent a good human syncytiotrophoblast (STB) model, in vitro culture of pCTBs is not always easily accomplished. Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), reportedly prevented apoptosis and improved cell-to-substrate adhesion and culture stability of dissociated cultured human embryonic stem cells and human corneal endothelial cells. The Rho kinase pathway regulates various kinds of cell behavior, some of which are involved in pCTB adhesion and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#13
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524367/transplantation-of-human-villous-trophoblasts-preserves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#14
Zegen Wang, Ningzheng Dong, Yayan Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, Ce Zhang, Meng Liu, Tiantian Zhou, Qingyu Wu, Ke Cheng
Over the past decade, cell therapies have provided promising strategies for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Particularly, the beneficial effects of stem cells, including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been demonstrated by substantial preclinical and clinical studies. Nevertheless stem cell therapy is not always safe and effective. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of cells to promote cardiac regeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#15
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515049/a-generalized-linear-model-for-decomposing-cis-regulatory-parent-of-origin-and-maternal-effects-on-allele-specific-gene-expression
#16
Yasuaki Takada, Ryutaro Miyagi, Aya Takahashi, Toshinori Endo, Naoki Osada
Joint quantification of genetic and epigenetic effects on gene expression is important for understanding the establishment of complex gene regulation systems in living organisms. In particular, genomic imprinting and maternal effects play important roles in the developmental process of mammals and flowering plants. However, the influence of these effects on gene expression are difficult to quantify because they act simultaneously with cis-regulatory mutations. Here we propose a simple method to decompose cis-regulatory (i...
July 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494860/overexpression-of-trophoblast-stem-cell-enriched-micrornas-promotes-trophoblast-fate-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Ursula Nosi, Fredrik Lanner, Tsu Huang, Brian Cox
The first cell fate choice of the preimplantation embryo generates the extraembryonic trophoblast and embryonic epiblast lineages. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can be utilized to investigate molecular mechanisms of this first cell fate decision. It has been established that ESCs can be induced to acquire trophoblast lineage characteristics upon manipulation of lineage-determining transcription factors. Here, we have interrogated the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) to drive trans-differentiation of ESCs into the trophoblast lineage...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487025/mouse-prolyl-oligopeptidase-plays-a-role-in-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation-into-trophoblast-giant-cell-and-spongiotrophoblast
#18
Yuki Maruyama, Shin Matsubara, Atsushi P Kimura
INTRODUCTION: Prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl endopeptidase, Prep), a multifunctional protease hydrolyzing -Pro-X- peptide bonds, is highly expressed in the mouse placenta, but the function during development is not known. We explored the possibility of Prep's involvement in placental differentiation. METHODS: We cultured trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) derived from the E6.5 mouse embryo and investigated the detailed expression pattern of Prep during their differentiation...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475880/synthetic-embryos-windows-into-mammalian-development
#19
Aryeh Warmflash
Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-organize in vitro, but whether they can recreate early embryonic morphogenesis is unclear. Harrison et al. recently demonstrate in Science that 3D co-cultures of mouse ESCs and trophoblast stem cells self-organize into embryo-like structures that recreate many features of early mouse development.
May 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468635/prc2-represses-transcribed-genes-on-the-imprinted-inactive-x-chromosome-in-mice
#20
Emily Maclary, Michael Hinten, Clair Harris, Shriya Sethuraman, Srimonta Gayen, Sundeep Kalantry
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. RESULTS: Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation...
May 3, 2017: Genome Biology
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