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Embryonic stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689278/foxj1-regulates-spinal-cord-development-and-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-spinal-cord-stem-cell-potential
#1
Xiaofei Li, Elisa M Floriddia, Konstantinos Toskas, Chaima Chalfouh, Axel Honore, Anne Aumont, Nicolas Vallières, Steve Lacroix, Karl J L Fernandes, Nicolas Guérout, Fanie Barnabé-Heider
Development of the spinal cord requires dynamic and tightly controlled expression of numerous transcription factors. Forkhead Box protein J1 (FoxJ1) is a transcription factor involved in ciliogenesis and is specifically expressed in ependymal cells (ECs) in the adult central nervous system. However, using FoxJ1 fate-mapping mouse lines, we observed that FoxJ1 is also transiently expressed by the progenitors of other neural subtypes during development. Moreover, using a knock-in mouse line, we discovered that FoxJ1 is essential for embryonic progenitors to follow a normal developmental trajectory...
April 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689047/nanogp8-is-the-key-regulator-of-stemness-emt-wnt-pathway-chemoresistance-and-other-malignant-phenotypes-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#2
Xia Ma, Bei Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Yujiao Luo, Wufang Fan
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence demonstrated that NANOG1, the key transcription factor for embryonic stem cells, is associated with human cancers. NANOGP8, one of the pseudogenes in NANOG gene family, contains an intact open reading frame and also said to be expressed in cancer tissues. Therefore, a systematic study is greatly needed to address the following questions: among NANOG1 and NANOGP8, which gene is the main contributor for NANOG expression in cancer cells and which one is the key regulator responsible for stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, chemoresistance and other malignant phenotypes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688163/human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-hafscs-expressing-p21-and-cyclin-d1-genes-retain-excellent-viability-after-freezing-with-dimethyl-sulfoxide-dmso
#3
Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Zahra Fardyazar, Fatima Pashaei-Asl, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Khodadad Khodadadi, Maryam Pashaiasl
Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) have features intermediate between embryonic and adult SCs, can differentiate into lineages of all three germ layers, and do not develop into tumors in vivo. Moreover, hAFSCs can be easily obtained in routine procedures and there is no ethical or legal limitations regarding their use for clinical and experimental applications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of slow freezing/thawing and two different concentrations of DMSO (10% DMSO + 90% fetal bovine serum [FBS] and 5% DMSO + 95% FBS) on the survival of hAFSCs...
April 24, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687448/stem-cell-like-populations-and-immunoregulatory-molecules-in-periodontal-granulation-tissue
#4
D A Apatzidou, C Nile, A Bakopoulou, A Konstantinidis, D F Lappin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Determine the presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in healthy periodontal tissue and periodontal granulation tissue (GT) and explore associations between immuno-regulatory molecules and selected subgingival microorganisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, propagated and characterised by flow cytometry from a region of healthy gingival tissue and inflamed GT of 10 systemically healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686294/development-of-new-method-to-enrich-human-ipsc-derived-renal-progenitors-using-cell-surface-markers
#5
Azusa Hoshina, Tatsuya Kawamoto, Shin-Ichi Sueta, Shin-Ichi Mae, Toshikazu Araoka, Hiromi Tanaka, Yasunori Sato, Yukiko Yamagishi, Kenji Osafune
Cell therapy using renal progenitors differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has the potential to significantly reduce the number of patients receiving dialysis therapy. However, the differentiation cultures may contain undifferentiated or undesired cell types that cause unwanted side effects, such as neoplastic formation, when transplanted into a body. Moreover, the hESCs/iPSCs are often genetically modified in order to isolate the derived renal progenitors, hampering clinical applications...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686039/stem-cell-derived-culture-models-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#6
Viet Loan Dao Thi, Xianfang Wu, Charles M Rice
Similar to other hepatotropic viruses, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been notoriously difficult to propagate in cell culture, limiting studies to unravel its biology. Recently, major advances have been made by passaging primary HEV isolates and selecting variants that replicate efficiently in carcinoma cells. These adaptations, however, can alter HEV biology. We have explored human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell (hESC/iPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) as an alternative to conventional hepatoma and hepatocyte cell culture systems for HEV studies...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685144/emerging-roles-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hematological-malignancies
#7
REVIEW
San-Chi Chen, Tsai-Tsen Liao, Muh-Hwa Yang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important process in embryonic development, fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. During the progression of epithelial cancer, activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition is tightly associated with metastasis, stemness and drug resistance. However, the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-epithelial cancer is relatively unclear. MAIN BODY: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors are critical in both myeloid and lymphoid development...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684677/human-stem-cell-based-corneal-tissue-mimicking-structures-using-laser-assisted-3d-bioprinting-and-functional-bioinks
#8
Anni Sorkio, Lothar Koch, Laura Koivusalo, Andrea Deiwick, Susanna Miettinen, Boris Chichkov, Heli Skottman
There is a high demand for developing methods to produce more native-like 3D corneal structures. In the present study, we produced 3D cornea-mimicking tissues using human stem cells and laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP). Human embryonic stem cell derived limbal epithelial stem cells (hESC-LESC) were used as a cell source for printing epithelium-mimicking structures, whereas human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hASCs) were used for constructing layered stroma-mimicking structures. The development and optimization of functional bioinks was a crucial step towards successful bioprinting of 3D corneal structures...
April 16, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684345/transplantation-of-creg-modified-embryonic-stem-cells-improves-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#9
Jian Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tian, Chengfei Peng, Chenghui Yan, Yang Li, Mingyu Sun, Jian Kang, Erhe Gao, Yaling Han
Engraftment of embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for post-infarction cardiac dysfunction. However, only mild function improvement has been achieved due to low survival rate and paracrine dysfunction of transplanted stem cells. Cellular repressor of E1A stimulated genes (CREG) has been reported to be a secreted glycoprotein implicated in promoting survival and differentiation of many cell types. Therefore we hypothesized that transplantation of genetically modified ESC with CREG (CREG-ESC) can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction in mice...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681920/combination-of-heterologous-fibrin-sealant-and-bioengineered-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-improve-regeneration-following-autogenous-sciatic-nerve-grafting-repair
#10
Roghayeh Mozafari, Sergiy Kyrylenko, Mateus Vidigal Castro, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues Oliveira
Background: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem, and the preferred surgical method for treating it is the end-to-end neurorrhaphy. When it is not possible due to a large nerve gap, autologous nerve grafting is used. However, these surgical techniques result in nerve regeneration at highly variable degrees. It is thus very important to seek complementary techniques to improve motor and sensory recovery. One promising approach could be cell therapy. Transplantation therapy with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is appealing because these cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into specialized cell types and have self-renewal ability...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681769/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-induces-stem-cell-like-phenotype-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#11
Mamta Singla, Ajay Kumar, Amanjit Bal, Subhendu Sarkar, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
Background: Metastatic dissemination of solid tumors is often initiated by reactivation of an embryonic development program, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). EMT has been associated with acquiring invasiveness and resistance to conventional therapies. However, the precise role of EMT during renal cell carcinoma is still debatable and is under investigation. In this context, our study is designed to evaluate the role of cyclosporine (CsA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) administration in inducing EMT-like state in renal carcinoma cells...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681545/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-initiates-human-esc-derived-neural-progenitor-cell-differentiation-by-inducing-a-metabolic-maturation-program
#12
Lorna M FitzPatrick, Kate E Hawkins, Juliette M K M Delhove, Emilio Fernandez, Chiara Soldati, Louise F Bullen, Axel Nohturfft, Simon N Waddington, Diego L Medina, Juan P Bolaños, Tristan R McKay
Human neural development begins at embryonic day 19 and marks the beginning of organogenesis. Neural stem cells in the neural tube undergo profound functional, morphological, and metabolic changes during neural specification, coordinated by a combination of exogenous and endogenous cues. The temporal cell signaling activities that mediate this process, during development and in the postnatal brain, are incompletely understood. We have applied gene expression studies and transcription factor-activated reporter lentiviruses during in vitro neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681539/x-chromosome-dosage-influences-dna-methylation-dynamics-during-reprogramming-to-mouse-ipscs
#13
Vincent Pasque, Rahul Karnik, Constantinos Chronis, Paula Petrella, Justin Langerman, Giancarlo Bonora, Juan Song, Lotte Vanheer, Anupama Sadhu Dimashkie, Alexander Meissner, Kathrin Plath
A dramatic difference in global DNA methylation between male and female cells characterizes mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), unlike somatic cells. We analyzed DNA methylation changes during reprogramming of male and female somatic cells and in resulting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). At an intermediate reprogramming stage, somatic and pluripotency enhancers are targeted for partial methylation and demethylation. Demethylation within pluripotency enhancers often occurs at ESC binding sites of pluripotency transcription factors...
April 14, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681498/distinct-stimulatory-mechanisms-regulate-the-catalytic-activity-of-polycomb-repressive-complex-2
#14
Chul-Hwan Lee, Marlene Holder, Daniel Grau, Ricardo Saldaña-Meyer, Jia-Ray Yu, Rais Ahmad Ganai, Jenny Zhang, Miao Wang, Gary LeRoy, Marc-Werner Dobenecker, Danny Reinberg, Karim-Jean Armache
The maintenance of gene expression patterns during metazoan development is achieved, in part, by the actions of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). PRC2 catalyzes mono-, di-, and trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), with H3K27me2/3 being strongly associated with silenced genes. We demonstrate that EZH1 and EZH2, the two mutually exclusive catalytic subunits of PRC2, are differentially activated by various mechanisms. Whereas both PRC2-EZH1 and PRC2-EZH2 are able to catalyze mono- and dimethylation, only PRC2-EZH2 is strongly activated by allosteric modulators and specific chromatin substrates to catalyze trimethylation of H3K27 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679561/drosophila-nucleostemin-3-is-required-to-maintain-larval-neuroblast-proliferation
#15
Patrick W Johnson, Chris Q Doe, Sen-Lin Lai
Stem cells must maintain proliferation during tissue development, repair and homeostasis, yet avoid tumor formation. In Drosophila, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) maintain proliferation during embryonic and larval development and terminate cell cycle during metamorphosis. An important question for understanding how tissues are generated and maintained is: what regulates stem cell proliferation versus differentiation? We performed a genetic screen which identified nucleostemin 3 (ns3) as a gene required to maintain neuroblast proliferation...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679460/limbal-niche-cells-are-a-potent-resource-of-adult-mesenchymal-progenitors
#16
REVIEW
Ping Guo, Hong Sun, Yuan Zhang, Sean Tighe, Shuangling Chen, Chen-Wei Su, Yongsong Liu, Hongxia Zhao, Min Hu, Yingting Zhu
Limbal niche cells located in the limbal Palisades of Vogt are mesenchymal stem cells that reside next to limbal basal epithelial cells. Limbal niche cells are progenitors that express embryonic stem cell markers such as Nanog, Nestin, Oct4, Rex1, Sox2 and SSEA4, mesenchymal cell markers such as CD73, CD90 and CD105, and angiogenesis markers such as Flk-1, CD31, CD34, VWF, PDGFRβ and α-SMA, but negative for CD45. In addition, the stemness of limbal niche cells can be maintained during their cell culture in a three-dimension environment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678151/analysis-of-human-es-cell-differentiation-establishes-that-the-dominant-isoforms-of-the-lncrnas-rmst-and-firre-are-circular
#17
Osagie G Izuogu, Abd A Alhasan, Carla Mellough, Joseph Collin, Richard Gallon, Jonathon Hyslop, Francesco K Mastrorosa, Ingrid Ehrmann, Majlinda Lako, David J Elliott, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Michael S Jackson
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are predominantly derived from protein coding genes, and some can act as microRNA sponges or transcriptional regulators. Changes in circRNA levels have been identified during human development which may be functionally important, but lineage-specific analyses are currently lacking. To address this, we performed RNAseq analysis of human embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated for 90 days towards 3D laminated retina. RESULTS: A transcriptome-wide increase in circRNA expression, size, and exon count was observed, with circRNA levels reaching a plateau by day 45...
April 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677519/suspended-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-maintain-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-down-regulating-the-expression-of-vinculin
#18
Guoxin Jing, Zhaojie Wang, Xizhen Zhuang, Xiaolie He, Huijun Wu, Qingxiu Wang, Liming Cheng, Zhongmin Liu, Shilong Wang, Rongrong Zhu
Graphene oxide (GO), with good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, is widely explored as a carrier for various factors in the field of stem cell differentiation. However, its function of sustaining the stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and the underlying mechanisms of this process remains undiscovered. Herein, we explored the biofunction of GO on mESCs and revealed the involved signaling pathways and key gene. The alkaline phosphatase activity detection, pluripotency genes quantification and the teratomas formation in vivo confirmed that GO nanosheets could sustain the self-renewal ability of mESCs instead of influencing its pluripotency...
April 11, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676825/histone-chaperones-play-crucial-roles-in-maintenance-of-stem-cell-niche-during-plant-root-development
#19
Jing Ma, Yuhao Liu, Wangbin Zhou, Yan Zhu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Stem cells in both plant and animal kingdoms reside in a specialized cellular context called stem-cell niche (SCN). SCN integrity is crucial for organism development. Here we show that the H3/H4 histone chaperone CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 (CAF-1) and the H2A/H2B histone chaperone NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1/2 (NRP1/2) play synergistic roles in Arabidopsis root SCN maintenance. Compared to either the m56-1 double mutant deprived of NRP1 and NRP2 or the fas2-4 mutant deprived of CAF-1, the combined m56-1fas2-4 triple mutant displayed a much more severe short-root phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676562/bacterial-cellulose-promotes-long-term-stemness-of-mesc
#20
Tina Tronser, Anna Laromaine, Anna Roig, Pavel A Levkin
Stem cells possess unique properties, such as the ability to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into an organism's various cell types. These make them highly valuable in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their properties are precisely regulated in vivo through complex mechanisms that include multiple cues arising from the cell interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix, neighboring cells, and soluble factors. Although many research efforts have focused on developing systems and materials that mimic this complex microenvironment, the controlled regulation of differentiation and maintenance of stemness in vitro remains elusive...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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