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Embryonic stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222853/stemazole-promotes-survival-and-preserves-stemness-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Ying Sun, Xiaoyan Zhang, Huajun Li, Shasha Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yinan Liu, Mei Han, Jinhua Wen
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are extremely delicate, and survive poorly under suboptimal culture conditions, severely restricting long-term studies and practical applications. Thus, a protective agent that promotes stem cell survival is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of stemazole in single-cell and starved hESC cultures. Colony formation was quantified by alkaline phosphatase and immunofluorescence staining, while apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222789/growth-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Micaela Pannella, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà, Mercedes Fernández
In this chapter we illustrate protocols to investigate growth and neurotrophic factors in human and rodent (rat and mouse)-derived embryonic stem cells. The conventional two-dimensional cell monolayer system to grow embryonic stem cells is presented, focusing on the coating strategies also using extracellular matrix components. Then, different approaches for three-dimensional stem cell culture are presented, using hydrogels and scaffolds. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, immunoenzymatic ELISA assay, and multiparametric assays to quantify growth and neurotrophic factor production are presented...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222642/pituitary-adenomas-stem-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-what-s-new
#3
REVIEW
M Caffarini, M Orciani, L Trementino, R Di Primio, G Arnaldi
PURPOSE: To clarify the existence of pituitary stem cells (SCs) both in the embryonic and the postnatal gland and the role for SCs in pituitary adenomas. METHODS: This work, which does not address the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas, reviews the latest research findings and discoveries on SCs in pituitary and cancer SCs (CSCs) in pituitary adenomas and discusses the involvement of the EMT. RESULTS: Several groups using different approaches and techniques have demonstrated the existence of SCs and CSCs and as they are major players in pituitary adenoma onset...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222466/deciphering-transcriptional-regulation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-specified-towards-a-trophoblast-fate
#4
Ashish Jain, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Geetu Tuteja
Differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) continue to provide a model for studying early trophoblast cells (TB), but many questions have been raised regarding their true identity. Therefore, we carried out a global and unbiased analysis on previously published transcriptomic profiles for hESC differentiated to TB by means of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and inhibitors of activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling (BAP treatment). Our results confirm that BAP treated hESC (ESCd) lack a mesoderm signature and are a subtype of placental cells unlike those present at term...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#5
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222327/mitochondrially-produced-atp-affects-stem-cell-pluripotency-via-actl6a-mediated-histone-acetylation
#6
Ying Zhang, Peng Cui, Yuhuan Li, Guihai Feng, Man Tong, Lu Guo, Tianda Li, Lei Liu, Wei Li, Qi Zhou
ATP is mainly generated by glycolysis in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and is consumed to maintain cell viability. Differences in mitochondrial activity among induced (i)PSCs with different degrees of pluripotency are poorly understood. In this study, by comparing gene expression and mitochondrial activity among iPSCs with different degrees of pluripotency, we found that mitochondrial complex I gene expression, complex I activity, and cellular ATP levels were much higher in fully pluripotent stem cell lines than in partially pluripotent stem cell lines...
December 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222117/pre-mrna-processing-includes-n6-methylation-of-adenosine-residues-that-are-retained-in-mrna-exons-and-the-fallacy-of-rna-epigenetics
#7
Robert B Darnell, Shengdong Ke, James E Darnell
By using a cell fraction technique that separates chromatin associated nascent RNA, newly completed nucleoplasmic mRNA and cytoplasmic mRNA, we have shown that residues in exons are methylated (m6A) in nascent pre-mRNA and remain methylated in the same exonic residues in nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic mRNA. Thus, there is no evidence of a substantial degree of demethylation in mRNA exons that would correspond to so-called "epigenetic" demethylation. The turnover rate of mRNA molecules is faster depending on m6A content in HeLa cell mRNA suggesting specification of mRNA stability may be the major role of m6A exon modification...
December 8, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220667/transient-and-permanent-reconfiguration-of-chromatin-and-transcription-factor-occupancy-drive-reprogramming
#8
Anja S Knaupp, Sam Buckberry, Jahnvi Pflueger, Sue Mei Lim, Ethan Ford, Michael R Larcombe, Fernando J Rossello, Alex de Mendoza, Sara Alaei, Jaber Firas, Melissa L Holmes, Shalima S Nair, Susan J Clark, Christian M Nefzger, Ryan Lister, Jose M Polo
Somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induces changes in genome architecture reflective of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) state. However, only a small minority of cells typically transition to pluripotency, which has limited our understanding of the process. Here, we characterize the DNA regulatory landscape during reprogramming by time-course profiling of isolated sub-populations of intermediates poised to become iPSCs. Widespread reconfiguration of chromatin states and transcription factor (TF) occupancy occurs early during reprogramming, and cells that fail to reprogram partially retain their original chromatin states...
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220662/ipsc-reprogramming-is-not-just-an-open-and-shut-case
#9
Peter C Scacheri, Paul J Tesar
What exactly happens to chromatin as cells undergo an identity change? In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Li et al. (2017) and Knaupp et al. (2017) offer new insights by mapping in exquisite detail chromatin accessibility dynamics as mouse embryonic fibroblasts are reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells.
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220659/organizing-organoids-stem-cells-branch-out
#10
Jamie A Davies
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Taguchi and Nishinakamura (2017) describe a carefully optimized method for making a branch-competent ureteric bud, a tissue fundamental to kidney development, from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells. The work illuminates embryology and has important implications for making more realistic kidney organoids.
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218706/genome-wide-rna-seq-identifies-fas-fasl-mediated-tumoricidal-activity-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Yatong Li, Yongna Fan, Jing Xu, Peng Zhang, Taijiao Jiang, Menghua Dai, Limin Li
The discovery of tumor tropism of stem cells revealed the intimate relationship between stem cells and tumor cells, but the functional role of stem cells in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. To investigate embryonic stem cell (ESC) and tumor cell interactions, we co-cultured mouse ESCs with mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells or mouse pancreatic tumor Pan02 cells, and found that ESCs significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Coculture of ESCs and tumor cells resulted in significant inhibition of tumorigenesis in vivo...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218434/inhibition-of-gsk-3beta-signaling-pathway-rescues-ketamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#12
Jingjing Zhang, Changlei Cui, Yanhui Li, Haiyang Xu
Clinical application of anesthetic reagent, ketamine (Keta), may induce irreversible neurotoxicity in central nervous system. In this work, we utilized an in vitro model of neural stem cells-derived neurons (nSCNs) to evaluate the role of GSK-3 signaling pathway in Keta-induced neurotoxicity. Embryonic mouse-brain neural stem cells were differentiated into neurons in vitro. Keta (50 μM)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured nSCNs was monitored by apoptosis, immunohistochemical and western blot assays, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218329/high-mobility-group-protein-2-regulated-by-microrna-127-and-small-heterodimer-partner-modulates-pluripotency-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-liver-tumor-initiating-cells
#13
Yulan Zhao, Zhihong Yang, Jianguo Wu, Raymond Wu, Santosh K Keshipeddy, Dennis Wright, Li Wang
High-mobility-group protein 2 (HMGB2) expression is upregulated in human liver cancer. However, little is known about its regulatory function. Here we establish HMGB2 as a new modulator of the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Similar to OCT4 and SOX2, HMGB2 protein is highly expressed in undifferentiated CGR8 cells, whereas it undergoes rapid decline during embryonic body (EB) formation. HMGB2 interacts with OCT4, increases protein expression of OCT4 and SOX2, and enhances their transcriptional activities...
October 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217753/wnt-inhibition-promotes-vascular-specification-of-embryonic-cardiac-progenitors
#14
David Reichman, Laura Park, Limor Man, David Redmond, Kenny Chao, Richard P Harvey, Makoto M Taketo, Zev Rosenwaks, Daylon James
Several studies have demonstrated a multiphasic role for Wnt signaling during embryonic cardiogenesis (Naito et al., 2006; Qyang et al., 2007) and developed protocols that enrich for cardiac derivatives during in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) (Elliott et al., 2011; Iyer et al., 2016; Lian et al., 2012; Paige et al., 2010; Willems et al., 2011; Witty et al., 2014), however, few studies have investigated the role of Wnt signaling in specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) toward downstream fates...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217535/in-vivo-single-cell-analysis-reveals-gata2-dynamics-in-cells-transitioning-to-hematopoietic-fate
#15
Christina Eich, Jochen Arlt, Chris S Vink, Parham Solaimani Kartalaei, Polynikis Kaimakis, Samanta A Mariani, Reinier van der Linden, Wiggert A van Cappellen, Elaine Dzierzak
Cell fate is established through coordinated gene expression programs in individual cells. Regulatory networks that include the Gata2 transcription factor play central roles in hematopoietic fate establishment. Although Gata2 is essential to the embryonic development and function of hematopoietic stem cells that form the adult hierarchy, little is known about the in vivo expression dynamics of Gata2 in single cells. Here, we examine Gata2 expression in single aortic cells as they establish hematopoietic fate in Gata2Venus mouse embryos...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#16
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217199/efficient-generation-of-transgene-and-feeder-free-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-dental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-chemically-defined-differentiation-into-cardiomyocytes
#17
Xiaobing Tan, Qingli Dai, Tao Guo, Jingshu Xu, Qingyuan Dai
Advance in stem cell research resulted in several processes to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells. In our previous study, the reprogramming of iPSCs from human dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) including SCAP and DPSCs, has been reported. Herein, safe iPSCs were reprogrammed from SCAP and DPSCs using non-integrating RNA virus vector, which is an RNA virus carrying no risk of altering host genome. DPSCs- and SCAP-derived iPSCs exhibited the characteristics of the classical morphology with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without integration of foreign genes, indicating the potential of their clinical application...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216888/telomere-heterogeneity-linked-to-metabolism-and-pluripotency-state-revealed-by-simultaneous-analysis-of-telomere-length-and-rna-seq-in-the-same-human-embryonic-stem-cell
#18
Hua Wang, Kunshan Zhang, Yifei Liu, Yudong Fu, Shan Gao, Peng Gong, Haiying Wang, Zhongcheng Zhou, Ming Zeng, Zhenfeng Wu, Yu Sun, Tong Chen, Siguang Li, Lin Liu
BACKGROUND: Telomere length heterogeneity has been detected in various cell types, including stem cells and cancer cells. Cell heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), is of particular interest; however, the implication and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity remain to be understood. Single-cell analysis technology has recently been developed and effectively employed to investigate cell heterogeneity. Yet, methods that can simultaneously measure telomere length and analyze the global transcriptome in the same cell have not been available until now...
December 8, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216777/the-long-and-winding-road-stem-cells-for-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Massimo Conese, Elisa Beccia, Stefano Castellani, Sante Di Gioia, Carla Colombo, Antonella Angiolillo, Annalucia Carbone
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic syndrome with a high mortality rate due to severe lung disease. Despite having several drugs targeting specific mutated CFTR proteins already in clinical trials, new therapies, based on stem cells, are also emerging to treat those patients. Areas covered: The authors review the main sources of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), gestational stem cells, and adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the context of CF...
December 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216542/loss-of-heme-oxygenase-1-accelerates-mesodermal-gene-expressions-during-embryoid-body-development-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Yan-Liang Lai, Chen-Yu Lin, Wei-Cheng Jiang, Yen-Chun Ho, Chung-Huang Chen, Shaw-Fang Yet
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an inducible stress response protein and well known to protect cells and tissues against injury. Despite its important function in cytoprotection against physiological stress, the role of HO-1 in embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation remains largely unknown. We showed previously that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that lack HO-1 are more sensitive to oxidant stress-induced cell death and more prone to lose pluripotent markers upon LIF withdrawal. To elucidate the role of HO-1 in ESC differentiation and to rule out the controversy of potential gene flaws in iPS cells, we derived and established mouse HO-1 knockout ESC lines from HO-1 knockout blastocysts...
November 22, 2017: Redox Biology
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