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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045725/stemmapper-a-curated-gene-expression-database-for-stem-cell-lineage-analysis
#1
José P Pinto, Rui S R Machado, Ramiro Magno, Daniel V Oliveira, Susana Machado, Raquel P Andrade, José Bragança, Isabel Duarte, Matthias E Futschik
Transcriptomic data have become a fundamental resource for stem cell (SC) biologists as well as for a wider research audience studying SC-related processes such as aging, embryonic development and prevalent diseases including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Access and analysis of the growing amount of freely available transcriptomics datasets for SCs, however, are not trivial tasks. Here, we present StemMapper, a manually curated gene expression database and comprehensive resource for SC research, built on integrated data for different lineages of human and mouse SCs...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045536/the-warburg-effect-persistence-of-stem-cell-metabolism-in-cancers-as-a-failure-of-differentiation
#2
M Riester, Q Xu, A Moreira, J Zheng, F Michor, R J Downey
BACKGROUND: Two recent observations regarding the Warburg effect are that (i) the metabolism of stem cells is constitutive ('aerobic') glycolysis while normal cellular differentiation involves a transition to oxidative phosphorylation and (ii) the degree of glucose uptake of a malignancy as imaged by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is associated with histologic measures of tumor differentiation. Combining these observations, we hypothesized that the high levels of glucose uptake observed in poorly differentiated cancers may reflect persistence of the glycolytic metabolism of stem cells in malignant cells that fail to fully differentiate...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044892/mouse-parthenogenetic-embryonic-stem-cells-with-biparental-like-expression-of-imprinted-genes-generate-cortical-like-neurons-that-integrate-into-the-injured-adult-cerebral-cortex
#3
Annie Varrault, Sigrid Eckardt, Benoît Girard, Anne Le Digarcher, Isabelle Sassetti, Céline Meusnier, Chantal Ripoll, Armen Badalyan, Federica Bertaso, K John McLaughlin, Laurent Journot, Tristan Bouschet
One strategy for stem cell-based therapy of the cerebral cortex involves the generation and transplantation of functional, histocompatible cortical-like neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Diploid parthenogenetic Pg-ESCs have recently emerged as a promising source of histocompatible ESC derivatives for organ regeneration but their utility for cerebral cortex therapy is unknown. A major concern with Pg-ESCs is genomic imprinting. In contrast with biparental Bp-ESCs derived from fertilized oocytes, Pg-ESCs harbor two maternal genomes but no sperm-derived genome...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044527/effect-of-the-combined-use-of-enamel-matrix-derivative-and-atelocollagen-sponge-scaffold-on-osteoblastic-differentiation-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-vitro
#4
Y Hisanaga, E Suzuki, H Aoki, M Sato, A Saito, A Saito, T Azuma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a candidate cell source in periodontal regenerative therapy. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been shown to regenerate periodontal tissues, and atelocollagen sponge (ACS) is considered a suitable scaffold or carrier for growth factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combined use of EMD and an ACS scaffold on cell behaviors and differentiation of mouse iPSCs (miPSCs) in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following embryonic body formation from miPSCs, dissociated cells (miPS-EB-derived cells) were seeded onto ACS with or without EMD, and cultured in osteoblast differentiation medium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044512/differences-in-definitive-endoderm-induction-approaches-using-growth-factors-and-small-molecules
#5
Mariia S Bogacheva, Sofia Khan, Liisa K Kanninen, Marjo Yliperttula, Alan W Leung, Yan-Ru Lou
Definitive endoderm (DE) is the first stage of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells. Developing human liver cell models for pharmaceutical applications is highly demanding. Due to the vast number of existing protocols to generate DE cells from hPSCs, we aimed to compare the specificity and efficiency of selected published differentiation conditions. We differentiated two hPSC lines (induced PSC and embryonic stem cell) to DE cells on Matrigel matrix using growth factors (Activin A and Wnt-3a) and small molecules (sodium butyrate and IDE 1) in different combinations...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044103/oct4-impedes-cell-fate-redirection-by-the-melanocyte-lineage-master-regulator-mitf-in-mouse-escs
#6
Danna Sheinboim, Itay Maza, Iris Dror, Shivang Parikh, Vladislav Krupalnik, Rachel E Bell, Asaf Zviran, Yusuke Suita, Ofir Hakim, Yael Mandel-Gutfreund, Mehdi Khaled, Jacob H Hanna, Carmit Levy
Ectopic expression of lineage master regulators induces transdifferentiation. Whether cell fate transitions can be induced during various developmental stages has not been systemically examined. Here we discover that amongst different developmental stages, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are resistant to cell fate conversion induced by the melanocyte lineage master regulator MITF. By generating a transgenic system we exhibit that in mESCs, the pluripotency master regulator Oct4, counteracts pro-differentiation induced by Mitf by physical interference with MITF transcriptional activity...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043768/infection-of-ipsc-lines-with-miscarriage-associated-coxsackievirus-and-measles-virus-and-teratogenic-rubella-virus-as-a-model-for-viral-impairment-of-early-human-embryogenesis
#7
Denise Huebner, Kristin Jahn, Sandra Pinkert, Janik Böhnke, Matthias Jung, Henry Fechner, Dan Rujescu, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Claudia Claus
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines are a promising model for the early phase of human embryonic development. Here, their contribution to the still incompletely understood pathogenesis of congenital virus infections was evaluated. The infection of iPSC lines with miscarriage-associated coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and measles virus (MV) was compared to the efficient teratogen rubella virus (RV). While CVB3 and MV were found to be cytopathogenic on iPSC lines, RV replicated without impairment of iPSC colony morphology and integrity...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041955/pluripotent-nontumorigenic-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-cells-muse-cells-a-seven-year-retrospective
#8
REVIEW
Samantha C Fisch, María L Gimeno, Julia D Phan, Ariel A Simerman, Daniel A Dumesic, Marcelo J Perone, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Multilineage differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, discovered in the spring of 2010 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, were quickly recognized by scientists as a possible source of pluripotent cells naturally present within mesenchymal tissues. Muse cells normally exist in a quiescent state, singularly activated by severe cellular stress in vitro and in vivo. Muse cells have the capacity for self-renewal while maintaining pluripotent cell characteristics indicated by the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers...
October 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040764/rif1-promotes-a-repressive-chromatin-state-to-safeguard-against-endogenous-retrovirus-activation
#9
Pishun Li, Li Wang, Brian D Bennett, Jiajia Wang, Jialun Li, Yufeng Qin, Motoki Takaku, Paul A Wade, Jiemin Wong, Guang Hu
Transposable elements, including endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), constitute a large fraction of the mammalian genome. They are transcriptionally silenced during early development to protect genome integrity and aberrant transcription. However, the mechanisms that control their repression are not fully understood. To systematically study ERV repression, we carried out an RNAi screen in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and identified a list of novel regulators. Among them, Rif1 displays the strongest effect...
October 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040668/aurora-kinase-b-a-novel-regulator-of-terf1-binding-and-telomeric-integrity
#10
Foong Lyn Chan, Benjamin Vinod, Karel Novy, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Cheng Huang, Maheshi Udugama, Juan Nunez-Iglesias, Jane I Lin, Linda Hii, Julie Chan, Hilda A Pickett, Roger J Daly, Lee H Wong
AURKB (Aurora Kinase B) is a serine/threonine kinase better known for its role at the mitotic kinetochore during chromosome segregation. Here, we demonstrate that AURKB localizes to the telomeres in mouse embryonic stem cells, where it interacts with the essential telomere protein TERF1. Loss of AURKB function affects TERF1 telomere binding and results in aberrant telomere structure. In vitro kinase experiments successfully identified Serine 404 on TERF1 as a putative AURKB target site. Importantly, in vivo overexpression of S404-TERF1 mutants results in fragile telomere formation...
October 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040564/n-cadherin-identifies-human-endometrial-epithelial-progenitor-cells-by-in-vitro-stem-cell-assays
#11
Hong P T Nguyen, L Xiao, James A Deane, Ker-Sin Tan, Fiona L Cousins, Hirotaka Masuda, Carl N Sprung, Anna Rosamilia, Caroline E Gargett
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific surface marker that identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with adult stem cell activity using in vitro assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: N-cadherin isolates clonogenic, self-renewing human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with high proliferative potential that differentiate into cytokeratin+ gland-like structures in vitro and identifies their location in some cells of gland profiles predominantly in basalis endometrium adjacent to the myometrium...
September 27, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039584/baf53a-is-a-potential-prognostic-biomarker-and-promotes-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-glioma-cells
#12
Li Meng, Xiaoyi Wang, Weihua Liao, Jianling Liu, Yiwei Liao, Qiongqiong He
Increasing evidence indicates that BAF53a is crucial for embryonic development and maintenance of stemness, and may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which suggests its involvement in cancer progression. However, the role of BAF53a in glioma remains unknown. In the present study, BAF53a was found to be highly expressed in glioma tissues and was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in glioma patients. A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that BAF53a might be an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS in glioma patients...
October 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039576/effects-of-ginsenoside%C3%A2-rg1-on-the-proliferation-and-glial%C3%A2-like-directed-differentiation-of-embryonic-rat-cortical-neural-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Jian Gao, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yuxuan Li, Qiang Li, Jianping Zhang, Yongxue Wang, Xiang Huang, Lijuan Zhang, Yinchu Si
Ginsenoside‑Rg1, the main active component of Panax notoginseng, exhibits a number of pharmacological functions, including promoting protein synthesis in the brain, increasing the number of synapses, improving memory and promoting recovery of brain function following injury. The effect of ginsenoside‑Rg1 on proliferation and glial‑like‑directed differentiation in the cortical neural stem cells (NSCs) of embryonic rat brain was investigated. The present study used MTS assays to identify the optimum dose and window time of ginsenoside‑Rg1 administration to stimulate the proliferation of cortical NSCs in the rat embryonic tissue...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039415/crispr-umi-single-cell-lineage-tracing-of-pooled-crispr-cas9-screens
#14
Georg Michlits, Maria Hubmann, Szu-Hsien Wu, Gintautas Vainorius, Elena Budusan, Sergei Zhuk, Thomas R Burkard, Maria Novatchkova, Martin Aichinger, Yiqing Lu, John Reece-Hoyes, Roberto Nitsch, Daniel Schramek, Dominic Hoepfner, Ulrich Elling
Pooled CRISPR screens are a powerful tool for assessments of gene function. However, conventional analysis is based exclusively on the relative abundance of integrated single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) between populations, which does not discern distinct phenotypes and editing outcomes generated by identical sgRNAs. Here we present CRISPR-UMI, a single-cell lineage-tracing methodology for pooled screening to account for cell heterogeneity. We generated complex sgRNA libraries with unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) that allowed for screening of clonally expanded, individually tagged cells...
October 16, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038942/fitting-structure-to-function-in-gene-regulatory-networks
#15
Ellen V Rothenberg
Cascades of transcriptional regulation are the common source of the forward drive in all developmental systems. Increases in complexity and specificity of gene expression at successive stages are based on the collaboration of varied combinations of transcription factors already expressed in the cells to turn on new genes, and the logical relationships between the transcription factors acting and becoming newly expressed from stage to stage are best visualized as gene regulatory networks. However, gene regulatory networks used in different developmental contexts underlie processes that actually operate through different sets of rules, which affect the kinetics, synchronicity, and logical properties of individual network nodes...
October 16, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038567/stabilization-of-mouse-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells-with-combined-kinase-and-signal-modulation
#16
Haisen Li, Ao Guo, Zhenfei Xie, Wanzhi Tu, Jiali Yu, Huihan Wang, Jian Zhao, Cuiqing Zhong, Jiuhong Kang, Jinsong Li, Shichao Huang, Li Shen
Mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) provide new possibilities for large-scale genetic screens because they bear only one copy of each chromosome. However, haESCs are prone to spontaneous diploidization through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report that a small molecule combination could restrain mouse haESCs from diploidization by impeding exit from naïve pluripotency and by shortening the S-G2/M phases. Combined with 2i and PD166285, our chemical cocktail could maintain haESCs in the haploid state for at least five weeks without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038337/rna-polymerase-ii-primes-polycomb-repressed-developmental-genes-throughout-terminal-neuronal-differentiation
#17
Carmelo Ferrai, Elena Torlai Triglia, Jessica R Risner-Janiczek, Tiago Rito, Owen Jl Rackham, Inês de Santiago, Alexander Kukalev, Mario Nicodemi, Altuna Akalin, Meng Li, Mark A Ungless, Ana Pombo
Polycomb repression in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is tightly associated with promoter co-occupancy of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) which is thought to prime genes for activation during early development. However, it is unknown whether RNAPII poising is a general feature of Polycomb repression, or is lost during differentiation. Here, we map the genome-wide occupancy of RNAPII and Polycomb from pluripotent ESCs to non-dividing functional dopaminergic neurons. We find that poised RNAPII complexes are ubiquitously present at Polycomb-repressed genes at all stages of neuronal differentiation...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037931/distinct-populations-of-embryonic-epithelial-progenitors-generate-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#18
Margarita M Dzama, Lira Nigmatullina, Sergi Sayols, Nastasja Kreim, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are transcriptionally heterogeneous. As the mechanisms governing their developmental specification are still poorly understood, whether this heterogeneity reflects an early determination of distinct cellular sub-types with potentially distinct physiological functions remains an open question. We investigate the cellular heterogeneity within the mouse embryonic midgut epithelium at the molecular and functional levels. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that multiple early embryonic epithelial progenitors give rise to Lgr5(+) ISCs...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#19
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037258/transplantation-of-isl1-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-small-intestinal-submucosa-improves-infarcted-heart-function
#20
Lingjun Wang, Elizabeth M Meier, Shuo Tian, Ienglam Lei, Liu Liu, Shaoxiang Xian, Mai T Lam, Zhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Application of cardiac stem cells combined with biomaterial scaffold is a promising therapeutic strategy for heart repair after myocardial infarction. However, the optimal cell types and biomaterials remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we seeded Isl1(+) embryonic cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) into decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) to assess the therapeutic potential of Isl1(+) CPCs and the biocompatibility of SIS-ECM with these cells...
October 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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