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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214876/the-snail-family-in-normal-and-malignant-haematopoiesis
#1
Catherine L Carmichael, Jody J Haigh
Snail family proteins are key inducers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process required for normal embryonic development. They have also been strongly implicated in regulating the EMT-like processes required for tumour cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Whether these proteins also contribute to normal blood cell development, however, remains to be clearly defined. Increasing evidence supports a role for the Snail family in regulating cell survival, migration, and differentiation within the haematopoietic system, as well as potentially an oncogenic role in the malignant transformation of haematopoietic stem cells...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214829/ephb4-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#2
Tingting Liu, Xianwei Zeng, Fangling Sun, Hongli Hou, Yunqian Guan, Deyu Guo, Houxi Ai, Wen Wang, Guojun Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs). This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vitro. METHODS: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214512/dynamics-and-context-dependent-roles-of-dna-methylation
#3
REVIEW
Christina Ambrosi, Massimiliano Manzo, Tuncay Baubec
DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks. It is involved in transcriptional gene silencing, it plays important roles during mammalian development and its perturbation is often associated with human diseases. In mammalian genomes, DNA methylation is a prevalent modification that decorates the majority of cytosines. It is found at the promoters and enhancers of inactive genes, at repetitive elements and within transcribed gene bodies. Its presence at promoters is dynamically linked to gene activity, suggesting that it could directly influence gene expression patterns and cellular identity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213969/highly-efficient-neural-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adherent-and-animal-free-conditions
#4
Dunja Lukovic, Andrea Diez Lloret, Petra Stojkovic, Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez, Maria Amparo Perez Arago, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, José López-Barneo, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Jelena Kostic, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Miodrag Stojkovic, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Slaven Erceg
Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212749/comparative-analysis-of-single-cell-rna-sequencing-methods
#5
Christoph Ziegenhain, Beate Vieth, Swati Parekh, Björn Reinius, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Martha Smets, Heinrich Leonhardt, Holger Heyn, Ines Hellmann, Wolfgang Enard
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers new possibilities to address biological and medical questions. However, systematic comparisons of the performance of diverse scRNA-seq protocols are lacking. We generated data from 583 mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate six prominent scRNA-seq methods: CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, Smart-seq, and Smart-seq2. While Smart-seq2 detected the most genes per cell and across cells, CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, and SCRB-seq quantified mRNA levels with less amplification noise due to the use of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs)...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212747/catalytic-independent-functions-of-parp-1-determine-sox2-pioneer-activity-at-intractable-genomic-loci
#6
Ziying Liu, W Lee Kraus
Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) function as genomic first responders, binding to inaccessible regions of chromatin to promote enhancer formation. The mechanism by which pioneer TFs gain access to chromatin remains an important unanswered question. Here we show that PARP-1, a nucleosome-binding protein, cooperates with intrinsic properties of the pioneer TF Sox2 to facilitate its binding to intractable genomic loci in embryonic stem cells. These actions of PARP-1 occur independently of its poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferase activity...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212658/c-met-expression-and-activity-in-urogenital-cancers-novel-aspects-of-signal-transduction-and-medical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Ralf Hass, Susanne Jennek, Yuanyuan Yang, Karlheinz Friedrich
C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy...
February 17, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212427/rbm46-regulates-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-by-targeting-%C3%AE-catenin-mrna-for-degradation
#8
Lei Zhai, Chenchen Wang, Yuanfan Chen, Shixin Zhou, Lingsong Li
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells and have the capability for differentiation into any of the three embryonic germ layers. The Wnt/β-Catenin pathway has been shown to play an essential role in ESC differentiation regulation. Activation of β-Catenin by post-translational modification has been extensively studied. However, mechanism(s) of post-transcriptional regulation of β-Catenin are not well defined. In this study, we report an RNA recognition motif-containing protein (RNA binding motif protein 46, RBM46) which regulates the degradation of β-Catenin mRNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212312/genome-wide-prediction-of-dna-methylation-using-dna-composition-and-sequence-complexity-in-human
#9
Chengchao Wu, Shixin Yao, Xinghao Li, Chujia Chen, Xuehai Hu
DNA methylation plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by repressing activity. Change of the DNA methylation level is an important factor affecting the expression of target genes and downstream phenotypes. Because current experimental technologies can only assay a small proportion of CpG sites in the human genome, it is urgent to develop reliable computational models for predicting genome-wide DNA methylation. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm that accurately extracted sequence complexity features (seven features) and developed a support-vector-machine-based prediction model with integration of the reported DNA composition features (trinucleotide frequency and GC content, 65 features) by utilizing the methylation profiles of embryonic stem cells in human...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208768/inhibition-of-protein-kinase-ck2-prevents-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-like-c3h-10t1-2-cells
#10
Lisa Schwind, Sarah Schetting, Mathias Montenarh
Protein kinase CK2 as a holoenzyme is composed of two catalytic α- or α'-subunits and two non-catalytic β-subunits. Knock-out experiments revealed that CK2α and CK2β are required for embryonic development. Little is known about the role of CK2 during differentiation of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which can be differentiated into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, MSCs and in particular C3H/10T1/2 cells are excellent tools to study a possible role of CK2 in adipogenesis. We found downregulation of the CK2 catalytic subunits as well as a decrease in CK2 kinase activity with progression of differentiation...
February 9, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208656/primetime-for-learning-genes
#11
REVIEW
Joyce Keifer
Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205646/connexin30-3-is-expressed-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-is-responsive-to-leukemia-inhibitory-factor
#12
Mikako Saito, Yuma Asai, Keiichi Imai, Shoya Hiratoko, Kento Tanaka
The expression of 19 connexin (Cx) isoforms was observed in the mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell line, EB3. Their expression patterns could be classified into either pluripotent state-specific, differentiating stage-specific, or non-specific Cxs. We focused on Cx30.3 as typical of the first category. Cx30.3 was pluripotent state-specific and upregulated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a specific cytokine that maintains the pluripotent state of ES cell, via a Jak signaling pathway. Cx30.3 protein was localized to both the cell membrane and cytosol...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205557/experimental-study-of-the-biological-properties-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-progenitor-cells
#13
Jingzhi Shao, Peng-Yi Zhou, Guang-Hua Peng
Retinal degenerative diseases are among the leading causes of blindness worldwide, and cell replacement is considered as a promising therapeutic. However, the resources of seed cells are scarce. To further explore this type of therapy, we adopted a culture system that could harvest a substantial quantity of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) within a relatively short period of time. Furthermore, we transplanted these RPCs into the subretinal spaces of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203701/integrative-analysis-identifies-co-dependent-gene-expression-regulation-of-brg1-and-chd7-at-distal-regulatory-sites-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Pengyi Yang, Andrew Oldfield, Taiyun Kim, Andrian Yang, Jean Yee Hwa Yang, Joshua W K Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203608/modeling-fragile-x-syndrome-in-neurogenesis-an-unexpected-phenotype-and-a-novel-tool-for-future-therapies
#15
Barbara Bardoni, Maria Capovilla, Enzo Lalli
FMRP is an RNA-binding protein involved in synaptic translation. Its absence causes a form of intellectual disability, the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Small neuroanatomical abnormalities, present both in human and mouse FMRP-deficient brains, suggest a subtle critical role of this protein in neurogenesis. Stable depletion of FMRP has been obtained in a mouse embryonic stem cell line Fmr1 (shFmr1 ES) that does not display morphological alterations, but an abnormal expression of a subset of genes mainly involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202491/organoid-technologies-meet-genome-engineering
#16
REVIEW
Jing Nie, Eri Hashino
Three-dimensional (3D) stem cell differentiation cultures recently emerged as a novel model system for investigating human embryonic development and disease progression in vitro, complementing existing animal and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models. Organoids, the 3D self-organizing structures derived from pluripotent or somatic stem cells, can recapitulate many aspects of structural organization and functionality of their in vivo organ counterparts, thus holding great promise for biomedical research and translational applications...
February 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202042/hoxc8-regulates-self-renewal-differentiation-and-transformation-of-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#17
Mansi Shah, Ryan Cardenas, Belinda Wang, Jenny Persson, Nigel P Mongan, Anna Grabowska, Cinzia Allegrucci
BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes are master regulators of cell fate during embryonic development and their expression is altered in cancer. By regulating the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, they maintain homeostasis of normal tissues. Here, we screened the expression of homeobox genes in mammary stem cells to establish their role in stem cells transformation in breast cancer. METHODS: Using a Homeobox Genes PCR array, we screened 83 homeobox genes in normal cancer breast stem/progenitor cells isolated by flow cytometry...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202025/mild-electrical-stimulation-with-heat-shock-guides-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-pdx1-expressing-cells-within-the-definitive-endoderm
#18
Tomoaki Koga, Nobuaki Shiraki, Shuichiro Yano, Mary Ann Suico, Saori Morino-Koga, Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shoen Kume, Hirofumi Kai
BACKGROUND: Because of the increasing number of diabetic patients, it is important to generate pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1)-expressing cells, which are capable of differentiating into pancreatic endocrine β cells. Mild electrical stimulation was reported to modulate the differentiation of ES cells into ectoderm-derived neuronal cells or mesoderm-derived cardiac cells. RESULTS: In this study, we report that mild electrical stimulation with heat shock (MET) potentiates the differentiation of ES cells into definitive endoderm-derived Pdx1-expressing cells...
February 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199941/effect-directed-analysis-reveals-inhibition-of-zebrafish-uptake-transporter-oatp1d1-by-caulerpenyne-a-major-secondary-metabolite-from-the-invasive-marine-alga-caulerpa-taxifolia
#19
P Marić, M Ahel, I Senta, S Terzić, I Mikac, A Žuljević, T Smital
Caulerpa taxifolia is a marine alga of tropical and subtropical distribution and a well-known invasive species in several temperate regions. Its invasiveness mainly stems from the production of secondary metabolites, some of which are toxic or repellent substances. In this study we investigated the possible inhibitory effects of C. taxifolia secondary metabolites on the activity of two zebrafish (Danio rerio) uptake transporters that transport organic anions (Oatp1d1) and cations (Oct1). Both transporters were transiently transfected and overexpressed in human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells...
February 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199886/construction-of-tissue-engineered-full-thickness-cornea-substitute-using-limbal-epithelial-cell-like-and-corneal-endothelial-cell-like-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Canwei Zhang, Liqun Du, Peng Sun, Lin Shen, Jing Zhu, Kunpeng Pang, Xinyi Wu
The aim of this study was to construct a full-thickness artificial cornea substitute in vitro by coculturing limbal epithelial cell-like (LEC-like) cells and corneal endothelial cell-like (CEC-like) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on APCM scaffold. A 400 μm thickness, 11 mm diameter APCM lamella containing Bowman's membrane was prepared as the scaffold using trephine and a special apparatus made by ourselves. LEC-like cells and CEC-like cells, derived from hESCs as our previously described, were cocultured on the scaffold using a special insert of 24-well plates that enabled seeding both sides of the scaffold...
February 6, 2017: Biomaterials
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