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Embryonic stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471503/the-role-of-the-reprogramming-method-and-pluripotency-state-in-gamete-differentiation-from-patient-specific-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
S Mishra, E Kacin, P Stamatiadis, S Franck, M Van der Jeught, H Mertes, G Pennings, P De Sutter, K Sermon, B Heindryckx, M Geens
The derivation of gametes from patient-specific pluripotent stem cells may provide new perspectives for genetic parenthood for patients currently facing sterility. We use current data to assess the gamete differentiation potential of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and to determine which reprogramming strategy holds the greatest promise for future clinical applications. First, we compare the two best established somatic cell reprogramming strategies: the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer followed by embryonic stem cell derivation (SCNT-ESC)...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467713/potential-of-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Hany E Marei, A Hasan, R Rizzi, A Althani, N Afifi, C Cenciarelli, Thomas Caceci, Ashfaq Shuaib
Ischemic stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide. The only FDA approved anti-thrombotic drug for acute ischemic stroke is the tissue plasminogen activator. Several studies have been devoted to assessing the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSCs), mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs as treatments for ischemic stroke. The results of these studies are intriguing but many of them have presented conflicting results...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467625/effect-of-vitamin-d-in-hn9-10e-embryonic-hippocampal-cells-and-in-hippocampus-from-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#3
Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela Codini, Maria E Laurenti, Ivana Ferri, Elisabetta Loreti, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Giovanna Traina, Carmela Conte, Francesco S Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Curcio, Elisabetta Albi
It has long been proven that neurogenesis continues in the adult brains of mammals in the dentatus gyrus of the hippocampus due to the presence of neural stem cells. Although a large number of studies have been carried out to highlight the localization of vitamin D receptor in hippocampus, the expression of vitamin D receptor in neurogenic dentatus gyrus of hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the molecular mechanisms triggered by vitamin D underlying the production of differentiated neurons from embryonic cells remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467462/hipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-from-patients-with-schizophrenia-induce-an-impaired-angiogenesis
#4
Bárbara S Casas, Gabriela Vitória, Marcelo N do Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro da Costa, Pablo Trindade, Renata Maciel, Nelson Navarrete, Stevens K Rehen, Verónica Palma
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by cerebral connectivity impairment and loss of gray matter. It was described in adult schizophrenia patients (SZP) that concentration of VEGFA, a master angiogenic factor, is decreased. Recent evidence suggests cerebral hypoperfusion related to a dysfunctional Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) in SZP. Since neurogenesis and blood-vessel formation occur in a coincident and coordinated fashion, a defect in neurovascular development could result in increased vascular permeability and, therefore, in poor functionality of the SZP's neurons...
February 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467410/analysis-of-cardiomyocyte-clonal-expansion-during-mouse-heart-development-and-injury
#5
Konstantina-Ioanna Sereti, Ngoc B Nguyen, Paniz Kamran, Peng Zhao, Sara Ranjbarvaziri, Shuin Park, Shan Sabri, James L Engel, Kevin Sung, Rajan P Kulkarni, Yichen Ding, Tzung K Hsiai, Kathrin Plath, Jason Ernst, Debashis Sahoo, Hanna K A Mikkola, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Reza Ardehali
The cellular mechanisms driving cardiac tissue formation remain poorly understood, largely due to the structural and functional complexity of the heart. It is unclear whether newly generated myocytes originate from cardiac stem/progenitor cells or from pre-existing cardiomyocytes that re-enter the cell cycle. Here, we identify the source of new cardiomyocytes during mouse development and after injury. Our findings suggest that cardiac progenitors maintain proliferative potential and are the main source of cardiomyocytes during development; however, the onset of αMHC expression leads to reduced cycling capacity...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466914/inducible-crispr-genome-editing-platform-in-naive-human-embryonic-stem-cells-reveals-jarid2-function-in-self-renewal
#6
Amy Ferreccio, Julie Mathieu, Damien Detraux, Somasundaram Logeshwaran, Christopher Cavanaugh, Bryce Sopher, Karin Fischer, Thomas Bello, Assis M Hussein, Shiri Levy, Savannah Cook, Sonia B Sidhu, Filippo Artoni, Nathan J Palpant, Hans Reinecke, Yuliang Wang, Patrick Paddison, Charles Murry, Suman Jayadev, Carol Ware, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
To easily edit the genome of naïve human embryonic stem cells (hESC), we introduced a dual cassette encoding an inducible Cas9 into the AAVS1 site of naïve hESC (iCas9). The iCas9 line retained karyotypic stability, expression of pluripotency markers, differentiation potential, and stability in 5iLA and EPS pluripotency conditions. The iCas9 line induced efficient homology-directed repair (HDR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) based mutations through CRISPR-Cas9 system. We utilized the iCas9 line to study the epigenetic regulator, PRC2 in early human pluripotency...
February 22, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465786/subpopulations-of-vomeronasal-sensory-neurons-with-coordinated-coexpression-of-type-2-vomeronasal-receptor-genes-are-differentially-dependent-on-vmn2r1
#7
Sachiko Akiyoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Zhaodai Bai, Peter Mombaerts
The mouse vomeronasal organ is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express chemosensory receptors of two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R, which encode G-protein coupled receptors. Phylogenetically four families of V2R genes can be discerned: A, B, C, and D. VSNs located in the basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium coordinately coexpress V2R genes from two families: approximately half of basal VSNs coexpress Vmn2r1 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A8-10, B, or D ("C1 type of V2Rs"), and the other half coexpress Vmn2r2 through Vmn2r7 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A1-6 ("C2 type V2Rs")...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464659/embryonic-stem-cells-in-development-and-regenerative-medicine
#8
Ayşegül Doğan
After progressive improvement in embryonic stem (ES) cell field, several studies have been conducted to explore the usage of ES cells in regenerative medicine. Unlimited self renewal and pluripoteny properties, combined with encouraging preclinical trials, remark that ES cell technology might be promising for clinical practice. ES cells, which can form three germ layers in vitro, are potential candidates to study development at the cellular and molecular level. Understanding the cell fate decision and differentiation processes during development might enable generating functional progenitor cells for tissue restoration...
February 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464570/hepatic-esterase-activity-is-increased-in-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-3d-culture-system
#9
Young-Jun Choi, Hyemin Kim, Ji-Woo Kim, Seokjoo Yoon, Han-Jin Park
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to generate a spherical three-dimensional (3D) aggregate of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and to investigate the effect of the 3D environment on hepatic maturation and drug metabolism. RESULTS: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that gene expression of mature hepatocyte markers, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and hepatic transporters was significantly higher in HLCs cultured in the 3D system than in those cultured in a two-dimensional system (p < 0...
February 20, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463682/metabolism-in-pluripotency-both-driver-and-passenger
#10
Perrine Dahan, Vivian Lu, Robert M T Nguyen, Stephanie A L Kennedy, Michael A Teitell
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are highly proliferative cells characterized by robust metabolic demands to power rapid division. For many years considered a passive component or "passenger" of cell fate determination, cell metabolism is now starting to take center stage as a driver of cell fate outcomes. This review provides an update and analysis of our current understanding of PSC metabolism and its role in self-renewal, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. Moreover, we present evidence on the active roles metabolism plays in shaping the epigenome to influence patterns of gene expression that may model key features of early embryonic development...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463313/lymphotoxin-%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-promotes-glial-lineage-differentiation-and-inhibits-neuronal-lineage-differentiation-in-mouse-brain-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#11
Xiao Xiao, Raj Putatunda, Yonggang Zhang, Priya V Soni, Fang Li, Ting Zhang, Mingyang Xin, Jin Jun Luo, John R Bethea, Yuan Cheng, Wenhui Hu
BACKGROUND: Lymphotoxin (LT) is a lymphokine mainly expressed in lymphocytes. LTα binds one or two membrane-associated LTβ to form LTα2 β1 or LTα1 β2 heterotrimers. The predominant LTα1 β2 binds to LTβ receptor (LTβR) primarily expressed in epithelial and stromal cells. Most studies on LTβR signaling have focused on the organization, development, and maintenance of lymphoid tissues. However, the roles of LTβR signaling in the nervous system, particularly in neurogenesis, remain unknown...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462960/the-role-of-wnt-signal-in-glioblastoma-development-and-progression-a-possible-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-therapy-of-this-tumor
#12
REVIEW
Mariachiara Zuccarini, Patricia Giuliani, Sihana Ziberi, Marzia Carluccio, Patrizia Di Iorio, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli
Wnt is a complex signaling pathway involved in the regulation of crucial biological functions such as development, proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells, mainly stem cells, which are virtually present in all embryonic and adult tissues. Conversely, dysregulation of Wnt signal is implicated in development/progression/invasiveness of different kinds of tumors, wherein a certain number of multipotent cells, namely "cancer stem cells", are characterized by high self-renewal and aggressiveness...
February 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460420/goat-milk-non-invasive-source-for-mammary-epithelial-cell-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture
#13
N Saipin, J Noophun, P Chumyim, R Rungsiwiwut
Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) used to study mammary gland function in vitro are typically isolated from mammary tissue. Breast milk offers an alternative source of MECs to replace mammary gland tissue. This study aimed to isolate and culture MECs from goat milk. Samples of fresh goat milk were collected from early and late-lactating Saanen goats. Samples were subjected to isolation, culture and characterization for putative MECs. The cells adhered to the culture dishes 1 day after isolation and displayed a monolayer pattern, epithelial-like cobblestone morphology, and formed alveoli-like structures that are typical of MECs...
February 19, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460181/immunoisolation-of-stem-cells-by-simultaneous-encapsulation-and-pegylation
#14
Roya Ramezanzadeh Andevari, Sameereh Hashemi-Najafabadi, Fatemeh Bagheri
Today, cell therapy is known as an important tool in the treatment of chronic diseases where cells lose their normal function. Immunoisolation systems using microencapsulation or PEGylation have been developed to evade the problem of rejection by the immune system. The aim of the present study was to investigate a combination of microencapsulation and PEGylation methods in coating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to determine its effect in reducing the host's immune response. Therefore, methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) binding on alginate-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) microcapsules was investigated using FTIR...
February 19, 2018: Progress in Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459311/effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels-containing-astrocyte-derived-extracellular-matrix-and-or-v2a-interneurons-on-histologic-outcomes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Russell E Thompson, Jennifer Pardieck, Laura Smith, Peter Kenny, Lindsay Crawford, Molly Shoichet, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert
One reason for the lack of regeneration, and poor clinical outcomes, following central nervous system (CNS) injury is the formation of a glial scar that inhibits new axon growth. In addition to forming the glial scar, astrocytes have been shown to be important for spontaneous SCI recovery in rodents, suggesting some astrocyte populations are pro-regenerative, while others are inhibitory following injury. In this work, the effect of implanting hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels containing extracellular matrix (ECM) harvested from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived astrocytes on histologic outcomes following SCI in rats was explored...
February 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458345/genetic-polymorphisms-in-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-type-ia-gene-predisposes-individuals-to-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-of-the-cervical-spine-via-the-smad-signaling-pathway
#16
Hao Wang, Weitao Jin, Haibin Li
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the 4A > C and -349C > T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA (BMPR-IA) gene, which significantly associated with the occurrence and the extent of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine. METHODS: The SNPs in BMPR-IA gene were genotyped, and the association with the occurrence and severity of OPLL were evaluated in 356 OPLL patients and 617 non-OPLL controls...
February 20, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458328/dynamics-of-promoter-bivalency-and-rnap-ii-pausing-in-mouse-stem-and-differentiated-cells
#17
Anna Mantsoki, Guillaume Devailly, Anagha Joshi
BACKGROUND: Mammalian embryonic stem cells display a unique epigenetic and transcriptional state to facilitate pluripotency by maintaining lineage-specification genes in a poised state. Two epigenetic and transcription processes involved in maintaining poised state are bivalent chromatin, characterized by the simultaneous presence of activating and repressive histone methylation marks, and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter proximal pausing. However, the dynamics of histone modifications and RNAPII at promoters in diverse cellular contexts remains underexplored...
February 20, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#18
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456186/neurons-generated-by-mouse-escs-with-hippocampal-or-cortical-identity-display-distinct-projection-patterns-when-co-transplanted-in-the-adult-brain
#19
Marco Terrigno, Irene Busti, Claudia Alia, Marta Pietrasanta, Ivan Arisi, Mara D'Onofrio, Matteo Caleo, Federico Cremisi
The capability of generating neural precursor cells with distinct types of regional identity in vitro has recently opened new opportunities for cell replacement in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By manipulating Wnt and BMP signaling, we steered the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward isocortical or hippocampal molecular identity. These two types of cells showed different degrees of axonal outgrowth and targeted different regions when co-transplanted in healthy or lesioned isocortex or in hippocampus...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456183/modeling-human-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#20
Ekaterina Ovchinnikova, Martijn Hoes, Kirill Ustyantsev, Nils Bomer, Tristan V de Jong, Henny van der Mei, Eugene Berezikov, Peter van der Meer
Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms behind the development and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy in the human setting are poorly understood, which can be partially attributed to the lack of a human cardiomyocyte-based preclinical test system recapitulating features of diseased myocardium. The objective of our study is to determine whether human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) subjected to mechanical stretch can be used as an adequate in vitro model for studying molecular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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