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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037017/preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-versus-postoperative-chemoradiotherapy-for-stage-ii-iii-resectable-rectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Jin Ho Song, Jae Uk Jeong, Jong Hoon Lee, Sung Hwan Kim, Hyeon Min Cho, Jun Won Um, Hong Seok Jang
PURPOSE: Whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is better than postoperative CRT in oncologic outcome and toxicity is contentious in prospective randomized clinical trials. We systematically analyze and compare the treatment result, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate between preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT in stage II-III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2014 for relevant trials...
September 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036967/-what-s-new-in-the-2016-american-thyroid-association-guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-hyperthyroidism-and-other-causes-of-thyrotoxicosis
#2
H X Guan
The 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis has been officially published in October of 2016, five years after the publication of the previous version. Revised contents in the new guideline are summarized in this review.
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036626/detection-of-an-underlying-22q11-2-duplication-in-a-female-neonate-with-trisomy-18
#3
Donald E Turbiville, Hai Wu, Jianli Dong
Current guidelines indicate that in patients with developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies, chromosomal microarray (CMA) is a first-tier diagnostic test. However, for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes such as trisomy 13, 18, and 21, G-banded karyotyping is still recommended over CMA for establishing a diagnosis. In the case presented herein, a female neonate was suspected of having trisomy 18 based on pre- and postnatal evaluations. Karyotyping was requested but not performed due to insufficient cell growth; Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) found an extra copy of chromosome 18...
September 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036603/identification-of-optimal-reference-genes-for-transcriptomic-analyses-in-normal-and-diseased-human-heart
#4
Cristina E Molina, Eric Jacquet, Prishila Ponien, Christian Muñoz-Guijosa, Istvan Baczkó, Lars S Maier, Patrick Donzeau-Gouge, Dobromir Dobrev, Rodolphe Fischmeister, Anne Garnier
Aims: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) has become the method of choice for mRNA quantification, but requires an accurate normalization based on the use of reference genes showing invariant expression across various pathological conditions. Only few data exist on appropriate reference genes for the human heart. The objective of this study was to determine a set of suitable reference genes in human atrial and ventricular tissues, from right and left cavities in control and in cardiac diseases...
September 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036547/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-the-prediction-of-cardiovascular-events-and-death-in-hypertension
#5
Joe Gallagher, Chris Watson, Shuaiwei Zhou, Fiona Ryan, Mark Ledwidge, Kenneth McDonald
Background: The prevalence and morbidity of hypertension continues to grow globally and improved methods of stratifying risk and identifying organ damage earlier are required. Methods such as echocardiography and population based risk scores are suggested by guidelines as approaches to aid in risk stratification. However, biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides may help provide such an approach. Methods: We analysed data from the STOP-HF cohort including participants with hypertension with and without a history of a cardiovascular event at baseline...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036540/tackling-anti-microbial-resistance-ethical-framework-for-rational-antibiotic-use
#6
Jasper Littmann, Annette Rid, Alena Buyx
Background: To reduce the effect of antimicrobial resistance and to preserve antibiotic effectiveness, clinical guidelines and health policy documents call for the rational use of antibiotics, which aims to reduce unnecessary or minimally effective antibiotic use. Methods: Through ethical analysis, we show that rational use programmes can lead to ethical conflicts, because they sometimes place patients at risk of harm-for example, a delayed switch to second-line antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia can lead to substantial increases in mortality...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036529/itsonedb-a-comprehensive-collection-of-eukaryotic-ribosomal-rna-internal-transcribed-spacer-1-its1-sequences
#7
Monica Santamaria, Bruno Fosso, Flavio Licciulli, Bachir Balech, Ilaria Larini, Giorgio Grillo, Giorgio De Caro, Sabino Liuni, Graziano Pesole
A holistic understanding of environmental communities is the new challenge of metagenomics. Accordingly, the amplicon-based or metabarcoding approach, largely applied to investigate bacterial microbiomes, is moving to the eukaryotic world too. Indeed, the analysis of metabarcoding data may provide a comprehensive assessment of both bacterial and eukaryotic composition in a variety of environments, including human body. In this respect, whereas hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA are the de facto standard barcode for bacteria, the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal RNA gene cluster has shown a high potential in discriminating eukaryotes at deep taxonomic levels...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036509/medication-usage-change-in-older-people-65-in-england-over-20-years-findings-from-cfas-i-and-cfas-ii
#8
L Gao, Ian Maidment, Fiona E Matthews, Louise Robinson, Carol Brayne
Background: medical practice has changed over the last decades reflecting the ageing population, when multi-morbidity requiring multiple medications is more common. Objective: describe and quantify self-reported medicine use including both prescription and over the counter medicines in two comparable population-based studies of older people (65+) in England and to assess the nature and scale of polypharmacy. Methods: data used were from two separate population-based studies; the Cognitive Function Ageing Study I and II...
September 26, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036461/mechanisms-to-protect-the-privacy-of-families-when-using-the-transmission-disequilibrium-test-in-genome-wide-association-studies
#9
Meng Wang, Zhanglong Ji, Shuang Wang, Jihoon Kim, Hai Yang, Xiaoqian Jiang, Lucila Ohno-Machado
Motivation: Inappropriate disclosure of human genomes may put the privacy of study subjects and of their family members at risk. Existing privacy-preserving mechanisms for Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) mainly focus on protecting individual information in case-control studies. Protecting privacy in family-based studies is more difficult. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) is a powerful family-based association test employed in many rare disease studies. It gathers information about families (most frequently involving parents, affected children and their siblings)...
July 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036455/jlcs-medical-practice-guidelines-for-thymic-tumors-summary-of-recommendations
#10
Kohei Yokoi, Kazuya Kondo, Kiminori Fujimoto, Masaki Hara, Yoshihisa Kadota, Koji Kawaguchi, Hideo Kunitoh, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Jun Nakajima, Makoto Nishio, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Mitsugu Omasa
The Guideline Committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) for Thymic Tumors published the Medical Practice Guideline for Thymic Tumors in Japanese as Chapter 3 of the Medical Practice Guidelines for Lung Cancers according to evidence-based medicine in December 2016. This medical practice guideline is the first for thymic epithelial tumors in Japan, and comprises a set of recommendations covering clinical diagnosis, treatment and pathological diagnosis. Thymic epithelial tumors include thymoma, thymic carcinoma and thymic neuroendocrine tumor...
September 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036431/longitudinal-outcomes-of-radiofrequency-ablation-versus-surveillance-endoscopy-for-barrett-s-esophagus-with-low-grade-dysplasia
#11
A Kahn, M Al-Qaisi, V T Kommineni, J K Callaway, E S Boroff, G E Burdick, D M Lam-Himlin, M Temkit, M F Vela, F C Ramirez
Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia is recommended in recent American College of Gastroenterology guidelines, with endoscopic surveillance considered a reasonable alternative. Few studies have directly compared outcomes of radiofrequency ablation to surveillance and those that have are limited by short duration of follow-up. This study aims to compare the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation versus endoscopic surveillance in a large, longitudinal cohort of patients with Barrett's esophagus, and low-grade dysplasia...
September 27, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036309/chiral-analysis-of-methamphetamine-in-oral-fluid-samples-a-method-to-distinguish-licit-from-illicit-drug-use
#12
Damon Borg, Elizabeth Kolb, Cindy Lantigua, Richard Stripp
Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a popular illicit drug abused for its central nervous system stimulating effects. MAMP is also used therapeutically in the treatment of overeating disorders, narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, in over-the-counter (OTC) products to ease nasal congestion. MAMP exists in two enantiomeric forms, dextrorotary (d-MAMP) or levorotary (l-MAMP). The compounds are similar in chemical structure, simply differing in the orientation of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. In part because of the availability of l-MAMP in OTC nasal inhalers, forensic guidelines require a sample to contain greater than 20% d-MAMP to consider illicit drug use when interpreting results...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036278/perceptions-of-risk-and-therapy-among-patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-a-patient-survey-study
#13
M W Stier, N Lodhia, J Jacobs, D Nozicka, R Kavitt, U Siddiqui, I Waxman, V J Konda
Nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus has a risk of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma as low as 0.18-0.3% per person per year, and low-grade dysplasia as low as 0.5%. While adherence to guidelines and selection of management options varies, little is known about what modifies patient decision-making. This study aims to evaluate and identify factors that influence patient perceptions of risk and decisions about management. An independently developed and piloted survey was administered to patients at an academic hospital...
September 21, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036276/multimorbidity-will-it-stand-the-test-of-time
#14
Joanna C Ford, John A Ford
The concept of multimorbidity has risen in popularity over the past few years. It is use has led to, or coincided with, an increased recognition that patients often have more than one health problem which should not be treated in isolation. The motivation for more holistic, person-centred care that lies behind multimorbidity is to be welcomed. The 2016 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence multimorbidity management guideline helpfully makes recommendations in key areas that are important in the care of patients with complicated medical problems...
September 26, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036173/pre-treatment-with-gnrha-or-ulipristal-acetate-prior-to-laparoscopic-and-laparotomic-myomectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Inge de Milliano, Moniek Twisk, Johannes C Ket, Judith A Huirne, Wouter J Hehenkamp
BACKGROUND: Myomectomy has potential risks of complications. To reduce these risks, medical pre-treatment can be applied to reduce fibroid size and thereby potentially decrease intra-operative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion and emergency hysterectomy. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to study the effectiveness of medical pre-treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) or ulipristal acetate prior to laparoscopic or laparotomic myomectomy on intra-operative and post-operative outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036162/analysis-of-laser-speckle-reduction-utilizing-microlens-array-based-projection-screen
#16
Qianli Ma, Chang-Qing Xu
This paper focuses on the theoretical analyzation of laser speckle reduction by utilizing a microlens array (MLA). A theoretical model was established to describe the screen effect on speckle reduction, taking into account MLA cell size and on-screen projection/detection resolution area size. The relationship between the speckle contrast ratio (SCR) of a projection system and the cell size of an MLA was studied and investigated. A guideline for choosing an MLA that is able to suppress SCR below the threshold of human perception is proposed from the obtained results...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036032/a-physiological-profile-of-ovarian-cancer-survivors-to-inform-tailored-exercise-interventions-and-the-development-of-exercise-oncology-guidelines
#17
Christelle Schofield, Robert U Newton, Daniel A Galvão, Paul A Cohen, Carolyn J Peddle-McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity has become increasingly important in supportive cancer care. However, physical activity and exercise guidelines for ovarian cancer survivors remain generic. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize existing data regarding the physiological characteristics (treatment-related adverse effects, concurrent comorbidities, body weight and composition, physical fitness and function, and physical activity behavior) of ovarian cancer survivors to further understanding of their cancer-specific physical activity and exercise needs...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036007/trends-of-cholecystectomies-for-presumed-biliary-dyskinesia-in-children-in-the-united-states
#18
Sravan R Matta, Katja Kovacic, Ke Yan, Pippa Simpson, Manu R Sood
BACKGROUND: Biliary dyskinesia is a controversial clinical entity. Standardized diagnostic test and management guidelines are lacking in children. Published data suggest that long-term outcomes of surgical and medical management are similar. We sought to determine national population-based trends of cholecystectomies performed in children for biliary dyskinesia and associated healthcare expenditure in the US over a 10-year period. METHODS: Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the International Classification of Diseases, the 9th revision clinical modification codes, we identified children who had a cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia from 2002-2011 in the United States...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#19
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035933/psoriatic-arthritis-new-evidence-for-old-concepts
#20
Enrique R Soriano, Josefina Marin, Maria L Acosta-Felquer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review gives an updated overview of some of the new concepts in the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA): early diagnosis, remission as an objective, treat-to-target, and treatment guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Early diagnosis, targeting remission as part of a treatment strategy, and new guidelines providing evidence-based support to these concepts are main topics in recent publications. SUMMARY: Dermatologists and rheumatologists should work together to reduce the number of patients remaining undiagnosed, and the time to do so...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
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