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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647603/effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-on-non-target-plant-native-species-from-chaco-forest-argentina
#1
Ferreira María Florencia, Torres Carolina, Bracamonte Enzo, Galetto Leonardo
Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646574/a-novel-habitat-based-approach-to-predict-impacts-of-marine-protected-areas-on-fishers
#2
João B Teixeira, Rodrigo L Moura, Morena Mills, Carissa Klein, Christopher J Brown, Vanessa M Adams, Hedley Grantham, Matthew Watts, Deborah Faria, Gilberto M Amado-Filho, Alex C Bastos, Reinaldo Lourival, Hugh P Possingham
While marine protected areas (MPAs) can simultaneously contribute to biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, the global network is biased towards particular ecosystem types, as it was largely established in an ad hoc fashion. The optimization of trade-offs between biodiversity benefits and socio-economic values increases implementation success and minimizes enforcement costs in the long run, but is often neglected in marine spatial planning (MSP). Although the acquisition of spatially explicit socioeconomic data is often perceived as a costly/secondary step in MSP, it is critical to account for lost opportunities by people whose activities will be restricted, especially fishers...
June 24, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645870/impact-on-environment-ecosystem-diversity-and-health-from-culturing-and-using-gmos-as-feed-and-food
#3
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Duck Hwa Chung, Sung Jo Kang, Michael D Coleman, Nadia Tyshko, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks...
June 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#4
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645141/does-the-seed-bank-contribute-to-the-build-up-of-a-genetic-extinction-debt-in-the-grassland-perennial-campanula-rotundifolia
#5
Jan Plue, Katrien Vandepitte, Olivier Honnay, Sara A O Cousins
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation threatens global biodiversity. Many plant species persist in habitat fragments via persistent life cycle stages such as seed banks, generating a species extinction debt. Here, seed banks are hypothesized to cause a temporal delay in the expected loss of genetic variation, which can be referred to as a genetic extinction debt, as a possible mechanism behind species extinction debts. Methods: Fragmented grassland populations of Campanula rotundifolia were examined for evidence of a genetic extinction debt, investigating if the seed bank contributed to the extinction debt build-up...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644406/an-updated-review-on-marine-anticancer-compounds-the-use-of-virtual-screening-for-the-discovery-of-small-molecule-cancer-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Verónica Ruiz-Torres, Jose Antonio Encinar, María Herranz-López, Almudena Pérez-Sánchez, Vicente Galiano, Enrique Barrajón-Catalán, Vicente Micol
Marine secondary metabolites are a promising source of unexploited drugs that have a wide structural diversity and have shown a variety of biological activities. These compounds are produced in response to the harsh and competitive conditions that occur in the marine environment. Invertebrates are considered to be among the groups with the richest biodiversity. To date, a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been established as antineoplastic drugs. This review gives an overview of MNPs, both in research or clinical stages, from diverse organisms that were reported as being active or potentially active in cancer treatment in the past seventeen years (from January 2000 until April 2017) and describes their putative mechanisms of action...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644376/monitoring-effect-of-fire-on-ant-assemblages-in-brazilian-rupestrian-grasslands-contrasting-effects-on-ground-and-arboreal-fauna
#7
Diego Anjos, Ricardo Campos, Renata Campos, Sérvio Ribeiro
Fire is one of the most relevant ecological disturbances in nature. Little is known about the effects of fire on biodiversity in ecosystems like rupestrian grasslands, which share characteristics with savanna and forest biomes. Brazilian rupestrian grasslands are part of an endangered ecosystem that has been modified by anthropogenic fire events that have become more intense in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fire on ground and arboreal ant assemblages through a two-year monitoring program (24 monthly samplings)...
June 23, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#8
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642742/microbial-resources-and-enological-significance-opportunities-and-benefits
#9
REVIEW
Leonardo Petruzzi, Vittorio Capozzi, Carmen Berbegal, Maria R Corbo, Antonio Bevilacqua, Giuseppe Spano, Milena Sinigaglia
Among the innovative trends in the wine sector, the continuous exploration of enological properties associated with wine microbial resources represents a cornerstone driver of quality improvement. Since the advent of starter cultures technology, the attention has been focused on intraspecific biodiversity within the primary species responsible for alcoholic fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and, subsequently, for the so-called 'malolactic fermentation' (Oenococcus oeni). However, in the last decade, a relevant number of studies proposed the enological exploitation of an increasing number of species (e...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641604/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-blood-parasite-mixed-infections-in-spanish-terrapins-mauremys-leprosa
#10
Alfonso Marzal, Alejandro Ibáñez, Manuel González-Blázquez, Pilar López, José Martín
Blood parasites such as haemogregarines and haemosporidians have been identified in almost all groups of vertebrates and may cause serious damages to their hosts. However, very little is known about biodiversity of these parasites and their effects on some groups of reptiles such as terrapins. Moreover, the information on virulence from blood parasites mixed infection is largely unknown in reptiles. With this aim, we investigated for the first time the prevalence and genetic diversity of blood parasites from one genus of haemoparasitic aplicomplexan (Hepatozoon) in two populations of Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa), a semi-aquatic turtle from southwestern Europe with a vulnerable conservation status...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640968/the-impact-of-andean-patagonian-mycoflora-in-the-search-for-new-lead-molecules
#11
REVIEW
Pedro M Aqueveque, Carlos L Cespedes, Isao Kubo, David S Seigler, Olov Sterner
Secondary metabolites from fungi have become a major source of chemical innovation in programs searching for lead molecules with bioactivities, especially over the last 50 years. In this review, we discuss the fundamental considerations in the discovery of molecules for agricultural and medicinal uses. This group of organisms possesses a strong potential for scientific and industrial communities. Recently, the incorporation of new technologies for the artificial cultivation of fungi and the use of better equipment to isolate and identify active metabolites has allowed the discovery of leading molecules for the design of new and safer drugs and pesticides...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640267/ecology-document-india-s-floral-biodiversity
#12
Kamaljit S Bawa, R Ganesan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639408/quantifying-long-term-impact-of-zoo-and-aquarium-visits-on-biodiversity-related-learning-outcomes
#13
Eric A Jensen, Andrew Moss, Markus Gusset
Zoos and aquariums aim to achieve lasting impact on their public audiences' awareness of biodiversity, its value, and the steps they can take to conserve it. Here, we evaluate the long-term educational impact of visits to zoos and aquariums on biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity. A minimum of two years after completing a repeated-measures survey before and after visiting a zoo or aquarium, the same participants were invited to take part in a follow-up online survey...
June 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639356/bias-in-protected-area-location-and-its-effects-on-long-term-aspirations-of-biodiversity-conventions
#14
Oscar Venter, Ainhoa Magrach, Nick Outram, Carissa Joy Klein, Moreno Di Marco, James E M Watson
To contribute to the aspirations of recent international biodiversity conventions, protected areas (PAs) must be strategically located, and not simply established on economically marginal lands as they have in the past. With refined international commitments under the Convention of Biodiversity to target protected areas in places of 'importance to biodiversity', this may now be the case. Here we analyze location biases in PAs globally over both historic (pre-2004) and recent time periods. Discouragingly, we find that both old and new protected areas are not targeting places with high concentration of threatened vertebrate species...
June 21, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637838/experimental-species-removals-impact-the-architecture-of-pollination-networks
#15
Berry J Brosi, Kyle Niezgoda, Heather M Briggs
Mutualistic networks are key for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet are threatened by global environmental change. Most simulation models assume that network structure remains static after species losses, despite theoretical and empirical reasons to expect dynamic responses. We assessed the effects of experimental single bumblebee species removals on the structure of entire flower visitation networks. We hypothesized that network structure would change following processes linking interspecific competition with dietary niche breadth...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636971/simulated-long-term-effects-of-varying-tree-retention-on-wood-production-dead-wood-and-carbon-stock-changes
#16
Francesca Santaniello, Line B Djupström, Thomas Ranius, Jan Weslien, Jörgen Rudolphi, Johan Sonesson
Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636447/emerging-viral-infections-in-pakistan-issues-concerns-and-future-prospects
#17
Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Faouzia Tanveer, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Idrees, Zabta Khan Shinwari, James E Hollenbeck
Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Changing climate conditions, environmental degradation, global warming, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological determinants have a direct effect on these diseases and result in the emergence and reemergence of infectious entities...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634340/dispersal-ability-determines-the-scaling-properties-of-species-abundance-distributions-a-case-study-using-arthropods-from-the-azores
#18
Luís Borda-de-Água, Robert J Whittaker, Pedro Cardoso, François Rigal, Ana M C Santos, Isabel R Amorim, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Kostas A Triantis, Henrique M Pereira, Paulo A V Borges
Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthropods to test predictions obtained with computer simulations on whether dispersal ability influences the rate of change of SADs as a function of sample size. To characterize the change of the shape of the SADs we use the moments of the distributions: the skewness and the raw moments...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634289/sex-specific-early-survival-drives-adult-sex-ratio-bias-in-snowy-plovers-and-impacts-mating-system-and-population-growth
#19
Luke J Eberhart-Phillips, Clemens Küpper, Tom E X Miller, Medardo Cruz-López, Kathryn H Maher, Natalie Dos Remedios, Martin A Stoffel, Joseph I Hoffman, Oliver Krüger, Tamás Székely
Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population biology and a key factor in sexual selection, but why do most demographic models ignore sex biases? Vital rates often vary between the sexes and across life history, but their relative contributions to ASR variation remain poorly understood-an essential step to evaluate sex ratio theories in the wild and inform conservation. Here, we combine structured two-sex population models with individual-based mark-recapture data from an intensively monitored polygamous population of snowy plovers...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633194/moving-forward-in-circles-challenges-and-opportunities-in-modelling-population-cycles
#20
REVIEW
Frédéric Barraquand, Stilianos Louca, Karen C Abbott, Christina A Cobbold, Flora Cordoleani, Donald L DeAngelis, Bret D Elderd, Jeremy W Fox, Priscilla Greenwood, Frank M Hilker, Dennis L Murray, Christopher R Stieha, Rachel A Taylor, Kelsey Vitense, Gail S K Wolkowicz, Rebecca C Tyson
Population cycling is a widespread phenomenon, observed across a multitude of taxa in both laboratory and natural conditions. Historically, the theory associated with population cycles was tightly linked to pairwise consumer-resource interactions and studied via deterministic models, but current empirical and theoretical research reveals a much richer basis for ecological cycles. Stochasticity and seasonality can modulate or create cyclic behaviour in non-intuitive ways, the high-dimensionality in ecological systems can profoundly influence cycling, and so can demographic structure and eco-evolutionary dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Ecology Letters
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