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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441466/biomonitoring-of-marine-vertebrates-in-monterey-bay-using-edna-metabarcoding
#1
Elizabeth A Andruszkiewicz, Hilary A Starks, Francisco P Chavez, Lauren M Sassoubre, Barbara A Block, Alexandria B Boehm
Molecular analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to assess vertebrate biodiversity in aquatic systems, but limited work has applied eDNA technologies to marine waters. Further, there is limited understanding of the spatial distribution of vertebrate eDNA in marine waters. Here, we use an eDNA metabarcoding approach to target and amplify a hypervariable region of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene to characterize vertebrate communities at 10 oceanographic stations spanning 45 km within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441395/molecular-phylogeny-of-oncaeidae-copepoda-using-nuclear-ribosomal-internal-transcribed-spacer-its-rdna
#2
Iole Di Capua, Fulvio Maffucci, Raimondo Pannone, Maria Grazia Mazzocchi, Elio Biffali, Alberto Amato
Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439077/unravelling-the-drastic-range-retraction-of-an-emblematic-songbird-of-north-africa-potential-threats-to-afro-palearctic-migratory-birds
#3
Rassim Khelifa, Rabah Zebsa, Hichem Amari, Mohammed Khalil Mellal, Soufyane Bensouilah, Abdeldjalil Laouar, Hayat Mahdjoub
Understanding how culture may influence biodiversity is fundamental to ensure effective conservation, especially when the practice is local but the implications are global. Despite that, little effort has been devoted to documenting cases of culturally-related biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the cultural domestication of the European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) in western Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and the effects of long-term poaching of wild populations (1990-2016) on range distribution, socio-economic value, international trading and potential collateral damage on Afro-Palearctic migratory birds...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438921/null-expectations-for-disease-dynamics-in-shrinking-habitat-dilution-or-amplification
#4
Christina L Faust, Andrew P Dobson, Nicole Gottdenker, Laura S P Bloomfield, Hamish I McCallum, Thomas R Gillespie, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Raina K Plowright
As biodiversity declines with anthropogenic land-use change, it is increasingly important to understand how changing biodiversity affects infectious disease risk. The dilution effect hypothesis, which points to decreases in biodiversity as critical to an increase in infection risk, has received considerable attention due to the allure of a win-win scenario for conservation and human well-being. Yet some empirical data suggest that the dilution effect is not a generalizable phenomenon. We explore the response of pathogen transmission dynamics to changes in biodiversity that are driven by habitat loss using an allometrically scaled multi-host model...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438920/conservation-of-biodiversity-as-a-strategy-for-improving-human-health-and-well-being
#5
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Daniel J Salkeld, Georgia Titcomb, Micah B Hahn
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#6
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438918/does-the-impact-of-biodiversity-differ-between-emerging-and-endemic-pathogens-the-need-to-separate-the-concepts-of-hazard-and-risk
#7
REVIEW
Parviez R Hosseini, James N Mills, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Xavier Bailly, Annapaola Rizzoli, Gerardo Suzán, Marion Vittecoq, Gabriel E García-Peña, Peter Daszak, Jean-François Guégan, Benjamin Roche
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening mechanisms; thus study outcomes often differ, fuelling more debate. Here, we suggest two critical changes to the approach researchers take to understanding relationships between infectious disease, both endemic and emerging, and biodiversity that may help clarify sources of controversy...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438917/disease-ecology-health-and-the-environment-a-framework-to-account-for-ecological-and-socio-economic-drivers-in-the-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#8
A Garchitorena, S H Sokolow, B Roche, C N Ngonghala, M Jocque, A Lund, M Barry, E A Mordecai, G C Daily, J H Jones, J R Andrews, E Bendavid, S P Luby, A D LaBeaud, K Seetah, J F Guégan, M H Bonds, G A De Leo
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438916/nearly-400-million-people-are-at-higher-risk-of-schistosomiasis-because-dams-block-the-migration-of-snail-eating-river-prawns
#9
Susanne H Sokolow, Isabel J Jones, Merlijn Jocque, Diana La, Olivia Cords, Anika Knight, Andrea Lund, Chelsea L Wood, Kevin D Lafferty, Christopher M Hoover, Phillip A Collender, Justin V Remais, David Lopez-Carr, Jonathan Fisk, Armand M Kuris, Giulio A De Leo
Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438915/conservation-development-and-the-management-of-infectious-disease-avian-influenza-in-china-2004-2012
#10
Tong Wu, Charles Perrings
There is growing evidence that wildlife conservation measures have mixed effects on the emergence and spread of zoonotic disease. Wildlife conservation has been found to have both positive (dilution) and negative (contagion) effects. In the case of avian influenza H5N1 in China, the focus has been on negative effects. Lakes and wetlands attracting migrating waterfowl have been argued to be disease hotspots. We consider the implications of waterfowl conservation for H5N1 infections in both poultry and humans between 2004 and 2012...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438914/does-deforestation-promote-or-inhibit-malaria-transmission-in-the-amazon-a-systematic-literature-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Joanna M Tucker Lima, Amy Vittor, Sami Rifai, Denis Valle
Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438913/conservation-biodiversity-and-infectious-disease-scientific-evidence-and-policy-implications
#12
Hillary S Young, Chelsea L Wood, A Marm Kilpatrick, Kevin D Lafferty, Charles L Nunn, Jeffrey R Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438912/effects-of-conservation-management-of-landscapes-and-vertebrate-communities-on-lyme-borreliosis-risk-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
REVIEW
Caroline Millins, Lucy Gilbert, Jolyon Medlock, Kayleigh Hansford, Des Ba Thompson, Roman Biek
Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438911/human-infectious-disease-burdens-decrease-with-urbanization-but-not-with-biodiversity
#14
Chelsea L Wood, Alex McInturff, Hillary S Young, DoHyung Kim, Kevin D Lafferty
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al 2012 Lancet380, 2197-2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years 1990 and 2010. Unlike other databases that report disease prevalence or count outbreaks per country, Murray et al. report health impacts in per-person disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), allowing comparison across diseases with lethal and sublethal health effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438910/lyme-disease-ecology-in-a-changing-world-consensus-uncertainty-and-critical-gaps-for-improving-control
#15
REVIEW
A Marm Kilpatrick, Andrew D M Dobson, Taal Levi, Daniel J Salkeld, Andrea Swei, Howard S Ginsberg, Anne Kjemtrup, Kerry A Padgett, Per M Jensen, Durland Fish, Nick H Ogden, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in temperate regions of North America, Europe and Asia, and the number of reported cases has increased in many regions as landscapes have been altered. Although there has been extensive work on the ecology and epidemiology of this disease in both Europe and North America, substantial uncertainty exists about fundamental aspects that determine spatial and temporal variation in both disease risk and human incidence, which hamper effective and efficient prevention and control...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#16
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437663/microbial-communities-associated-with-plants-learning-from-nature-to-apply-it-in-agriculture
#17
REVIEW
Fernando Dini Andreote, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva
It is a new consensus that any living organism depends on its partners to strive under environmental conditions along their living period. Plants are also highly dependent on their associated microbes, which can support its development and proper protection under stressors. Along their evolution, plants learned to interact to soil microbiota, extracting their utmost capacity to provide resources for plant development and successful colonization of terrestrial systems, where the great soil biodiversity is keen on properly exert this role...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437475/the-school-malaise-trap-program-coupling-educational-outreach-with-scientific-discovery
#18
Dirk Steinke, Vanessa Breton, Emily Berzitis, Paul D N Hebert
The School Malaise Trap Program (SMTP) provides a technologically sophisticated and scientifically relevant educational experience that exposes students to the diversity of life, enhancing their understanding of biodiversity while promoting environmental stewardship. Since 2013, the SMTP has allowed 15,000 students at 350 primary and secondary schools to explore insect diversity in Canadian schoolyards. Students at each school collected hundreds of insects for an analysis of DNA sequence variation that enabled their rapid identification to a species...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436455/the-impact-of-gold-mining-and-agricultural-concessions-on-the-tree-cover-and-local-communities-in-northern-myanmar
#19
Sarah Papworth, Madhu Rao, Myint Myint Oo, Kyaw Thinn Latt, Robert Tizard, Thomas Pienkowski, L Roman Carrasco
Myanmar offers unique opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and foreign direct investment due to projected economic growth linked to natural resource exploitation. Industrial-scale development introduces new land uses into the landscape, with unknown repercussions for local communities and biodiversity conservation. We use participatory mapping of 31 communities, focus groups in 28 communities, and analyses of forest cover change during 2000-2010 using MODIS vegetation continuous fields images, to understand the social and environmental impacts of gold mining and agricultural concessions in Myanmar's Hukaung Valley (~21,800 km(2))...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435876/the-economic-value-of-grassland-species-for-carbon-storage
#20
Bruce A Hungate, Edward B Barbier, Amy W Ando, Samuel P Marks, Peter B Reich, Natasja van Gestel, David Tilman, Johannes M H Knops, David U Hooper, Bradley J Butterfield, Bradley J Cardinale
Carbon storage by ecosystems is valuable for climate protection. Biodiversity conservation may help increase carbon storage, but the value of this influence has been difficult to assess. We use plant, soil, and ecosystem carbon storage data from two grassland biodiversity experiments to show that greater species richness increases economic value: Increasing species richness from 1 to 10 had twice the economic value of increasing species richness from 1 to 2. The marginal value of each additional species declined as species accumulated, reflecting the nonlinear relationship between species richness and plant biomass production...
April 2017: Science Advances
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