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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807046/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-sl1p-pipeline-for-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-analysis
#1
Fiona J Whelan, Michael G Surette
BACKGROUND: Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806487/gut-microbiome-response-to-short-term-dietary-interventions-in-reactive-hypoglycemia-subjects
#2
Sara Quercia, Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Andrea Castagnetti, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Mario Pianesi, Francesco Fallucca, Paolo Pozzilli, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: Reactive hypoglycemia (RH) is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meal. Over recent years, the gut microbiota (GM) has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct GM dysbioses through diet, favoring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. METHODS: We investigate the impact of two short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the GM in 12 patients affected by RH...
August 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805735/dietary-propolis-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-rats-fed-a-western-diet
#3
Kai Wang, Xiaolu Jin, Mengmeng You, Wenli Tian, Richard K Le Leu, David L Topping, Michael A Conlon, Liming Wu, Fuliang Hu
Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis. Rats were fed with a Western style diet alone (controls) or supplemented with different amounts of Chinese propolis (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) to examine effects on acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802874/targeting-gastrointestinal-nutrient-sensing-mechanisms-to-treat-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Mariana Norton, Kevin G Murphy
Gut hormones have important roles in the regulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Understanding how macronutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract modulates gut hormone release may reveal novel pharmacological or dietary approaches to metabolic disease. In this short review we discuss the mechanisms by which the gut senses macronutrients and the products of macronutrient digestion, and their putative utility in treating obesity and related conditions.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800679/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effects-through-ameliorating-blood-milk-barrier-disruption-and-modulating-inflammatory-response-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-mastitis-model
#5
Jing-Jing Wang, Zheng-Kai Wei, Xu Zhang, Ya-Nan Wang, Yun-He Fu, Zheng-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fermentation end products produced by the gut bacteria,which have been shown to ameliorate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of sodium butyrate (SB) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effects of increasing doses of SB on blood-milk barrier function and inflammation are studied in LPS-induced mastitis...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800585/comparative-pathogenomics-of-clostridium-tetani
#6
Jonathan E Cohen, Rong Wang, Rong-Fong Shen, Wells W Wu, James E Keller
Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively. Extensive biochemical and genetic investigation has been devoted to identifying and characterizing various C. botulinum strains. Less effort has been focused on studying C. tetani likely because recently sequenced strains of C. tetani show much less genetic diversity than C. botulinum strains and because widespread vaccination efforts have reduced the public health threat from tetanus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800407/human-brown-adipose-tissue-function-and-therapeutic-potential-in-metabolic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Padmanabh Shrikant Bhatt, Waljit S Dhillo, Victoria Salem
There has been a resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) over the last decade. Key to this has been our ability to accurately image it, which has improved significantly. The role of BAT in regulating energy expenditure is important, and its pharmacological manipulation may hold therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. There is ample evidence of BAT activation by cold exposure, and pharmacological utilisation of similar pathways, using B3 receptor agonists holds promise since the development of selective agonists with limited cross-reactivity has rekindled interest...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797248/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-to-treat-diabetes-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos
Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity...
August 10, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795972/acetate-a-diet-derived-key-metabolite-in-energy-metabolism-good-or-bad-in-context-of-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis
#9
Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent research findings on effects of the short-chain fatty acid acetate in the control of body weight, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. For this purpose, relevant animal and human in-vivo studies were reviewed and putative mechanisms and pathways were discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal and human in-vivo studies provide strong indications for a beneficial role of orally ingested or colonically derived acetate, in the energy and substrate metabolism, thereby preventing or reversing the obese insulin-resistant phenotype...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792647/ultrashort-bowel-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-liver-fibrosis-in-adults-with-home-parenteral-nutrition
#10
Dominique Cazals-Hatem, Lore Billiauws, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Vanessa Bondjemah, Nicolas Pote, Olivier Corcos, Valérie Paradis, Francisca Joly
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is rare in adults and risk factors are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of liver fibrosis in adults receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for intestinal failure and its impact on survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with irreversible intestinal failure who underwent a liver biopsy between 2000 and 2013. Significant liver fibrosis was defined as ≥F2 according to NASH-CRN score...
August 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791008/free-fatty-acids-profiles-are-related-to-gut-microbiota-signatures-and-short-chain-fatty-acids
#11
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Nuria Salazar, Abelardo Margolles, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Ana Suárez
A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA) for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789705/impact-of-intrapartum-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-upon-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-vaginally-delivered-full-term-neonates
#12
Alicja Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Marta Suárez, Christian Milani, Silvia Arboleya, Gonzalo Solís, Nuria Fernández, Lidia Alaez, Ana M Hernández-Barranco, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Marco Ventura, Miguel Gueimonde
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the early establishment of the intestinal microbiota may produce important implications for the infant's health and for the risk of disease later on. Different perinatal conditions may be affecting the development of the gut microbiota. Some of them, such as delivery mode or feeding habits, have been extensively assessed whereas others remain to be studied, being critical to identify their impact on the microbiota and, if any, to minimize it. Antibiotics are among the drugs most frequently used in early life, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP), present in over 30% of deliveries, being the most frequent source of exposure...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782784/lactobacillus-casei-ccfm419-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-via-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-mechanism
#13
Gang Wang, Xiangfei Li, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. casei CCFM419 at 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony forming units (CFU). Compared to untreated mice, 10(9) CFU of L. casei CCFM419 attenuated several symptoms of diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782454/use-of-gifu-anaerobic-medium-for-culturing-32-dominant-species-of-human-gut-microbes-and-its-evaluation-based-on-short-chain-fatty-acids-fermentation-profiles
#14
Aina Gotoh, Misaki Nara, Yuta Sugiyama, Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Hiroyuki Yachi, Aya Kitakata, Akira Nakagawa, Hiromichi Minami, Shujiro Okuda, Toshihiko Katoh, Takane Katayama, Shin Kurihara
Recently, a "human gut microbial gene catalogue," which ranks the dominance of microbe genus/species in human fecal samples, was published. Most of the bacteria ranked in the catalog are currently publicly available; however, the growth media recommended by the distributors vary among species, hampering physiological comparisons among the bacteria. To address this problem, we evaluated Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) as a standard medium. Forty-four publicly available species of the top 56 species listed in the "human gut microbial gene catalogue" were cultured in GAM, and out of these, 32 (72%) were successfully cultured...
August 7, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780499/how-to-feed-a-baby-recovering-from-necrotising-enterocolitis-when-maternal-milk-is-not-available
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas D Embleton, Stefan P Zalewski
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease with significant mortality and serious adverse outcomes in at least 50% including short gut and poor neurodevelopment. Research and management are complicated by a lack of robust clinical markers, and without histological confirmation, there is a risk of both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. Interunit variations in the thresholds for surgical referral, laparotomy and postmortem rates mean the actual incidence is difficult to determine, especially because the histological term 'NEC' is used in practice to describe a heterogeneous clinical syndrome...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780087/short-communication-the-mammalian-lignan-enterolactone-is-absorbed-by-newborn-dairy-calves-fed-enterolactone-enriched-milk
#16
C P Ghedini, N L Whitehouse, D C Moura, A S Oliveira, A F Brito
Flaxseed is the richest source of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, which is converted to the mammalian lignans enterolactone (EL) and enterodiol by the gut microbiota of ruminants and humans. Enterolactone has been associated with improved animal and human health due to its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of EL in newborn dairy calves fed milk replacer or EL-enriched milk. We hypothesized that newborn Holstein calves fed EL-enriched milk would have greater area under the curve and plasma concentration of EL compared with those fed milk replacer...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776643/contributions-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-lung-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy P McAleer, Jay K Kolls
The intestine is a critical site of immune cell development that not only controls intestinal immunity but extra-intestinal immunity as well. Recent findings have highlighted important roles for gut microbiota in shaping lung inflammation. Here, we discuss interactions between the microbiota and immune system including T cells, protective effects of microbiota on lung infections, the role of diet in shaping the composition of gut microbiota and susceptibility to asthma, epidemiologic evidence implicating antibiotic use and microbiota in asthma and clinical trials investigating probiotics as potential treatments for atopy and asthma...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771124/notoacmeibacter-marinus-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-limpet-and-proposal-of-notoacmeibacteraceae-fam-nov-in-the-order-rhizobiales-of-the-class-alphaproteobacteria
#18
Zhaobin Huang, Feng Guo, Qiliang Lai, Zongze Shao
A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped and non-flagellated bacterium, named strain XMTR2A4T, was isolated from the gut of a marine limpet, Notoacmea schrenckii on intertidal rocks. Colonies were small, light grey and circular. Catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed at 15 to 37 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), with salinity range from 0.5 to 9 % (optimum 1-2 %), and at pH 6 to 9 (optimum pH 7). The almost full-length 16S rRNA gene of strain XMTR2A4T had the highest sequence similarity of 93.7 % with Mycoplana ramosa DSM 7292T, and of 93...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768370/efficacy-and-safety-of-nortriptyline-in-functional-dyspepsia-in-asians-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Uayporn Kaosombatwattana, Supot Pongprasobchai, Julajak Limsrivilai, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Somchai Leelakusolvong, Tawesak Tanwandee
AIMS: Current treatments of functional dyspepsia (FD) are unsatisfied. Tricyclic antidepressants alter visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interaction. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nortriptyline in patients with FD. METHODS: Patients diagnosed functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria who failed to respond to proton pump inhibitor and prokinetic treatment were randomly assigned to either once daily 10-mg nortriptyline or placebo. The primary endpoint was the rate of responders defined as a > 50% reduction in dyspepsia symptom score(DSS) after 8 weeks of treatment...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761092/early-life-history-predator-prey-reversal-in-two-cyprinid-fishes
#20
Marek Šmejkal, Roman Baran, Petr Blabolil, Lukáš Vejřík, Marie Prchalová, Daniel Bartoň, Tomáš Mrkvička, Jan Kubečka
Predator-prey relationships are often perceived simply as a situation in which a predator enhances its own fitness while reducing the fitness of its prey. However, this relationship may become reversed when the prey feeds on the juvenile predator stages. We investigated this phenomenon in a model asp (Leuciscus aspius; predator)-bleak (Alburnus alburnus; prey) relationship. The adhesive asp eggs are available for bleak predation after a spawning event for only tens of seconds before they adhere to the stones, where bleak do not forage...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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