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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#1
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332901/regulation-of-humoral-immunity-by-gut-microbial-products
#2
Myunghoo Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal tract provides ideal niches for several different microbial species, which are collectively called the gut microbiota. A key host immune effector that controls the microbiota and prevents mucosal infection is IgA. Gut microbiota-derived factors are largely classified into molecular pattern recognition receptor ligands and nutrient-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and adenosine triphosphate. Along with host-derived factors such as retinoic acid, various cytokines and cytokine-like molecules, gut microbial products profoundly shape B cell responses...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330584/central-line-associated-sepsis-in-children-receiving-parenteral-nutrition-in-oman
#3
Tawfiq T Al Lawati, Adawaiya Al Jamie, Nasra Al Mufarraji
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is used when gut fails to provide complete nutrition. Central line Associate Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) a major complication of this therapy. The objective of the study was to report the incidence of CLABSI and associated mortality in children receiving PN in the Royal Hospital and study the indication and duration of PN use. All children from the age of 0-48 months who received TPN outside NICU from the period between 1/1/2011 till 31/12/2014 were included. Data were retrieved from the hospital electronic data base...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323997/degradation-paradigm-of-the-gut-hormone-pancreatic-polypeptide-by-hepatic-and-renal-peptidases
#4
Joyceline Cuenco, James Minnion, Tricia Tan, Rebecca Scott, Natacha Germain, Yiin Ling, Rong Chen, Mohammad Ghatei, Stephen Bloom
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone that acts on Y4 receptors to reduce appetite. Obese humans display a reduced postprandial rise in PP and remain fully sensitive to the anorectic effects of exogenous PP. The utility of PP as an antiobesity treatment is limited by its short circulating half-life. Insight into the mechanisms by which PP is degraded may aid design of long-acting PP analogues.We aimed to investigate the role of peptidases in PP degradation with a view to determining whether inhibition of these enzymes enhanced PP plasma levels and bioactivity in vivo...
March 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322939/do-we-need-to-study-metabolism-and-distribution-in-the-eye-why-when-and-are-we-there-yet
#5
Upendra A Argikar, Jennifer L Dumouchel, Valerie M Kramlinger, Amanda L Cirello, Mithat Gunduz, Christine E Dunne, Bindi Sohal
Liver is known to be the principal site of drug metabolism. Depending on the route of administration, especially in cases of topical/local delivery, evaluation of local drug metabolism in extrahepatic tissues is vital to assess fraction metabolized. This parameter becomes important from the point of view of drug availability or the contribution to overall clearance. Examples include fraction metabolized in the gut for oral drugs and contribution of pulmonary or renal clearance to total clearance of a drug. Diseases of the eye represent a rising unmet medical need, and a number of therapeutics are currently being developed in the form of small molecules and biologics...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322790/short-chain-fatty-acids-gpr41-and-gpr43-ligands-inhibit-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-mcp-1-expression-by-modulating-p38-and-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-human-renal-cortical-epithelial-cells
#6
Mamiko Kobayashi, Daisuke Mikami, Hideki Kimura, Kazuko Kamiyama, Yukie Morikawa, Seiji Yokoi, Kenji Kasuno, Naoki Takahashi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Masayuki Iwano
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation. Therefore, GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the link between the gut microbiome status and various disease conditions including renal inflammation. This study aimed at investigating whether SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43, and thereby exert anti-inflammatory effects in human renal cortical epithelial cells (HRCEs) as a main component of kidney tissue...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321526/effects-of-fasting-temperature-and-photoperiod-on-preproghrelin-mrna-expression-in-chinese-perch
#7
Yi Song, Cheng Zhao, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Changxu Tian, Xiaoyan Cheng, Xiaochen Yuan, Liyuan Lv, Wenjie Guo, Min Xue, Ya-Xiong Tao
Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment...
March 20, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#8
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320307/perturbation-of-microbiota-in-one-day-old-broiler-chickens-with-antibiotic-for-24-hours-negatively-affects-intestinal-immune-development
#9
Dirkjan Schokker, Alfons J M Jansman, Gosse Veninga, Naomi de Bruin, Stephanie A Vastenhouw, Freddy M de Bree, Alex Bossers, Johanna M J Rebel, Mari A Smits
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial colonization and development of immune competence are intertwined and are influenced by early-life nutritional, environmental, and management factors. Perturbation of the gut microbiome at young age affects the crosstalk between intestinal bacteria and host cells of the intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: We investigated the effect of a perturbation of the normal early life microbial colonization of the jejunum in 1-day old chickens. Perturbation was induced by administering 0...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#10
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#11
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315374/glp-1-analogue-cjc-1131-prevents-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-induced-impirments-of-spatial-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-rats
#12
Sheng-Xiao Zhang, Hong-Yan Cai, Xiao-Wen Ma, Li Yuan, Jun Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wang, Yu-Feng Li, Jin-Shun Qi
Although amyloid β protein (Aβ) has been recognized as one of the main pathological characteristics in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the effective strategies against Aβ neurotoxicity are still deficient up to now. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a natural gut hormone, was found to be effective in modulating insulin signaling and neural protection, but short half-life limited its clinical application in AD treatment. CJC-1131, a newly designed GLP-1 analogue with very longer half-life, has shown good effectiveness in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302577/methamphetamine-effects-on-the-brain-gut-and-immune-system
#13
REVIEW
Monica D Prakash, Kathy Tangalakis, Juliana Antonipillai, Lily Stojanovska, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant which elevates mood, alertness, energy levels and concentration in the short-term. However, chronic use and/or at higher doses METH use often results in psychosis, depression, delusions and violent behavior. METH was formerly used to treat conditions such as obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but now is primarily used recreationally. Its addictive nature has led to METH abuse becoming a global problem. At a cellular level, METH exerts a myriad of effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, immune system and the gastrointestinal system...
March 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#14
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the "definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)". Two criteria must be present: a "decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function" and the "need for parenteral support". Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
March 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288414/butyrate-induces-ros-mediated-apoptosis-by-modulating-mir-22-sirt-1-pathway-in-hepatic-cancer-cells
#15
Kishor Pant, Ajay K Yadav, Parul Gupta, Rakibul Islam, Anoop Saraya, Senthil K Venugopal
Butyrate is one of the short chain fatty acids, produced by the gut microbiota during anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibres. It has been shown that it can inhibit tumor progression via suppressing histone deacetylase and can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the comprehensive pathway by which butyrate mediates apoptosis and growth arrest in cancer cells still remains unclear. In this study, the role of miR-22 in butyrate-mediated ROS release and induction of apoptosis was determined in hepatic cells...
March 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286022/first-report-of-human-infection-by-christensenella-minuta-a-gram-negative-strickly-anaerobic-rod-that-inhabits-the-human-intestine
#16
Beatriz Lopez Alonso, Alvaro Irigoyen von Sierakowski, Juan Antonio Sáez Nieto, Antonio Beltran Rosel
Christensenella minuta is a Gram-negative strictly anaerobic short rod that inhabits the human gut. This bacterium was isolated in a mixed infection with Desulfovibrio desulfuricansfrom the blood of a patient with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. As far as we know, this is the first time C.minuta has been isolated from a human clinical specimen.
March 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283419/circulating-gluten-specific-foxp3-cd39-regulatory-t-cells-have-impaired-suppressive-function-in-celiac-disease
#17
Laura Cook, C Mee Ling Munier, Nabila Seddiki, David van Bockel, Noé Ontiveros, Melinda Y Hardy, Jana K Gillies, Megan K Levings, Hugh Reid, Jan Peterson, Jamie Rossjohn, Robert P Anderson, John Zaunders, Jason A Tye-Din, Anthony D Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by dietary gluten. Although the effector T-cell response in celiac disease has been well characterized, the role of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in the loss of tolerance to gluten remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To define if celiac disease patients have a dysfunction or lack of gluten-specific FOXP3(+) Tregs. METHODS: Treated celiac disease patients underwent oral wheat challenge to stimulate re-circulation of gluten-specific T-cells...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#18
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#19
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275684/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-to-cut-a-long-story-short
#20
REVIEW
Katerina Tsilingiri, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was identified more than 20 years ago as a secreted factor of a mouse thymic stromal cell line; later, a human orthologue was also identified. The signaling pathway triggered by TSLP has been extensively studied, and upregulation of the cytokine itself is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous Th2-related diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic responses, as well as certain types of cancers. On the other hand, TSLP mediates several immune homeostatic functions in both the gut and the thymus...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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