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Short gut

Jiao Ren, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Ping Gong, Xiruo Wang, Tandong Yao
Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Chun Chen, Qiang Huang, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
This study investigated the in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from Morus alba L., the contribution of its carbohydrates to the fermentation, and the effect on the composition of gut microbiota. Over 48 h of fermentation, the pH value in the fecal culture decreased from 7.12 to 6.14, and the total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and acetic, propionic, and butyric acids all significantly increased. After 48 h of fermentation, 45.36 ± 1.36% of the total carbohydrates in the polysaccharide, including 35...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Yanqing Zhang, Cheng Wang, Yunli Tian, Fengxiao Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Xiangrao Li, Zhiping Shu, Yan Wang, Kai Huang, Dan Huang
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) by gut-derived endotoxin plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Limiting the activation of resident KCs attenuates chronic ethanol-induced liver steatosis and injury. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is suggested to play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we found a significant increase of hepatic PARP activity in mice with short-term and long-term ethanol-induced ALD. Male mice on a long-term ethanol diet exhibited severe hepatic steatosis and apoptosis and enhanced KC activation and neutrophil infiltration...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Sara Nørgaard Sørensen, Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft, Rose Rasmussen, Anders Baun
Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs. This study explores the applicability of short-term (1, 2 and 3h) pulse exposures as means to keep the exposure stable and at the same time disclose acute and chronic effects of AgNPs and CuONPs in D. magna. Dissolution, agglomeration and sedimentation were found to have less influence on exposure concentrations during 1-3h pulses than for 24-48h continuous exposures...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Laure B Bindels, Isabelle Leclercq
Gut micro-organisms are recognized as crucial regulators of host immunity and the microbiota has been implicated in several inflammatory, immune, inflammatory or even psychiatric disorders. Therefore the analysis of the complex interactions between gut microbiota and the host is currently under intense investigation. Most of our knowledge stems from the study of animal models while translational research and data in humans are necessary to move the field forward and to evolve to diagnostic and therapeutic application...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
J J Castro, A Gomez, B A White, H J Mangian, J R Loften, J K Drackley
Digestive disorders are common during the first few weeks of life of newborn calves. Prebiotics are nondigestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that modulate growth and activity of beneficial microbial populations, which can result in enhanced gut health and function. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) have demonstrated such prebiotic potential. In this study, the effect of GOS supplementation on intestinal bacterial community composition and fermentation profiles; intestinal health, development, and function; and growth was evaluated in dairy calves fed for high rates of growth...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Hélène Volkoff, Rafael Esatevan Sabioni, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino
The pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is an omnivorous fish considered a promising species for aquaculture. Little is known about the endocrine regulation of feeding in this species. In this study, transcripts for orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin were isolated in pacu. Orexin, CCK and leptin have widespread mRNA distributions in brain and periphery, CART is limited to the brain. To examine the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding and energy status, mRNA expression levels were compared between fed and fasted fish and around feeding time...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Giuseppina Mandalari, Simona Chessa, Carlo Bisignano, Luisa Chan, Arianna Carughi
Modulation of the human gut microbiota has proven to have beneficial effects on host health. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sun-dried raisins (SR) on the composition of the human gut microbiota. A full model of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes simulated mastication, a dynamic gastric model, a duodenal model and a colonic model of the human large intestine, was used. An increase in the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was observed by plate-counting in response to the addition of either SR or FOS after 8 and 24 h fermentation...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Christine Ann Edwards, M Guftar Shaikh
The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kathleen L Arnolds, Catherine A Lozupone
The trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut (the microbiota) together with the host comprise a complex ecosystem, and like any ecosystem, health relies on stability and balance. Some of the most important members of the human microbiota are those that help maintain this balance via modulation of the host immune system. Gut microbes, through both molecular factors (such as capsular components) and by-products of their metabolism (such as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)), can influence both innate and adaptive components of the immune system, in ways that can drive both effector, and regulatory responses...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Rheinallt M Jones
The results generated from the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP) are necessarily tied to the overall mission of the agency, which is to foster scientific discoveries as a basis for protecting and improving health. The investment in the HMP phase 1 accomplished many of its goals including the preliminary characterization of the human microbiome and the identification of links between microbiome diversity and disease states. Going forward, the next step in these studies must involve the identification of the functional molecular elements that mediate the positive influence of a eubiotic microbiome on health and disease...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Ruixue Liu, Yongchao Li, Bo Zhang
The purpose of the study was to assess the effects and the protective mechanism of konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) on the ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. KOS (1.0 and 4.0g/kg/day) was administered for 14days after the induction of colitis with TNBS. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methods. The effect of KOS on the colonic microflora was also assessed by studying the bacteria profile and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in feces by standard culture techniques and gas chromatography, respectively...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Teodora Surdea-Blaga, Adriana Baban, Laurentiu Nedelcu, Dan L Dumitrascu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients often present psychoform symptoms or psychiatric disorders. Among the psychological factors studied in IBS patients, two seem to influence mostly its severity: catastrophizing and somatization. Somatization is an independent risk factor for IBS. In addition, somatization more than the severity of IBS influences the way the patients perceive their illness, the outcome and the efficacy of treatment. Irritable bowel syndrome patients demonstrate greater catastrophizing scores than controls, and pain catastrophizing is a significant predictor of gastrointestinal symptoms related to pain...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
E Argañaraz Martínez, J D Babot, M J Lorenzo-Pisarello, M C Apella, A Perez Chaia
Different studies in animal rearing claim the probiotic potential of species of the genus Propionibacterium. The effects of strains of Propionibacterium acidipropionici isolated from poultry intestine on microbiota activity and intestinal mucosa development were investigated in the early stage of rearing chicks and the safety of the dose used was investigated. The strains P. acidipropionici LET105 and LET107, administered as monoculture to chicks from the 1(st) to 14(th) day of life in a daily dose of 106 cfu/ml administered in the drinking water resulted harmless...
September 29, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
John L Fitzstevens, Kelsey C Smith, James I Hagadorn, Melissa J Caimano, Adam P Matson, Elizabeth A Brownell
Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level...
September 27, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Annefleur M Koopen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiota influences the host via different metabolic pathways as inducer of endotoxemia, formation of trimethylamine-N-oxide, production of short chain fatty acids, and is a regulator in intestinal bile acid metabolism...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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