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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789624/interplay-between-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-hiv-infection
#1
EDITORIAL
Jorge F Vázquez-Castellanos, Sergio Serrano-Villar, Nuria Jiménez-Hernández, María Dolores Soto Del Rio, Sara Gayo, David Rojo, Manuel Ferrer, Coral Barbas, Santiago Moreno, Vicente Estrada, Tomas Rattei, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, María José Gosalbes
HIV infection causes a disruption of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, driving a shift in the composition of gut microbiota. A deeper understanding of the metabolic changes and how they affect the interplay with the host is needed. Here, we assessed functional modifications of HIV-associated microbiota by combining metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses. The transcriptionally active microbiota was well-adapted to the inflamed environment, overexpressing pathways related to resistance to oxidative stress...
May 23, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787870/oral-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-and-serum-metabolism
#2
Juan Liu, Shijun Yue, Zhirui Yan, Wuwen Feng, Xintong Meng, Aiting Wang, Cheng Peng, Changyun Wang, Dan Yan
Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity, the safe and effective treatment of obesity would be beneficial. Here, we examined whether oral hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active compound from the dried florets of Carthamus tinctorius L., can reduce high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 J mice. Our results showed that the average body weight of HF group treated by HSYA was significantly lower than that of the HF group (P < 0.01). HSYA also reduced fat accumulation, ameliorated insulin resistance, restored glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, enhanced intestinal integrity, and increased short-chain fatty acids ((SCFAs)) production in HF diet-fed mice...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781336/advances-in-the-treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#3
Wenjun Wang, Ying Xu, Chang Jiang, Yanhang Gao
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) is a costly and worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Specific effective treatments for SAH have yet to be established. The aim of the present article is to review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, assessment, and treatment options in patients with SAH. To date, alcohol abstinence and enteral nutrition are the recommended first-line treatments. Although corticosteroids remain the preferred therapy for certain patients with a modified Maddrey discriminant function level greater than 54, they only improve short-term survival rates...
May 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779873/short-term-intermittent-fasting-induces-long-lasting-gut-health-and-tor-independent-lifespan-extension
#4
James H Catterson, Mobina Khericha, Miranda C Dyson, Alec J Vincent, Rebecca Callard, Steven M Haveron, Arjunan Rajasingam, Mumtaz Ahmad, Linda Partridge
Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF...
May 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778465/roles-for-selenium-and-selenoprotein-p-in-the-development-progression-and-prevention-of-intestinal-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sarah P Short, Jennifer M Pilat, Christopher S Williams
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential to human health, the function of which is mediated in part by incorporation into a class of proteins known as selenoproteins (SePs). As many SePs serve antioxidant functions, Se has long been postulated to protect against inflammation and cancer development in the gut by attenuating oxidative stress. Indeed, numerous studies over the years have correlated Se levels with incidence and severity of intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
May 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771163/review-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-as-a-treatment-option-in-ibd
#6
Kavitha Sivananthan, Andreas Munk Petersen
CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles...
May 17, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770706/intestinal-transplants-review-of-normal-imaging-appearance-and-complications
#7
Bashir Hakim, Daniel T Myers, Todd R Williams, Shunji Nagai, John Bonnett
Intestinal transplant (IT) is one of the least common forms of organ transplant but is increasing both in volume of cases and number of centers performing intestinal transplants, with the busiest centers in North America and Europe. IT can be performed in isolation or as part of a multivisceral transplant (MVT). Intestinal failure either in the form of short gut syndrome or functional bowel problems is the primary indication for IT. The normal post-surgical anatomy can be variable due to both recipient anatomy in regard to amount of residual bowel and status of native vasculature as well as whether the transplant is isolated or part of an multivisceral transplant...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770190/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-dissolved-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-on-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#8
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuko Hirai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yuji Naito
Increasing evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen-dissolved alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) has various physiological activities such as antioxidative activity. Gut microbiota are deeply associated with our health through a symbiotic relationship. Recent reports have described that most gastrointestinal microbial species encode the genetic capacity to metabolize molecular hydrogen, meaning that molecular hydrogen might affect the gut microbial composition. Nevertheless, AEW effects on gut microbiota remain unknown...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770134/comparative-immune-and-stress-related-transcript-response-induced-by-air-exposure-and-vibrio-anguillarum-bacterin-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-mucosal-surfaces
#9
Ali Reza Khansari, Joan Carles Balasch, Eva Vallejos-Vidal, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
Fish have to face various environmental challenges that may compromise the efficacy of the immune response in mucosal surfaces. Since the effect of acute stress on mucosal barriers in fish has still not been fully elucidated, we aimed to compare the short-term mucosal stress and immune transcriptomic responses in a freshwater (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ) and a marine fish (gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata ) to bacterial immersion ( Vibrio anguillarum bacterin vaccine) and air exposure stress in skin, gills, and intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767564/interorgan-metabolic-crosstalk-in-human-insulin-resistance
#10
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767160/effects-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-and-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acid-concentrations-of-broilers-in-an-experimental-necrotic-enteritis-model
#11
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767145/an-increase-in-corn-resistant-starch-decreases-protein-fermentation-and-modulates-gut-microbiota-during-in-vitro-cultivation-of-pig-large-intestinal-inocula
#12
Xiangyu He, Weiwei Sun, Ting Ge, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
High-protein diet could cause an increase in protein fermentation in the large intestine, leading to an increased production of potentially detrimental metabolites. We hypothesized that an increase in corn resistant starch content may attenuate the protein fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistant starch on protein fermentation by inocula from large intestine of pigs using in vitro cultivation. Fermentation patterns were analyzed during a 24-h incubation of cecal and colonic digesta with varying corn resistant starch contents, using casein protein as sole nitrogen source...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766722/effects-of-whole-grain-rice-and-wheat-on-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-rats
#13
Fei Han, Yong Wang, Yangyang Han, Jianxin Zhao, Fenli Han, Ge Song, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao
Diets rich in whole grain (WG) cereals bring lower disease risks compared with refined grain-based diets. We investigated the effects of polished rice (PR), refined wheat (RW), unpolished rice (UPR), and whole wheat (WW) on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota in ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of normal rats. Animals fed with UPR and WW diets exhibited higher total SCFA in cecal and colonic digesta compared with those fed with PR and RW diets. Wheat diets contributed higher total SCFA than rice diets...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762726/supplementation-with-organic-acids-showing-different-effects-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-microbiota-of-weaned-pigs-fed-with-highly-or-less-digestible-diets
#14
S Li, J Zheng, K Deng, L Chen, X L Zhao, X M Jiang, Z F Fang, L Q Che, S Y Xu, B Feng, J Li, Y Lin, Y Y Wu, Y M Han, De Wu
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) supplementation in a highly digestible (Exp. 1) or a less digestible diet (Exp. 2) on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 pigs weaned at day 21 were assigned to one of five dietary treatments: negative control (NC) (basal diet, 3,000 ppm ZnO in the first 2 weeks only); positive control (PC) (NC plus 10 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 5 mg/kg olaquindox); OA1 (NC plus a 0...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#15
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758009/a-review-on-the-weight-loss-effects-of-oxidized-tea-polyphenols
#16
REVIEW
Dylan O'Neill Rothenberg, Caibi Zhou, Lingyun Zhang
The mechanistic systems in the body through which tea causes weight loss are complex and multi-dimensional. Additionally, the bioactive components in tea such as catechins, caffeine, and products of tea polyphenol oxidation vary greatly from one major tea type to the next. Green tea has been the primary subject of consideration for investigation into the preventative health effects of tea because it contains the highest levels of phenolic compounds and retains the highest antioxidant capabilities of any major tea type...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757949/effects-of-dietary-intake-of-japanese-mushrooms-on-visceral-fat-accumulation-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#17
Takamitsu Shimizu, Koichiro Mori, Kenji Ouchi, Mamoru Kushida, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together in realistic quantities. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with a variety of mushroom types affects visceral fat accumulation and gut microbiota in mice. The most popular mushroom varieties in Japan were lyophilized and mixed according to their local production ratios...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757343/dietary-fiber-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-composition-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Daniel So, Kevin Whelan, Megan Rossi, Mark Morrison, Gerald Holtmann, Jaimon T Kelly, Erin R Shanahan, Heidi M Staudacher, Katrina L Campbell
Background: Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755475/impact-of-a-3-months-vegetarian-diet-on-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-repertoire
#19
Chenchen Zhang, Andrea Björkman, Kaiye Cai, Guilin Liu, Chunlin Wang, Yin Li, Huihua Xia, Lijun Sun, Karsten Kristiansen, Jun Wang, Jian Han, Lennart Hammarström, Qiang Pan-Hammarström
The dietary pattern can influence the immune system directly, but may also modulate it indirectly by regulating the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of a 3-months lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on the diversity of gut microbiota and the immune system in healthy omnivorous volunteers, using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The short-term vegetarian diet did not have any major effect on the diversity of the immune system and the overall composition of the metagenome. The prevalence of bacterial genera/species with known beneficial effects on the intestine, including butyrate-producers and probiotic species and the balance of autoimmune-related variable genes/families were, however, altered in the short-term vegetarians...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754286/systematic-review-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-dietary-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
David Houghton, Timothy Hardy, Christopher Stewart, Linda Errington, Christopher P Day, Michael I Trenell, Leah Avery
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explanations for individual variability in disease progression and response to treatment are incomplete. The gut microbiota has been linked to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may account for this variability. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions in modulating the gut microbiota and improving glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
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