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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141573/liver-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-interaction-between-its-chemical-composition-and-the-cell-signaling-pathways-involved-in-protection
#1
Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The liver is an organ susceptible to a multitude of injuries that causes liver damage, like steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), presents several protective effects on the liver, reducing hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrogenesis, preventing lipid peroxidation, among other effects. Due to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, EVOO is able to participate in the activation of different signaling pathways in the hepatocytes involved in the prevention of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, allowing the prevention or resolution of liver damage...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126873/dual-role-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-in-the-progression-and-reversion-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Águeda González-Rodríguez, M Pilar Valdecantos, Patricia Rada, Annalisa Addante, Inés Barahona, Esther Rey, Virginia Pardo, Laura Ruiz, Laura M Laiglesia, María J Moreno-Aliaga, Carmelo García-Monzón, Aránzazu Sánchez, Ángela M Valverde
OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative modulator of insulin and cytokine signaling, is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. We investigated the impact of PTP1B deficiency during NAFLD, particularly in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: NASH features were evaluated in livers from wild-type (PTP1BWT) and PTP1B-deficient (PTP1BKO) mice fed methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 8 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122967/hepatic-accumulation-of-s-adenosylmethionine-in-hamsters-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-associated-to-metabolic-syndrome-under-selenium-and-vitamin-e-deficiency
#3
Josep M Del Bas, Benjamín Rodríguez, Francesc Puiggròs, Silvia Mariné, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, David Moriña, Lluís Armengol, Antoni Caimari, Lluís Arola
Progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the context of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is only partially explored due to the lack of preclinical models. In order to study the alterations in hepatic metabolism that accompany this condition, we developed a model of MetS accompanied by the onset of steatohepatitis (NASH) by challenging golden hamsters with a high fat diet low in vitamin E and selenium (HFD), since combined deficiency results in hepatic necroinflammation in rodents. Metabolomics and transcriptomics integrated analyses of livers revealed an unexpected accumulation of hepatic S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) when compared with healthy livers likely due to diminished methylation reactions and repression of GNMT...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122694/pharmacotherapy-for-nash-current-and-emerging
#4
REVIEW
Monica A Konerman, Jacob C Jones, Stephen A Harrison
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prominent forms of chronic liver disease worldwide as a reflection of the global obesity epidemic. Those with the progressive variant of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are at significantly increased risk for multisystem morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no approved pharmacologic therapies for NASH. Given the disease burden, there is an important unmet need for pharmacologic treatment options for this patient population...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122391/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-nafld-and-nash-clinical-impact
#5
REVIEW
Mohammed Eslam, Luca Valenti, Stefano Romeo
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognised as the most common liver disease worldwide. It encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions, from simple steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A hallmark of NAFLD is the substantial inter-patient variation in disease progression. NAFLD is considered a complex disease trait such that interactions between the environment and a susceptible polygenic host background determine disease phenotype and influence progression...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121925/advances-and-challenges-in-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension
#6
Annalisa Berzigotti
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the fourth cause of death in adults in Western countries, with complications of portal hypertension being responsible for most casualties. In order to reduce mortality, development of accurate diagnostic methods for early diagnosis, effective etiologic treatment, improved pharmacological therapy for portal hypertension, and effective therapies for end-stage liver failure are required. DISCUSSION: Early detection of cirrhosis and portal hypertension is now possible using simple non-invasive methods, leading to the advancement of individualized risk stratification in clinical practice...
November 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118867/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-africa-and-middle-east-an-attempt-to-predict-the-present-and-future-implications-on-the-healthcare-system
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed H Ahmed, Sufian K Noor, Sarra O Bushara, Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Ibrahim A Ginawi, Meissa M Osman, Abdalhafeez O Mahmoud, Ahmed O Almobarak
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a group of hepatic diseases that range in severity. NAFLD is increasingly recognized as an epidemic among different populations, including those in Africa and the Middle East. The objective of this narrative review is to document the prevalence of and risk factors for NAFLD in Africa and the Middle East and the potential implications on the healthcare systems. An in-depth search on Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed was conducted using the terms "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease" and "non-alcoholic steatohepatitis", in addition to "prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD", with special emphasis on Africa and the Middle East countries...
October 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118561/pilot-study-of-the-prevalence-of-binge-eating-disorder-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients
#8
Jinyu Zhang, Omair Abbasi, Lev Malevanchik, Neena Mohan, Richard Denicola, Nicholas Tarangelo, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the United States. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common form of eating disorder. NAFLD and BED have similar risk factors, including obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to examine prevalence of BED in NAFLD patients. Methods: We administered the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a questionnaire validated to screen for BED, to NAFLD patients at our Fatty Liver Center...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115682/risk-factors-for-biopsy-proven-advanced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#9
Y A Patel, E J Gifford, L M Glass, R McNeil, M J Turner, B Han, D Provenzale, S S Choi, C A Moylan, C M Hunt
BACKGROUND: With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). AIMS: To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. METHODS: In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver...
November 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111158/non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-induces-transient-changes-within-the-liver-macrophage-pool
#10
Lindsey Devisscher, Charlotte L Scott, Sander Lefere, Sarah Raevens, Eliene Bogaerts, Annelies Paridaens, Xavier Verhelst, Anja Geerts, Martin Guilliams, Hans Van Vlierberghe
Kupffer cells (KCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages are implicated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis but their functions remain unclear due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish between the different cell types. Additionally, it is unclear if multiple subsets of KCs are present during NASH. Here, we characterized the liver macrophage subsets during methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH and recovery. We observed a significant reduced contribution of Ly6C(lo)Clec4F(+)Tim4(+)KCs to the hepatic macrophage pool in MCD fed mice, which normalized during recovery...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108122/pyroptosis-by-caspase11-4-gasdermin-d-pathway-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#11
Elena Khanova, Raymond Wu, Wen Wang, Rui Yan, Yibu Chen, Samuel W French, Cristina Llorente, Stephanie Q Pan, Qihong Yang, Yuchang Li, Raul Lazaro, Charles Ansong, Richard D Smith, Ramon Bataller, Timothy Morgan, Bernd Schnabl, Hidekazu Tsukamoto
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) continues to be a disease with high mortality and no efficacious medical treatment. Although severe AH is presented as acute on chronic liver failure, what underlies this transition from chronic alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) to AH, is largely unknown. To address this question, unbiased RNA-seq and proteomic analyses were performed on livers of the recently developed AH mouse model which exhibits the shift to AH from chronic ASH upon weekly alcohol binge, and these results are compared with gene expression profiling data from AH patients...
November 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100373/chronically-high-level-of-tgfb1a-induction-causes-both-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cholangiocarcinoma-via-a-dominant-erk-pathway-in-zebrafish
#12
Chuan Yan, Qiqi Yang, Han-Ming Shen, Jan M Spitsbergen, Zhiyuan Gong
Liver cancers including both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have increased steadily with the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the underlying mechanism for the transition from NASH to liver cancers remains unclear. Here we first employed diet-induced NASH zebrafish and found that elevated level of satiety hormone, leptin, induced overexpression of tgfb1. Then we developed tgfb1a transgenic zebrafish for inducible, hepatocyte-specific expression. Interestingly, chronically high tgfb1a induction in hepatocytes could concurrently drive both HCC and CCA...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098545/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-morbidly-obese-individuals-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-prevalence-and-effect-of-the-pre-bariatric-very-low-calorie-diet
#13
Katherine J P Schwenger, Sandra E Fischer, Timothy D Jackson, Allan Okrainec, Johane P Allard
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 75 to 100% of the patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BSx), with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) being present in 24 to 98% of the patients. We do not know whether these rates were before or after a very low calorie diet (VLCD) often prescribed before laparoscopic BSx and what is the prevalence of NAFLD post-VLCD. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of simple steatosis (SS) and NASH in obese individuals undergoing BSx post-VLCD and assess biochemical markers pre- and post-VLCD in a subgroup of patients...
November 2, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098111/bile-acid-receptors-link-nutrient-sensing-to-metabolic-regulation
#14
Jibiao Li, Tiangang Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in Western populations. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more debilitating form of NAFLD characterized by hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which significantly increase the risk of end-stage liver and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, there are no available drug therapies for NASH. Bile acids are physiological detergent molecules that are synthesized from cholesterol exclusively in the hepatocytes. Bile acids circulate between the liver and intestine, where they are required for cholesterol solubilization in the bile and dietary fat emulsification in the gut...
June 2017: Liver Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097281/steatosis-and-nash-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
Mengyue Hu, Franck Phan, Olivier Bourron, Pascal Ferré, Fabienne Foufelle
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the world, encompassing various conditions ranging from simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The association between NAFLD and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is strong and complex, given that the prevalence of NAFLD is particularly high in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. In fact, insulin resistance occurring in this metabolic disease can promote NAFLD development, and vice versa, NAFLD can enhance insulin resistance...
October 31, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095942/serum-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-levels-are-not-associated-with-either-histological-severity-or-treatment-response-in-children-and-adults-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Katherine P Yates, Ross Deppe, Megan Comerford, Howard Masuoka, Oscar W Cummings, James Tonascia, Naga Chalasani, Raj Vuppalanchi
AIM: Serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory molecule that could potentially serve as a biomarker for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its correlation with degree of liver fibrosis. The aim of the current study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between serum HMGB1 levels and liver histology in adults and children with NAFLD participating in two large randomized controlled trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083037/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
C A Woodhouse, V C Patel, A Singanayagam, D L Shawcross
BACKGROUND: Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. AIM: To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver...
October 30, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077272/inhibition-of-md2-dependent-inflammation-attenuates-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Yali Zhang, Beibei Wu, Hailing Zhang, Xiangting Ge, Shilong Ying, Mengwei Hu, Weixin Li, Yi Huang, Li Wang, Chao Chen, Xiaoou Shan, Guang Liang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can progress to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by inflammatory injury and fibrosis. The pathogenic basis of NAFLD progressing to NASH is currently unknown, but growing evidence suggests MD2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2), an accessory protein of TLR4, is an important signalling component contributing to this disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of the specific MD2 inhibitor, L6H21, in reducing inflammatory liver injury in a relevant high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model of NASH and in the palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated human liver cell line (HepG2)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076589/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-histological-scoring-systems-a-large-cohort-single-center-evaluation-study
#19
Archana Rastogi, Saggere Muralikrishna Shasthry, Ayushi Agarwal, Chhagan Bihari, Priyanka Jain, Ankur Jindal, Shiv Sarin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease. Till date, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for identification and quantification of the wide histological spectra of NAFLD. Histological scorings are very useful and widely applied for the diagnosis and management in clinical trials and follow-up studies of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, in view of scarce published literature, there is a need to evaluate them in large cohort of NAFLD. This study was aimed to evaluate the two histological scoring systems (NAS-CRN, SAF) in the diagnosis of NAFLD and to assess the role of histological characteristics as injury markers in NAFLD...
November 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075899/immunoglobulin-a-and-liver-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Tatsuo Inamine, Bernd Schnabl
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a major immunoglobulin isotype in the gut and plays a role in maintenance of gut homeostasis. Secretory IgA (SIgA) has multiple functions in the gut, such as to regulate microbiota composition, to protect intestinal epithelium from pathogenic microorganisms, and to help for immune-system development. The liver is the front-line organ that receives gut-derived products through the portal vein, implying that the liver could be severely affected by a disrupted intestinal homeostasis. Indeed, some liver diseases like alcoholic liver disease are associated with an altered composition of gut microbiota and increased blood endotoxin levels...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
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