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Epileptogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632301/regulation-of-kindling-epileptogenesis-by-hippocampal-toll-like-receptors-2
#2
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Ashley Reynolds, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
This study examined whether Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) contribute to rapid kindling epileptogenesis. A TLR2 agonist, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), LTA antibody (LTA-A), or normal saline (control) was administered daily over 3 consecutive days, unilaterally into ventral hippocampus of adult male Wistar rats. Thirty minutes after the last injection, the animals were subjected to a rapid kindling procedure. The ictogenesis was gauged by comparing afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and afterdischarge duration (ADD) before the treatments, after the treatments prior to kindling, and 24 h after kindling...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620084/multidimensional-genetic-analysis-of-repeated-seizures-in-the-hybrid-mouse-diversity-panel-reveals-a-novel-epileptogenesis-susceptibility-locus
#3
Russell J Ferland, Jason Smith, Dominick Papandrea, Jessica Gracias, Leah Hains, Sridhar B Kadiyala, Brittany O'Brien, Eun Yong Kang, Barbara S Beyer, Bruce J Herron
Epilepsy has many causes and comorbidities affecting as many as 4% of people in their lifetime. Both idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies are highly heritable, but genetic factors are difficult to characterize among humans due to complex disease etiologies. Rodent genetic studies have been critical to the discovery of seizure susceptibility loci, including Kcnj10 mutations identified in both mouse and human cohorts. However, genetic analyses of epilepsy phenotypes in mice to date have been carried out as acute studies in seizure-naive animals or in Mendelian models of epilepsy, while humans with epilepsy have a history of recurrent seizures that also modify brain physiology...
June 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605962/novel-approach-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-epileptic-dogs-t2-relaxometry-of-the-brain-with-emphasised-hippocampus
#4
Borbála A Lorincz, Agustina Anson, Péter Csébi, Gábor Bajzik, Gergely Biró, Alexander Tichy, Balázs B Lorincz, Rita Garamvölgyi
Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common imaging finding of intractable human epilepsy, and it may play an important role in canine and feline epileptogenesis and seizure semiology, too. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of hippocampal sclerosis are T2 hyperintensity, shrinkage and loss of internal structure. The detection of these changes is often challenging by subjective visual assessment of qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images. The recognition is more reliable with quantitative MR methods, such as T2 relaxometry...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605629/analytic-information-processing-style-in-epilepsy-patients
#5
Marzia Buonfiglio, Francesco Di Sabato, Silvia Mandillo, Mariarita Albini, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Annateresa Giallonardo, Giuliano Avanzini
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591482/hypothalamic-hamartoma-epileptogenesis-beyond-the-lesion
#6
Julia Scholly, Anke Maren Staack, Philippe Kahane, Didier Scavarda, Jean Régis, Edouard Hirsch, Fabrice Bartolomei
The discovery of intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) marked a new area in understanding the associated clinical syndrome, often manifesting as progressive epileptic encephalopathy. However, therapeutic procedures targeting the HH proved to be inefficient to cure seizures in up to 50% of cases, whereas in cases with partial improvement, the electroclinical patterns of persisting seizures suggest an involvement of distant cortical regions. The concept of kindling-like secondary epileptogenesis has been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591478/hypothalamic-hamartoma-neuropathology-and-epileptogenesis
#7
John F Kerrigan, Angela Parsons, Candy Tsang, Kristina Simeone, Stephen Coons, Jie Wu
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are congenital malformations of the ventral hypothalamus resulting in treatment-resistant epilepsy and are intrinsically epileptogenic for the gelastic seizures that are the hallmark symptom of this disorder. This paper reviews the neuropathologic features of HHs associated with epilepsy, with an emphasis on characterizing neuron phenotypes and an ultimate goal of understanding the cellular model of ictogenesis occurring locally within this tissue. We also present previously unpublished findings on Golgi staining of HH...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591476/clinical-features-and-evolution-of-the-gelastic-seizures-hypothalamic-hamartoma-syndrome
#8
Salvatore Striano, Pasquale Striano
Gelastic seizures, usually with onset in early infancy, are the hallmark manifestation of hypothalamic hamartoma. This seizure type is directly generated by hamartoma itself, intrinsically epileptogenic because of its anatomofunctional organization. Other types of seizures, focal or generalized, may appear during the evolution, probably resulting from mechanisms of secondary epileptogenesis. Nevertheless, the clinical expression and the severity of the syndrome, ranging from a focal drug-resistant epilepsy to a catastrophic generalized encephalopathy with severe cognitive and behavioral impairments, depends on the size and the site of attachment of the hamartoma...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589912/epigenetic-control-of-epileptogenesis-by-mir-146a
#9
EDITORIAL
Valentina Iori, Eleonora Aronica, Annamaria Vezzani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588256/rapamycin-attenuates-acute-seizure-induced-astrocyte-injury-in-mice-in-vivo
#10
Dongjun Guo, Jia Zou, Michael Wong
Astrocytes have been implicated in epileptogenesis and seizure-induced brain injury. Pathological studies reveal a variety of structural abnormalities in astrocytes, such as vacuolization and astrogliosis. While in vivo imaging methods have demonstrated rapid changes in astrocytes under a variety of physiological and pathological conditions, the acute effects of seizures on astrocyte morphology in vivo and corresponding mechanisms of seizure-induced astrocytic injury have not been documented. In this study, we utilized in vivo two-photon imaging to directly monitor the acute structural effects of kainate-induced seizures on cortical astrocytes...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584127/dynamic-changes-in-murine-forebrain-mir-211-expression-associate-with-cholinergic-imbalances-and-epileptiform-activity
#11
Uriya Bekenstein, Nibha Mishra, Dan Z Milikovsky, Geula Hanin, Daniel Zelig, Liron Sheintuch, Amit Berson, David S Greenberg, Alon Friedman, Hermona Soreq
Epilepsy is a common neurological disease, manifested in unprovoked recurrent seizures. Epileptogenesis may develop due to genetic or pharmacological origins or following injury, but it remains unclear how the unaffected brain escapes this susceptibility to seizures. Here, we report that dynamic changes in forebrain microRNA (miR)-211 in the mouse brain shift the threshold for spontaneous and pharmacologically induced seizures alongside changes in the cholinergic pathway genes, implicating this miR in the avoidance of seizures...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576708/a-systems-level-analysis-of-epileptogenesis-associated-proteome-alterations
#12
Michael Keck, Ganna Androsova, Fabio Gualtieri, Andreas Walker, Eva-Lotta von Rüden, Vera Russmann, Cornelia A Deeg, Stefanie M Hauck, Roland Krause, Heidrun Potschka
Despite intense research efforts, the knowledge about the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and epilepsy is still considered incomplete and limited. However, an in-depth understanding of molecular pathophysiological processes is crucial for the rational selection of innovative biomarkers and target candidates. Here, we subjected proteomic data from different phases of a chronic rat epileptogenesis model to a comprehensive systems level analysis. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network analysis identified several modules of interconnected protein groups reflecting distinct molecular aspects of epileptogenesis in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal cortex...
May 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575153/targeting-oxidative-stress-improves-disease-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-acquired-epilepsy
#13
Alberto Pauletti, Gaetano Terrone, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Alessia Salamone, Teresa Ravizza, Massimo Rizzi, Anna Pastore, Rosaria Pascente, Li-Ping Liang, Bianca R Villa, Silvia Balosso, Andrey Y Abramov, Erwin A van Vliet, Ennio Del Giudice, Eleonora Aronica, Daniel J Antoine, Manisha Patel, Matthew C Walker, Annamaria Vezzani
Epilepsy therapy is based on antiseizure drugs that treat the symptom, seizures, rather than the disease and are ineffective in up to 30% of patients. There are no treatments for modifying the disease-preventing seizure onset, reducing severity or improving prognosis. Among the potential molecular targets for attaining these unmet therapeutic needs, we focused on oxidative stress since it is a pathophysiological process commonly occurring in experimental epileptogenesis and observed in human epilepsy. Using a rat model of acquired epilepsy induced by electrical status epilepticus, we show that oxidative stress occurs in both neurons and astrocytes during epileptogenesis, as assessed by measuring biochemical and histological markers...
May 30, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574317/reoperation-after-failed-resective-epilepsy-surgery-in-children
#14
Osama Muthaffar, Klajdi Puka, Luc Rubinger, Cristina Go, O Carter Snead, James T Rutka, Elysa Widjaja
OBJECTIVE Although epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment option, at least 20%-40% of patients can continue to experience uncontrolled seizures resulting from incomplete resection of the lesion, epileptogenic zone, or secondary epileptogenesis. Reoperation could eliminate or improve seizures. Authors of this study evaluated outcomes following reoperation in a pediatric population. METHODS A retrospective single-center analysis of all patients who had undergone resective epilepsy surgery in the period from 2001 to 2013 was performed...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573671/validation-of-reference-genes-for-quantitative-gene-expression-analysis-in-experimental-epilepsy
#15
Chinmaya Sadangi, Felix Rosenow, Braxton A Norwood
To grasp the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) and epilepsy itself, it is important to understand the gene expression changes that occur during these phases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a technique that rapidly and accurately determines gene expression changes. It is crucial, however, that stable reference genes are selected for each experimental condition to ensure that accurate values are obtained for genes of interest...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572006/electroencephalographic-and-biochemical-long-lasting-abnormalities-in-animal-model-of-febrile-seizure
#16
Haitham S Mohammed, Heba S Aboul Ezz, Heba M Sayed, Maha A Ali
Febrile seizures (FS) are convulsions associated with high body temperature. It has a high incidence in children from the age of 6months to 5years and may have adverse consequences in adulthood. The experimental model of FS could be induced in animals via hyperthermia. The present study was designed to investigate persistent electroencephalographic (EEG), neurochemical and behavioral alterations in adult animals that had experienced complex FS at their immature age. EEG signals were obtained from the cortex of both FS and control normothermic groups of animals...
May 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570965/neurochemical-evidence-based-suggested-therapy-for-safe-management-of-epileptogenesis
#17
Navjot Kaur, Tanveer Singh, Sandeep Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Most of the clinically available antiepileptic drugs have only antiseizure effects and are reported unable to prevent epileptogenesis. In the past decade, several drugs underwent clinical trials for management of epileptogenesis, but none of the drugs tested was found effective. One of the major lacunas is availability of appropriate preclinical approaches to delineate mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Thus, the present study attempts to suggest a neurochemistry based approach for safe management of epileptogenesis...
May 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564591/whole-transcriptome-screening-reveals-the-regulatory-targets-and-functions-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-in-epileptic-rats
#18
Chun-Lei Han, Yun-Peng Liu, Xue-Min Zhao, Kai-Liang Wang, Ning Chen, Wei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Ming Ge, Fan-Gang Meng
Understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating epileptogenesis may lead to the development of preventative therapies against epilepsy. Our previous study demonstrated that the long non-coding RNA H19 contributes to epileptogenesis by aggravating status epilepticus-induced neuronal loss, glial cell activation, mossy fiber sprouting, and cognitive impairments in epileptic rats. However, the systematic functions and downstream targets of H19 associated with epileptogenesis are still unknown. In the present study, high-throughput microarray analysis was used to explore the influence of H19 on gene expression in an epileptic rat model...
May 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562528/microrna-profiling-in-the-dentate-gyrus-in-epileptic-rats-the-role-of-mir-187-3p
#19
Suya Zhang, Yubin Kou, Chunmei Hu, Yan Han
This study aimed to explore the role of aberrant miRNA expression in epilepsy and to identify more potential genes associated with epileptogenesis.The miRNA expression profile of GSE49850, which included 20 samples from the rat epileptic dentate gyrus at 7, 14, 30, and 90 days after electrical stimulation and 20 additional samples from sham time-matched controls, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in stimulated samples at each time point compared to time-matched controls, respectively...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559061/neuropeptides-a-promising-target-for-treating-seizures
#20
REVIEW
Neethi Menon, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
Seizures are serious neurological disorders affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Seizures are characterized by abnormal, repetitive and synchronised firing of the neurons which is produced as a result of imbalance in the levels of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides are found to regulate seizures by rectifying this imbalance. These neuropeptides are stored in the dense core synaptic vesicles, and are released on excitation. This review focuses on certain neuropeptides which can alleviate both, the effects of seizures as well as epileptogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
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