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Epileptogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922108/corrigendum-astrocytic-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-contributes-to-the-development-of-chronic-epileptogenesis
#1
Feng Yang, Xiaolong Sun, Yinxiu Ding, Hui Ma, Tangpeng Ou Yang, Yue Ma, Dong Wei, Wen Li, Tianle Xu, Wen Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920126/postnatal-activation-of-tlr4-in-astrocytes-promotes-excitatory-synaptogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Yi Shen, Huaping Qin, Juan Chen, Lingyan Mou, Yang He, Yixiu Yan, Hang Zhou, Ya Lv, Zhong Chen, Junlu Wang, Yu-Dong Zhou
Astrocytes are critical in synapse development, and their dysfunction in crucial developmental stages leads to serious neurodevelopmental diseases, including seizures and epilepsy. Immune challenges not only affect brain development, but also promote seizure generation and epileptogenesis, implying immune activation is one of the key factors linking seizures and epilepsy to abnormal brain development. In this study, we report that activating astrocytes by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges in the second postnatal week promotes excitatory synapse development, leading to enhanced seizure susceptibility in mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919115/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-clinical-review-and-hypotheses-of-epileptogenesis
#3
Andreas van Baalen, Annamaria Vezzani, Martin Häusler, Gerhard Kluger
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, AERRPS, or DESC) is one of the most severe, mostly irreversible, and presumably immune-mediated epileptic encephalopathies affecting healthy children. Refractory status epilepticus or a cluster of seizures start a few days after the onset of an acute febrile illness; however, encephalitis cannot be proved. Sequelae of FIRES are drug-resistant epilepsy and neuropsychological impairments occurring without latency. Clinical knowledge is limited because FIRES is sporadic and extremely rare...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#5
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905510/remarkable-alterations-of-nav1-6-in-reactive-astrogliosis-during-epileptogenesis
#6
Hongyan Zhu, Yuxiao Zhao, Hao Wu, Nan Jiang, Ziyi Wang, Weide Lin, Jiahui Jin, Yonghua Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a vital role in controlling neuronal excitability. Nav1.6 is the most abundantly expressed VGSCs subtype in the adult central nervous system and has been found to contribute to facilitate the hyperexcitability of neurons after electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE). To clarify the exact expression patterns of Nav1.6 during epileptogenesis, we examined the expression of Nav1.6 at protein and mRNA levels in two distinct animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) including a post-SE model induced by kainic acid (KA) intrahippocampal injection and a kindling model evoked by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891080/enhanced-burst-suppression-and-disruption-of-local-field-potential-synchrony-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-exhibiting-spike-wave-seizures
#7
Anthony J Williams, Chen Zhou, Qian-Quan Sun
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5-13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884611/microglial-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-in-epilepsy-applications-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#9
Gregory Scott, Mohammad Mahmud, David R Owen, Michael R Johnson
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. Microglia are an important mediator of central nervous system inflammation, and the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands which bind the Translocator Protein (TSPO), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein expressed by microglia, has enabled in vivo measurement of neuroinflammation. Here, we outline the principles and potential pitfalls of TSPO PET imaging in relation to epilepsy, and opportunities for using TSPO imaging as a biomarker for future anti-inflammatory based therapeutics in epilepsy...
November 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883181/workshop-on-neurobiology-of-epilepsy-appraisal-imaging-biomarkers-in-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Erwin A van Vliet, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Andrew J Cole, Alon Friedman, Matthias J Koepp, Heidrun Potschka, Riikka Immonen, Asla Pitkänen, Paolo Federico
Neuroimaging offers a wide range of opportunities to obtain information about neuronal activity, brain inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, and various molecular alterations during epileptogenesis or for the prediction of pharmacoresponsiveness as well as postoperative outcome. Imaging biomarkers were examined during the XIII Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (XIII WONOEP) organized in 2015 by the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Here we present an extended summary of the discussed issues and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the biomarker potential of different neuroimaging approaches for epilepsy...
November 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876882/nr4a1-knockdown-suppresses-seizure-activity-by-regulating-surface-expression-of-nr2b
#11
Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Baobing Gao, Yunlin Li, Shuli Liang, Xiaofei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1), a downstream target of CREB that is a key regulator of epileptogenesis, has been implicated in a variety of biological processes and was previously identified as a seizure-associated molecule. However, the relationship between NR4A1 and epileptogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that NR4A1 protein was predominantly expressed in neurons and up-regulated in patients with epilepsy as well as pilocarpine-induced mouse epileptic models. NR4A1 knockdown by lentivirus transfection (lenti-shNR4A1) alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in mouse models...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875989/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r-mediates-epilepsy-induced-sleep-disruption
#12
Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen, Fang-Chia Chang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies emphasize the effect of IL-1 in epilepsy-induced sleep disruption. We herein hypothesized that IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mediates the pathogenesis of epilepsy and epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#13
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871881/targeting-brain-and-peripheral-plasticity-of-the-lipidome-in-acute-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-via-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#15
Raissa Lerner, Julia Post, Sebastian Loch, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Epilepsy is a highly common chronic neurological disorder, manifested in many different types, affecting ~1% of the worldwide human population. The molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis has not yet been clarified, and pharmacoresistance exhibited by 30-40% of epilepsy patients remains a major obstacle in medical care. Growing evidence indicates a role of lipid signalling pathways in epileptogenesis, thus lipid signals emerge as potential biomarkers for the onset and evolving course of the epileptic disorder, as well as potential therapeutic agents and targets...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870400/sex-differences-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-neurosteroids
#16
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizure types; however, some sex-specific seizure disorders are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, substantial data indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs between the sexes. Men generally exhibit greater seizure susceptibility than women, whereas many women with epilepsy experience a cyclical occurrence of seizures that tends to center around the menstrual period, which has been termed catamenial epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857621/how-and-why-study-posttraumatic-epileptogenesis-in-animal-models
#17
Bret N Smith
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) greatly increases the risk of medically intractable epilepsy. Several models of TBI have been developed to investigate the relationship between TBI and posttraumatic epileptogenesis. Because the incident that precipitates development of epilepsy is known, studying mechanisms of epileptogenesis, identifying biomarkers to predict PTE, and developing treatments to prevent epilepsy after TBI are attainable research goals.
November 2016: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852797/modulation-of-mir-146a-complement-factor-h-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Fang He, Bei Liu, Qiang Meng, Yang Sun, Weiwen Wang, Chao Wang
Increasing evidence supports the involvement of inflammatory and immune processes in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MicroRNAs (miRNA) represent small regulatory RNA molecules that have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression controlling different biological processes, including immune-system homeostasis and function. We investigated the expression and cellular distribution of miRNA-146a (miR-146a) in a rat model of TLE. Prominent upregulation of miR-146a activation was evident at 1 week after status epilepticus (SE) and persisted in the chronic phase...
November 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843503/review-cav2-3-r-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channels-functional-implications-in-convulsive-and-non-convulsive-seizure-activity
#19
Carola Wormuth, Andreas Lundt, Christina Henseler, Ralf Müller, Karl Broich, Anna Papazoglou, Marco Weiergräber
BACKGROUND: Researchers have gained substantial insight into mechanisms of synaptic transmission, hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration within the last decades. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are of central relevance in these processes. In particular, they are key elements in the etiopathogenesis of numerous seizure types and epilepsies. Earlier studies predominantly targeted on Cav2.1 P/Q-type and Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels relevant for absence epileptogenesis. Recent findings bring other channels entities more into focus such as the Cav2...
2016: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823573/the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-pathway-in-epilepsy-a-possible-role-for-the-immunomodulator-drug-fingolimod-in-epilepsy-treatment
#20
Antonio Leo, Rita Citraro, Rosario Marra, Ernesto Palma, Eugenio Donato Di Paola, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo
It is currently known that erythrocytes are the major source of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the body. S1P acts both extracellularly as a cellular mediator and intracellularly as an important second messenger molecule. Its effects are mediated by interaction with five specific types of G protein-coupled S1P receptor. Fingolimod, is a recognized modulator of S1P receptors, and is the first orally active disease-modifying therapy that has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that fingolimod may be effective in multiple sclerosis MS by preventing blood-brain barrier disruption and brain atrophy...
November 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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