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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#1
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636546/changes-of-peripheral-lymphocyte-subsets-and-cytokine-environment-during-ageing-and-deteriorating-gastrointestinal-tract-health-status
#2
Jing Wang, Guodong Yang, Dongfang Wang, Kuiliang Liu, Yongchao Ma, Hong Liu, Jing Wu, Min Fang
Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by ageing have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the ageing and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proportion of NK cells, CD8+ T cells and NKT cells remained relatively unchanged with ageing...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633561/regulation-of-energy-homeostasis-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#3
Martin L Yarmush, Matthew D'Alessandro, Nima Saeidi
The obesity epidemic continues to escalate each year in the United States more than anywhere else in the world. The existing pharmaceutical and other nonsurgical treatments for morbid obesity produce suboptimal physiologic outcomes compared with those of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB has been the gold standard of bariatric surgery because the beneficial long-term outcomes, which include sustainable weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution, are far superior to those obtained with other bariatric surgeries...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#4
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625262/-predictive-value-of-sofa-score-combined-agi-grading-system-in-elderly-patients-with-sepsis-a-retrospective-analysis-with-91-patients
#5
Lingling Wang, Rui Chen, Zexun Mo, Jiahui Dong, Zhaokun Sun, Fei Xiao, Shaoting Hu, Richeng Xiong, Jie Sun, Zhou Yu, Zhenhui Guo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictive value of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score combined the acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grading system in critical elderly patients with sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Elderly patients with sepsis aged > 60 years admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) of General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command from March 2014 to December 2015 and experiencing critical care over 48 hours were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625257/-albumin-corrected-anion-gap-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-long-term-mortality-of-patients-with-sepsis
#6
Xiaoli He, Xuelian Liao, Zhichao Xie, Chao Jiang, Yan Kang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether albumin corrected anion gap (ACAG) is associated with long-term mortality of sepsis patients. METHODS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of sepsis within the first 24 hours (from December 2013 to December 2014) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included via the Sepsis database of West China Hospital Sichuan University. To record their long-term survival, patients were followed up by telephone interview one year after enrollment...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#7
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#9
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#10
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#11
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#12
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615302/ccr2-dependent-monocyte-derived-macrophages-resolve-inflammation-and-restore-gut-motility-in-postoperative-ileus
#13
Giovanna Farro, Michelle Stakenborg, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Evelien Labeeuw, Gera Goverse, Martina Di Giovangiulio, Nathalie Stakenborg, Elisa Meroni, Francesca D'Errico, Yvon Elkrim, Damya Laoui, Zofia M Lisowski, Kristin A Sauter, David A Hume, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Guy E Boeckxstaens, Gianluca Matteoli
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative ileus (POI) is assumed to result from myeloid cells infiltrating the intestinal muscularis externa (ME) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In the current study, we investigated the role of infiltrating monocytes in a murine model of intestinal manipulation (IM)-induced POI in order to clarify whether monocytes mediate tissue damage and intestinal dysfunction or they are rather involved in the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. DESIGN: IM was performed in mice with defective monocyte migration to tissues (C-C motif chemokine receptor 2, Ccr2(-/ (-)) mice) and wild-type (WT) mice to study the role of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) during onset and resolution of ME inflammation...
June 14, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614053/estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors-in-the-modulation-of-gastrointestinal-epithelial-secretion
#14
REVIEW
Xin Yang, Yanjun Guo, Jialin He, Fenglian Zhang, Xuemei Sun, Shiming Yang, Hui Dong
Gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial ion transport is physiologically important in many aspects of humans, such as in maintaining fluid balance of whole body, and also plays a role in the development and progression of common GI disease. Estrogen and estrogen receptors have been shown to modulate the activity of epithelial ion secretion in GI tract. This review aims to address the current state of knowledge about the role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in modulation of GI epithelial secretion and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613945/correlation-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-data-on-food-digestion-what-can-we-predict-with-static-in-vitro-digestion-models
#15
T Bohn, F Carriere, L Day, A Deglaire, L Egger, D Freitas, M Golding, S Le Feunteun, A Macierzanka, O Menard, B Miralles, A Moscovici, R Portmann, I Recio, D Rémond, V Santé-Lhoutelier, T J Wooster, U Lesmes, A R Mackie, D Dupont
During the last decade, there has been a growing interest in understanding food's digestive fate in order to strengthen the possible effects of food on human health. Ideally, food digestion should be studied in vivo on humans but this is not always ethically and financially possible. Therefore, simple in vitro digestion models mimicking the gastrointestinal tract have been proposed as alternatives to in vivo experiments. Thus, it is no surprise that these models are increasingly used by the scientific community, although their various limitations to fully mirror the complexity of the digestive tract...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611555/a-case-of-gastric-antral-vascular-ectasia-which-was-aggravated-by-acid-reducer
#16
Yukiomi Nakade, Tomonori Ozeki, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Tadahisa Inoue, Takaya Yamamoto, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Kiyoaki Ito, Masashi Yoneda
Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC) has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609123/bioactive-peptides-derived-from-egg-proteins-a-review
#17
Ya-Fei Liu, Indrawati Oey, Phil Bremer, Alan Carne, Pat Silcock
Egg proteins have various functional and biological activities which make them potential precursor proteins for bioactive peptide production. Simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis using non-gastrointestinal proteases have been used as tools to produce these peptides. Bioactive peptides derived from egg proteins are reported to display various biological activities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory (antihypertensive), antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and iron-/calcium-binding activities...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606522/functionality-and-nutritional-aspects-of-microcrystalline-cellulose-in-food
#18
REVIEW
John Nsor-Atindana, Maoshen Chen, H Douglas Goff, Fang Zhong, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Yue Li
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is among the most commonly used cellulose derivatives in the food industry. In order assess the recent advances of MCC in food product development and its associated nutraceutical implications, google scholar and database of journals subscribed by Jiangnan university, China were used to source literature. Recently published research articles that reported physicochemical properties of MCC for food application or potential application in food and nutraceutical functions were reviewed and major findings outlined...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605224/effect-of-a-cooling-kit-on-physiology-and-performance-following-exercise-in-the-heat
#19
Cody R Smith, Cory L Butts, J D Adams, Matthew A Tucker, Nicole E Moyen, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
CONTEXT: Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance. OBJECTIVE: To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses, and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat. DESIGN: Two randomized crossover trials which consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test, 1500 m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603983/food-components-in-health-promotion-and-disease-prevention
#20
Wolfgang Langhans
The current obesity epidemic with its deleterious effects on public health, and the increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in our aging society have dramatically increased public awareness of nutrition-related health issues. Food components such as fat, sugar, flavors and spices are major determinants of the hedonic value of food, and the constant and almost ubiquitous availability of good-tasting food in our affluent societies promotes overeating and weight gain. On the other hand, several food components, including flavoring compounds and the active ingredients of many plants including spices and herbs (e...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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