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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912678/the-physiology-and-molecular-underpinnings-of-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-diabetes
#1
Simon S Evers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley
Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical sleeve gastrectomy, produce significant and durable weight loss in both humans and rodents. Recently, these surgical interventions have also been termed metabolic surgery because they result in profound metabolic improvements that often surpass the expected improvement due to body weight loss alone. In this review we focus on the weight-loss independent effects of bariatric surgery, which encompass energy expenditure and macronutrient preference, the luminal composition of the gut (i...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911803/genomic-sequencing-based-mutational-enrichment-analysis-identifies-motility-genes-in-a-genetically-intractable-gut-microbe
#2
Sena Bae, Olaf Mueller, Sandi Wong, John F Rawls, Raphael H Valdivia
A major roadblock to understanding how microbes in the gastrointestinal tract colonize and influence the physiology of their hosts is our inability to genetically manipulate new bacterial species and experimentally assess the function of their genes. We describe the application of population-based genomic sequencing after chemical mutagenesis to map bacterial genes responsible for motility in Exiguobacterium acetylicum, a representative intestinal Firmicutes bacterium that is intractable to molecular genetic manipulation...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#3
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909943/simulating-different-dosing-scenarios-for-a-child-appropriate-valproate-er-formulation-in-a-new-pediatric-two-stage-dissolution-model
#4
Frank Karkossa, Antonia Krueger, Jana Urbaniak, Sandra Klein
Predictive in vitro test methods addressing the parameters relevant to drug release in the pediatric gastrointestinal tract could be an appropriate means for reducing the number of in vivo studies in children. However, dissolution models addressing the particular features of pediatric gastrointestinal physiology and typical pediatric dosing scenarios have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to combine the knowledge on common vehicle types and properties and current information on pediatric gastrointestinal physiology to design a dissolution model that enables a biorelevant simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions in young children...
December 1, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#5
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908510/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-small-bowel
#6
REVIEW
Neil Volk, Brian Lacy
Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients.
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903310/the-determinants-of-food-choice
#7
Gareth Leng, Roger A H Adan, Michele Belot, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Kees de Graaf, Suzanne L Dickson, Todd Hare, Silvia Maier, John Menzies, Hubert Preissl, Lucia A Reisch, Peter J Rogers, Paul A M Smeets
Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902972/unravelling-site-specific-breast-cancer-metastasis-a-microrna-expression-profiling-study
#8
Willemijne A M E Schrijver, Paul J van Diest, Dutch Distant Breast Cancer Metastases Consortium, Cathy B Moelans
Distant metastasis is still the main cause of death from breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of many physiological and pathological processes, including metastasis. Molecular breast cancer subtypes are known to show a site-specific pattern of metastases formation. In this study, we set out to determine the underlying molecular mechanisms of site-specific breast cancer metastasis by microRNA expression profiling.To identify a miR signature for metastatic breast carcinoma that could predict metastatic localization, we compared global miR expression in 23 primary breast cancer specimens with their corresponding multiple distant metastases to ovary (n=9), skin (n=12), lung (n=10), brain (n=4) and gastrointestinal tract (n=10) by miRCURY microRNA expression arrays...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892936/influence-of-early-life-exposure-host-genetics-and-diet-on-the-mouse-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome
#9
Antoine M Snijders, Sasha A Langley, Young-Mo Kim, Colin J Brislawn, Cecilia Noecker, Erika M Zink, Sarah J Fansler, Cameron P Casey, Darla R Miller, Yurong Huang, Gary H Karpen, Susan E Celniker, James B Brown, Elhanan Borenstein, Janet K Jansson, Thomas O Metz, Jian-Hua Mao
Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease(1), we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut. We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system(2) to discover that early life history impacts the microbiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890245/mathematical-models-for-controlled-drug-release-through-ph-responsive-polymeric-hydrogels
#10
Ramya D Manga, Prateek K Jha
Hydrogels consisting of weakly charged acidic/basic groups are ideal candidates for carriers in oral delivery, as they swell in response to pH changes in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in drug entrapment at low pH conditions of the stomach and drug release at high pH conditions of the intestine. We have developed 1-dimensional mathematical models to study the drug release behavior through pH-responsive hydrogels. Models are developed for 3 different cases that vary in the level of rigor, which together can be applied to predict both in vitro (drug release from carrier) and in vivo (drug concentration in the plasma) behavior of hydrogel-drug formulations...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878636/imaging-of-secretory-tumors-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Yehia M ElGuindy, Sanaz Javadi, Christine O Menias, Corey T Jensen, Haitham Elsamaloty, Khaled M Elsayes
Gastrointestinal secretory tumors, or gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, encompass a wide array of endocrine cell tumors. The significance of these tumors lies in their ability to alter physiology through hormone production as we well as in their malignant potential. Functioning tumors may present earlier due to symptomatology; conversely, non-functioning tumors are often diagnosed late as they reach large sizes, causing symptoms secondary to local mass effect. Imaging aids in the diagnosis, staging, and prognosis and provides key information for presurgical planning...
November 23, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875502/sniffing-out-paediatric-gastrointestinal-diseases-the-potential-of-volatile-organic-compounds-as-biomarkers-for-disease
#12
Martin Buijck, Daniel J C Berkhout, Evelien F J de Groot, Marc A Benninga, Marc P C van der Schee, Corneille Marie Frank Kneepkens, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
The diagnostic work-up and follow-up of paediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders and organic conditions usually includes invasive tests, carrying a high burden on patients. There is a place, therefore, for novel, noninvasive disease-specific biomarkers. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), originating from (patho)physiological metabolic processes in the human body, are excreted as waste products through all conceivable bodily excrements. The spectrum of VOCs harbours a magnificent source of information, with the potential to serve as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers and to monitor disease activity...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871148/composition-and-diversity-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-along-the-entire-length-of-the-pig-gastrointestinal-tract-dietary-influences
#13
Jennifer Kelly, Kristian Daly, Andrew W Moran, Sheila Ryan, David Bravo, Soraya P Shirazi-Beechey
Mucosa-associated microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract are in intimate contact with the outer mucus layer. This proximity offers these populations a higher potential, than lumenal microbiota, in exerting effects on the host. Functional characteristics of the microbiota and influences of host- physiology shape the composition and activity of the mucosa-associated bacterial community. We have shown previously that inclusion of an artificial sweetener, SUCRAM, included in the diet of weaning piglets modulates the composition of lumenal-residing gut microbiota and reduces weaning-related gastrointestinal disorders...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866302/expression-analysis-of-dickkopf-related-protein-3-dkk3-suggests-its-pleiotropic-roles-for-a-secretory-glycoprotein-in-adult-mouse
#14
Junji Inoue, Hirofumi Fujita, Tetsuya Bando, Yoichi Kondo, Hiromi Kumon, Hideyo Ohuchi
Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) is the third member of the Dkk gene family and identical to the gene, whose expression was reduced in immortalized cells. Therefore, its another name is reduced expression in immortalized cells. Since the intratumoral introduction of Dkk3 inhibits tumor growth in mouse models of cancers, Dkk3 is likely a tumor suppressor gene. However, the functions of Dkk3 in vivo remain unclear. As the first step to decipher the physiological roles of this gene, we examined the expression pattern of Dkk3 in various tissues from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865497/invited-review-abomasal-emptying-in-calves-and-its-potential-influence-on-gastrointestinal-disease
#15
Johann Burgstaller, Thomas Wittek, Geof W Smith
Creating the ideal nutrition program for calves is a demanding task that has undergone tremendous change in recent years. Products and technologies including novel milk replacers and automated calf feeding systems have been developed to facilitate the ability of dairy producers to feed for higher growth rates before weaning. The creation of new feeding programs and milk replacers has to be looked at carefully, not only from a nutrition point of view but also from the perspective of a potential effect on physiologic digestion and calf health...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863989/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#16
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863685/the-gut-in-the-beaker-missing-the-surfactants
#17
REVIEW
Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert, Jenifer Mains
Gastrointestinal drug administration is the preferred route for the majority of drugs however, the natural physiology and physicochemistry of the gastrointestinal tract is critical to absorption but complex and influenced by factors such as diet or disease. The pharmaceutical sciences drive for product consistency has led to the development of in vitro product performance tests whose utility and interpretation is hindered by the complexity, variability and a lack of understanding. This article explores some of these issues with respect to the drug, formulation and the presence of surfactant excipients and how these interact with the natural bile salt surfactants...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863019/78gy-with-fiducial-marker-image-guided-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer-single-center-analysis-of-301-patients
#18
Ee Siang Choong, George Hruby, Jean Yang, Carol Kwong, Nitya Patanjali
AIM: In prostate cancer, fiducial marker image-guided radiotherapy (FMIGRT) allows correction of setup errors and interfraction physiological motion resulting in improved accuracy of target and sparing of at risk organs. We aim to report outcomes and toxicities observed in patients treated with dose escalation to 78Gy with FMIGRT in our center. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients with histologically confirmed T1-4N0M0 localized prostate cancer treated with dose escalation to 78Gy with FMIGRT in our center...
November 10, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852759/a-place-for-host-microbe-symbiosis-in-the-comparative-physiologist-s-toolbox
#19
REVIEW
Kevin D Kohl, Hannah V Carey
Although scientists have long appreciated that metazoans evolved in a microbial world, we are just beginning to appreciate the profound impact that host-associated microbes have on diverse aspects of animal biology. The enormous growth in our understanding of host-microbe symbioses is rapidly expanding the study of animal physiology, both technically and conceptually. Microbes associate functionally with various body surfaces of their hosts, although most reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut microbes convert dietary and host-derived substrates to metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, thereby providing energy and nutrients to the host...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#20
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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