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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#1
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346243/modeling-flowsheet-data-to-support-secondary-use
#2
Bonnie L Westra, Beverly Christie, Steven G Johnson, Lisiane Pruinelli, Anne LaFlamme, Suzan G Sherman, Jung In Park, Connie W Delaney, Grace Gao, Stuart Speedie
The purpose of this study was to create information models from flowsheet data using a data-driven consensus-based method. Electronic health records contain a large volume of data about patient assessments and interventions captured in flowsheets that measure the same "thing," but the names of these observations often differ, according to who performs documentation or the location of the service (eg, pulse rate in an intensive care, the emergency department, or a surgical unit documented by a nurse or therapist or captured by automated monitoring)...
March 24, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344983/effects-of-bile-acids-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells-implications-for-aerodigestive-diseases
#3
Adil Aldhahrani, Bernard Verdon, Chris Ward, Jeffery Pearson
Gastro-oesophageal reflux and aspiration have been associated with chronic and end-stage lung disease and with allograft injury following lung transplantation. This raises the possibility that bile acids may cause lung injury by damaging airway epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bile acid challenge using the immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). The immortalised human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) was cultured. A 48-h challenge evaluated the effect of individual primary and secondary bile acids...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341870/influences-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-dna-methylation-and-histone-modification
#4
REVIEW
Jianzhong Ye, Wenrui Wu, Yating Li, Lanjuan Li
The gut microbiota is a vast ensemble of microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract that can impact physiologic and pathologic processes. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanism for the dynamic interaction between host and gut microbiota is still in its infancy. The highly evolved epigenetic modifications allow hosts to reprogram the genome in response to environmental stimuli, which may play a key role in triggering multiple human diseases. In spite of increasing studies in gut microbiota and epigenetic modifications, the correlation between them has not been well elaborated...
March 24, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337667/self-assembled-polyelectrolyte-complexes-films-as-efficient-compression-coating-layers-for-controlled-releasing-tablets
#5
Wenyan Li, Mengmeng Huo, Arka Sen Chaudhuri, Chen Yang, Dazhong Cao, Zhenghong Wu, Xiaole Qi
Currently, polysaccharide-based hydrogels are widely studied macromolecular networks to modify drug dissolution from controlled-releasing matrix tablets. Among them, polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) films consisted of chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) could be obtained via spontaneously assembling under physiological gastrointestinal environment. Here, we utilized these self-assembled PEC films as an efficient coating materials to develop controlled-released matrix tablets through compression coating process, with paracetamol (APAP) as model drug...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337026/increased-glp2r-expression-in-gastric-chief-cells-of-patients-with-severe-obesity-regardless-of-diabetes-status
#6
F Li, L Lu, Y Peng, Y Zhang, J Gao, D Zhou, D Zhou, H Sheng, S Qu
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) affects multiple facets of gastrointestinal physiology and have been used to treat patients with short bowel syndrome, but the distribution of its receptor (GLP2R) in human remains poorly understood. Gastric tissue samples of non-obese patients (NOB, n=10) and obese patients without diabetes (OB, n=31) and with diabetes (OWD, n=12) were used to evaluate GLP2R expression and distribution. Immunostaining with a validated antibody, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, showed that GLP2R expression was significantly increased in gastric chief cells in OB and OWD patients...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336575/pharmacologic-profile-of-naloxegol-a-peripherally-acting-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-antagonist-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation
#7
Eike Floettmann, Khanh Bui, Mark Sostek, Kemal Payza, Michael Eldon
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a common side effect of opioid pharmacotherapy for the management of pain because opioid agonists bind to µ-opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Naloxegol, a polyethylene glycol derivative of naloxone and a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist, targets the physiologic mechanisms that cause OIC. Pharmacologic measures of opioid activity and pharmacokinetic measures of central nervous system (CNS) penetration were employed to characterize the mechanism of action of naloxegol...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#8
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#9
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324976/meandered-conformai-antenna-for-ism-band-ingestible-capsule-communication-systems
#10
Md Shamsul Arefin, Jean-Michel Redoute, Mehmet Rasit Yuce
The wireless capsule has been used to measure physiological parameters in the gastrointestinal tract where communication from in-body to external receiver is necessary using a miniaturized antenna with high gain and onmidirectional radiation pattern. This paper presents a meandered conformal antenna with center frequency of 433 MHz for a wireless link between an in-body capsule system and an ex-body receiver system. The antenna is wrapped around the wireless capsule, which provides extra space for other circuits and sensors inside the capsule as well as allows it having larger dimensions compared to inner antennas...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324594/polymers-in-the-delivery-of-sirna-for-the-treatment-of-virus-infections
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas Reynolds, Megan Dearnley, Tracey M Hinton
Viral diseases remain a major cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in vaccine and antiviral drug technology, each year over three million people die from a range of viral infections. Predominant viruses include human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, and gastrointestinal and respiratory viruses. Now more than ever, robust, easily mobilised and cost-effective antiviral strategies are needed to combat both known and emerging disease threats. RNA interference and small interfering (si)RNAs were initially hailed as a "magic bullet", due to their ability to inhibit the synthesis of any protein via the degradation of its complementary messenger RNA sequence...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323941/the-diverse-metabolic-roles-of-peripheral-serotonin
#12
Alyce M Martin, Richard L Young, Lex Leong, Geraint B Rogers, Nick J Spencer, Claire F Jessup, Damien J Keating
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a multi-functional bioamine with important signaling roles in a range of physiological pathways. Almost all the 5-HT in our body is synthesized in specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa called enterochromaffin (EC) cells. These cells provide all our circulating 5-HT. While we have long appreciated the important roles of 5-HT within the gut including the modulation of GI motility, there is recently emerging evidence of the physiological and clinical significance of gut-derived 5-HT outside of the gut...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#13
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#14
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316623/a-review-of-the-role-of-neurotensin-and-its-receptors-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Shengyang Qiu, Gianluca Pellino, Francesca Fiorentino, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Ara Darzi, Paris Tekkis, Christos Kontovounisios
Neurotensin (NTS) is a physiologically occurring hormone which affects the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In recent years, NTS, acting through its cellular receptors (NTSR), has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of several cancers. In colorectal cancer (CRC), a significant body of evidence, from in vitro and in vivo studies, is available which elucidates the molecular biology of NTS/NTSR signalling and the resultant growth of CRC cells. There is growing clinical data from human studies which corroborate the role NTS/NTSR plays in the development of human CRC...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316052/the-gut-microbiome-energy-homeostasis-and-implications-for-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Ruth A Riedl, Samantha N Atkinson, Colin M L Burnett, Justin L Grobe, John R Kirby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The influence of gut bacteria upon host physiology is increasingly recognized, but mechanistic links are lacking. Diseases of energetic imbalance such as obesity and diabetes represent major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Thus, here, we review current mechanistic contributions of the gut microbiota to host energetics. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut bacteria generate a multitude of small molecules which can signal to host tissues within and beyond the gastrointestinal tract to influence host physiology, and gut bacteria can also influence host digestive efficiency by altering the bioavailability of polysaccharides, yet the quantitative energetic effects of these processes remain unclear...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295238/il-17-and-il-22-in-immunity-driving-protection-and-pathology
#17
REVIEW
Eyerich Kilian, Dimartino Valentina, Cavani Andrea
IL-17 and IL-22 are tissue-signaling cytokines that favor protection and regeneration of barrier organs such as the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal system. Both cytokines share cellular sources, signaling pathways, and functional aspects; however, taking a closer look they differ, e.g. in their pro-inflammatory or regenerative potential. A dysbalance of the carefully orchestrated tissue-signaling system might result in autoimmune diseases, promote cancer growth, or predispose to infectious diseases. This review highlights recent understandings in cellular sources, signaling mechanisms, physiologic as well as pathogenic role of the double-faceted cytokines IL-17 and IL-22...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288904/thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cell-biology
#19
Carla Frau, Matthias Godart, Michelina Plateroti
The gastrointestinal tract is a well-characterized target of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone nuclear receptors TRs, as extensively described in the literature. The paradigm is its important remodelling in amphibians during thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. Interestingly, several studies have described the conservation of this hormonal signal during intestinal development in mammals. Additional data suggested that it may also play a role in intestinal homeostasis, stem cell physiology and progenitor commitment as well as in tumour development...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#20
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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