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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#1
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309986/the-ubiquitin-ligase-itch-coordinates-small-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis-by-modulating-cell-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration
#2
Heather L Mentrup, Amanda Hartman, Elizabeth L Thames, Wassim A Basheer, Lydia E Matesic
Maintenance of the intestinal mucosa is driven by local signals that coordinate epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in order to separate antigenic luminal contents from the host's immune system. Breaches in this barrier promote gastrointestinal pathologies ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to cancer. The ubiquitin ligase ITCH is known to regulate immune responses, and loss of function of ITCH has been associated with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, particularly in the colon...
December 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307410/mechanisms-of-food-allergy
#3
REVIEW
Hugh A Sampson, Liam O'Mahony, A Wesley Burks, Marshall Plaut, Gideon Lack, Cezmi A Akdis
Although oral tolerance is the normal physiologic response to ingested antigens, a breakdown in this process appears to have occurred in the past 2 decades, leading to an increasing prevalence of sensitization to food allergens. Over the past decade, basic research has intensified in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms leading to sensitization and disease versus desensitization and short- and long-term tolerance. In this review we assess various factors that can influence tissue and immune responses to food antigens, the current understanding of immune tolerance development, the role of the gastrointestinal microbiota, and current knowledge regarding immunologic mechanisms involved in desensitization and sustained unresponsiveness, although perhaps the latter is more appropriately termed remission...
January 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304733/cobalt-chloride-compromises-transepithelial-barrier-properties-of-caco-2-bbe-human-gastrointestinal-epithelial-cell-layers
#4
K M DiGuilio, M C Valenzano, E Rybakovsky, J M Mullin
BACKGROUND: Elevation of the transcription factor HIF-1 is a prominent mediator of not only processes that accompany hypoxia, but also the tumor microenvironment and tissue regeneration. This study uses mediators of "chemical hypoxia" to ask the question whether HIF-1α elevation in a healthy epithelial cell layer leads to leakiness in its tight junctional seals. METHODS: Transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial diffusion of 14C-D-mannitol and other radiolabeled probes are used as indicators of transepithelial barrier function of CaCo-2 BBe human gastrointestinal epithelial cell layers cultured on permeable supports...
January 5, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303193/nanoparticle-binding-attenuates-the-pathobiology-of-gastric-cancer-associated-helicobacter-pylori
#5
Dana Westmeier, Gernot Posselt, Angelina Hahlbrock, Sina Bartfeld, Cecilia Vallet, Carmen Abfalter, Dominic Docter, Shirley K Knauer, Silja Wessler, Roland H Stauber
Enteric bacteria may cause severe diseases, including gastric cancer-associated Helicobacter pylori. Their infection paths overlap with the oro-gastrointestinal uptake route for nanoparticles, increasingly occurring during environmental or consumer/medical exposure. By comprehensive independent analytical methods, such as live cell fluorescence, electron as well as atomic force microscopy and elemental analysis, we show that a wide array of nanoparticles (NPs) but not microparticles form complexes with H. pylori and enteric pathogens without the need for specific functionalization...
January 5, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#6
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
January 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295820/diet1-bile-acid-diarrhea-and-fgf15-19-mouse-model-and-human-genetic-variants
#7
Jessica M Lee, Jessica R Ong, Laurent Vergnes, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, Jonathan Nolan, Rita M Cantor, Julian R F Walters, Karen Reue
Diet1 modulates intestinal production of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which signals in liver to regulate bile acid synthesis. C57BL/6ByJ mice with a spontaneous Diet1 null mutation are resistant to hypercholesterolemia compared to wild-type C57BL/6J mice through enhanced cholesterol conversion to bile acids. To further characterize the role of Diet1 in metabolism, we generated Diet1-/- mice on the C57BL6/J genetic background. C57BL/6J Diet1-/- mice had elevated bile acid levels, reduced Fgf15 expression, and increased gastrointestinal motility and intestinal luminal water content, which are symptoms of bile acid diarrhea (BAD) in humans...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290508/the-emergency-medicine-evaluation-and-management-of-the-patient-with-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a significant cause of death in the U.S. and has a variety of causes, most commonly Hepatitis C and alcohol. Liver fibrosis and nodule formation result in significant complications due to portal system hypertension. There are several deadly complications emergency physicians must consider. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: Provide an evidence-based update for the resuscitation of decompensating cirrhotic patients and an overview of cirrhosis complications...
December 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288685/characterization-of-neuromedin-u-nmu-neuromedin-s-nms-and-their-receptors-nmur1-nmur2-in-chickens
#9
Yiping Wan, Jiannan Zhang, Chao Fang, Junan Chen, Jing Li, Juan Li, Chenlei Wu, Yajun Wang
Neuromedin U (NMU) and its structurally-related peptide, neuromedin S (NMS), are reported to regulate many physiological processes and their actions are mediated by two NMU receptors (NMUR1, NMUR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding NMU, NMS, and their receptors is limited in birds. In this study, we examined the structure, functionality, and expression of NMS, NMU, NMUR1 and NMUR2 in chickens. The results showed that: 1) chicken (c-) NMU cDNA encodes a 181-amino acid precursor, which may generate two forms of NMU peptide with 9 (cNMU-9) and 25 amino acids (cNMU-25), respectively...
December 27, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287010/electrogastrography-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-acoustics-to-measure-gastrointestinal-development-in-preterm-babies
#10
Eric B Ortigoza, Jackson Cagle, Jui-Hong Chien, Sungho Oh, L Steven Brown, Josef Neu
OBJECTIVES: To obtain objective measures indicative of gastrointestinal maturity using three non-invasive technologies. METHODS: Electrogastrography (EGG), abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and bowel sound/acoustics (AC) monitoring were used simultaneously to obtain physiologic measures of the gastrointestinal system of 18 preterm and 5 term neonates who were tolerating enteral feedings.Measures of EGG slow wave voltage (EGG dominant power) and AC signal amplitude (AC dominant power) were obtained after spectral density analysis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286478/a-murine-model-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#11
Darline Garibay, Bethany P Cummings
Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), is a surgery of the gastrointestinal tract that is performed for the purpose of weight loss. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective long-term treatment for obesity. In addition to weight loss, bariatric surgery produces additional health benefits such as remission of type 2 diabetes, remission of hypertension, and decreased risk of developing certain types of cancer. The mechanisms beyond weight loss for these benefits remain incompletely defined...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279597/severe-asymptomatic-hypophosphataemia-in-a-child-with-t-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#12
N H Zakaria, P Sthaneshwar, H Shanmugam
Hypophosphataemia is a metabolic disorder that is commonly encountered in critically ill patients. Phosphate has many roles in physiological functions, thus the depletion of serum phosphate could lead to impairment in multiple organ systems, which include the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and muscular systems and haematological and metabolic functions. Hypophosphataemia is defined as plasma phosphate level below 0.80 mmol per litre (mmol/L) and can be further divided into subgroups of mild (plasma phosphate of 0...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277311/targeting-gut-microbiome-a-novel-and-potential-therapy-for-autism
#13
REVIEW
Yongshou Yang, Jinhu Tian, Bo Yang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severely neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. Children with neurodevelopmental disorder, including ASD, are regularly affected by gastrointestinal problems and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. On the other hand, humans live in a co-evolutionary association with plenty of microorganisms that resident on the exposed and internal surfaces of our bodies. The microbiome, refers to the collection of microbes and their genetic material, confers a variety of physiologic benefits to the host in many key aspects of life as well as being responsible for some diseases...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260533/-effect-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#14
Xiao Ma, Cheng-Wei Tang, Zhi-Yin Huang, Ming-Guang Zhang, Fang Liu, Chun-Hui Wang, Rui Wang, Huan Tong, Ling Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients. METHODS: Forty five patients with SAP recruited in our center from October 2015 to October 2016,were randomly assigned into two groups: convention group (C group,n=21) and convention+esomeprazole group (C+E group,n=24). C+E group received esomeprazole 40 mg/d intravenously for 1 week,whereas C group only received baseline treatment. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP),interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and procalcitonin (PCT) were detected by ELISA on the first day (baseline) and the seventh day...
November 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259559/mechanical-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
REVIEW
Xuan-Zheng Shi
Intraluminal contents and their movement along the gastrointestinal tract create shear stress and mechanical stretch on the gut wall. While the shear stress is important in the initiation of immediate physiological responses, the circumferential mechanical stretch, such as that in obstructive bowel disorders, exerts long-lasting impacts on bowel functions by mainly affecting the deeper muscularis externae. Recent studies demonstrate that mechanical stretch alters gene transcription in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and the stretch-altered gene expression (mechano-transcription) may play a critical role in pathogenesis of motility dysfunction and abdominal pain in obstruction...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258769/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-human-health-hype-or-real
#16
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa, DSc Mohammed S Razzaque, Nasser M Al-Daghri
The incidence and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are increasing worldwide. It is estimated that over 50% of population in the world have low in vitamin D (i.e., hypovitaminosis D; levels below 30 ng/mL). 80% of our vitamin D requirement comes from the ultraviolet rays from sunlight, and for the remainder, we rely from the diet and supplements. The latter become important when one is exposing to less than optimal amounts of sunlight, inability of the skin to generate vitamin D efficiently, and/or having secondary causes that leads to increase catabolism of vitamin D...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246946/microbial-antigen-encounter-during-a-preweaning-interval-is-critical-for-tolerance-to-gut-bacteria
#17
Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Keely G McDonald, Devesha H Kulkarni, Paige E Coughlin, Stephanie McCrate, Dongyeon Kim, Chyi-Song Hsieh, Simon P Hogan, Charles O Elson, Phillip I Tarr, Rodney D Newberry
We have a mutually beneficial relationship with the trillions of microorganisms inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract. However, maintaining this relationship requires recognizing these organisms as affable and restraining inflammatory responses to these organisms when encountered in hostile settings. How and when the immune system develops tolerance to our gut microbial members is not well understood. We identify a specific preweaning interval in which gut microbial antigens are encountered by the immune system to induce antigen-specific tolerance to gut bacteria...
December 15, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236684/cryo-em-structures-of-the-tmem16a-calcium-activated-chloride-channel
#18
Shangyu Dang, Shengjie Feng, Jason Tien, Christian J Peters, David Bulkley, Marco Lolicato, Jianhua Zhao, Kathrin Zuberbühler, Wenlei Ye, Lijun Qi, Tingxu Chen, Charles S Craik, Yuh Nung Jan, Daniel L Minor, Yifan Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230136/managing-the-adult-patient-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#19
Carol Rees Parrish, John K DiBaise
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life, and high health care costs. Managing the patient with SBS requires an understanding of gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology; a dedicated multidisciplinary team; and the coordination of dietary, fluid, pharmacologic, and comorbid disease management. This article provides an overview of the current state of management of SBS, including a practical approach to optimizing the care and quality of life of the adult patient with SBS...
October 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228833/in-vitro-in-silico-approach-in-the-development-of-simvastatin-loaded-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems
#20
Zora Ćetković, Sandra Cvijić, Dragana Vasiljević
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to formulate simvastatin (SV)-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), and explore the potential of these drug delivery systems to improve SV solubility, and also to identify the optimal place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the release of SV using coupled in vitro/in silico approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to other published results, this study considered the extensive presystemic clearance of SV, which could significantly decrease its systemic and hepatic bioavailability if SV is delivered into the small intestine...
December 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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