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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931076/ghrelin-mediated-inhibition-of-the-tsh-stimulated-function-of-differentiated-human-thyrocytes-ex-vivo
#1
Maria Barington, Marianne Møller Brorson, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight. Studies have found a correlation between the plasma levels of thyroid hormones and ghrelin, but an effect of ghrelin on the human thyroid has never been investigated even though ghrelin receptors are present in the thyroid. The present study shows a ghrelin-induced decrease in the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-induced production of thyroglobulin and mRNA expression of thyroperoxidase in a primary culture of human thyroid cells obtained from paranodular tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929461/the-isolation-culture-and-propagation-of-murine-intestinal-enteroids-for-the-study-of-dietary-lipid-metabolism
#2
Diana Li, Hongli Dong, Alison B Kohan
Since the initial report in 2009 by Sato and Clevers, primary enteroids have been of major interest in the fields of stem cell biology and gastrointestinal (GI) tract biology. More recently, we and others have made major inroads into the physiological relevance of these enteroid models and have shown that enteroids derived from the stomach, intestine, or colon recapitulate major functions of these tissues, namely, gastric acid secretion, lipid absorption and lipoprotein secretion, and ion transport. Here, we detail the isolation of stem cells from the small intestine and the culture and propagation of those stem cells into mature three-dimensional enteroids...
September 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#3
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923437/in-vitro-studies-with-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-monolayers-for-protein-hazard-characterization
#4
REVIEW
Bryan Delaney
Evaluating the safety of newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops is conducted prior to commercialization to determine whether they could present a hazard upon consumption. A multicomponent, weight of evidence approach has been applied to individual proteins that has often included acute oral toxicology studies. Based on resources required to produce and purify the proteins, the number of animals necessary for these studies and the fact that no evidence of hazard has been observed for any of the proteins tested to date, it is questionable whether acute toxicology studies should be conducted for all proteins...
September 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923062/tissue-resident-stem-cell-activity-a-view-from-the-adult-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The gastrointestinal tract serves as a fast-renewing model for unraveling the multifaceted molecular mechanisms underlying remarkably rapid cell renewal, which is exclusively fueled by a small number of long-lived stem cells and their progeny. Stem cell activity is the best-characterized aspect of mucosal homeostasis in mitotically active tissues, and the dysregulation of regenerative capacity is a hallmark of epithelial immune defects. This dysregulation is frequently associated with pathologies ranging from chronic enteritis to malignancies in humans...
September 18, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#6
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921400/gut-microbiota-and-il-17a-physiological-and-pathological-responses
#7
Banafsheh Douzandeh-Mobarrez, Ashraf Kariminik
IL-17A is a cytokine which is produced by several immune and non-immune cells. The cytokine plays dual roles from protection from microbes and protection from pro-inflammatory based diseases to induction of the pro-inflammatory based diseases. The main mechanisms which lead to the controversial roles of IL-17A are yet to be clarified. Gut microbiota (GM) are the resident probiotic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts which have been introduced as a plausible regulator of IL-17A production and functions. This review article describes the recent information regarding the roles played by GM in determination of IL-17A functions outcome...
September 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915214/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#8
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nußbaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure, and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912310/draft-genome-sequence-of-prevotella-copri-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-healthy-indian-adult
#9
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Bhabatosh Das
Prevotella copri, a Gram-negative anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium, is frequently associated with the human gastrointestinal tract and influences host physiology, immunity, and metabolic pathways. In the present study, we report the draft genome sequence of P. copri isolated from the gut of a healthy Indian adult.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#10
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906161/heat-stress-modulated-gastrointestinal-barrier-dysfunction-role-of-tight-junctions-and-heat-shock-proteins
#11
Avinash Gupta, Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Daipayan Chowdhury, Ajeet Singh, Ramesh Chand Meena, Amitabha Chakrabarti, Shashi Bala Singh
Increased environmental temperature exerts a visible impact on an individual's physiology. At the onset of heat stress, there is an increase in core body temperature which triggers peripheral vasodilation and sweating in an effort to dissipate the elevated body heat. The increase in peripheral circulation however reduces blood flow to the internal organs which are thus adversely affected. In particular, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets adversely affected during hyperthermia resulting in loosening of the tight junctions (TJs) that finally leads to higher intestinal permeability...
September 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904480/association-of-massive-transfusion-for-resuscitation-in-gastrointestinal-bleeding-with-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury
#12
James J Case, Nasreen Khan, Michael Delrahim, Jasmina Dizdarevic, Dane J Nichols, Martin A Schreiber, Thomas G Deloughery, Akram Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to understand the use of massive transfusion (MT) for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with GIB for the type of bleeding, quantity of blood products transfused, and risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and death. MT was defined as transfusion of 10 or more units of red blood cell (RBC) within a 24-h period in a 1-unit RBC: 1-unit fresh frozen plasma: and 1-unit platelet ratio...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900429/plasma-derived-polyreactive-secretory-like-iga-and-igm-opsonizing-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-reduces-invasion-and-gut-tissue-inflammation-through-agglutination
#13
Gilles Bioley, Justine Monnerat, Marius Lötscher, Cédric Vonarburg, Adrian Zuercher, Blaise Corthésy
Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. While vaccination requires that a proper combination of antigen, adjuvant, and delivery route is defined to elicit protective immunity at mucosae, oral delivery of directly active antibody preparations, referred to as passive immunization, sounds like a valuable alternative. Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900398/role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-retinal-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Jiantong Du, Hongfang Jin, Liu Yang
As the third gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a crucial role in the physiology and pathophysiology of many systems in the body, such as the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. The mechanisms for its effects, including inhibiting ischemic injury, reducing oxidative stress damage, regulating apoptosis, and reducing the inflammation reaction in different systems, have not been fully understood. Recently, H2S and its endogenous synthesis pathway were found in the mammalian retina...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#15
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898875/enteroendocrine-cells-metabolic-relays-between-microbes-and-their-host
#16
Hubert Plovier, Patrice D Cani
Gut bacteria exert a variety of metabolic functions unavailable to the host and are increasingly seen as a virtual organ located inside our gastrointestinal tract. Scattered in our intestinal epithelium, enteroendocrine cells (EECs) regulate several aspects of the host's physiology and translate signals coming from the gut microbiota through their hormonal secretions. In this chapter, we will assess the interplay between the gut microbiota and EEC and its consequences for the physiology of the host. We will first describe alterations of different populations of EEC in germ-free animals...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898422/dynamic-gastric-digestion-of-a-commercial-whey-protein-concentrate
#17
Beatriz Miralles, Roberto Del Barrio, Carolina Cueva, Isidra Recio, Lourdes Amigo
BACKGROUND: A dynamic gastrointestinal simulator, simgi(®) , has been applied to assess the gastric digestion of a whey protein concentrate. Samples collected from the outlet of the stomach have been compared to those resulting from the static digestion protocol INFOGEST developed on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. RESULTS: Progress of digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By SDS-PAGE, serum albumin and α-lactalbumin were no longer detectable at 30 and 60 min, respectively...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894421/impact-of-different-personal-protective-clothing-on-wildland-firefighters-physiological-strain
#18
Belén Carballo-Leyenda, José G Villa, Jorge López-Satué, Jose A Rodríguez-Marroyo
Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH). Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892253/host-microbe-interaction-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#19
Aimée Parker, Melissa Lawson, Laura Vaux, Carmen Pin
The gastrointestinal tract is a highly complex organ in which multiple dynamic physiological processes are tightly coordinated while interacting with a dense and extremely diverse microbial population. From establishment in early life, through to host-microbe symbiosis in adulthood, the gut microbiota plays a vital role in our development and health. The effect of the microbiota on gut development and physiology is highlighted by anatomical and functional changes in germ-free mice, affecting the gut epithelium, immune system, and enteric nervous system...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891110/protein-digestion-of-baby-foods-study-approaches-and-implications-for-infant-health
#20
REVIEW
Junai Gan, Gail M Bornhorst, Bethany M Henrick, J Bruce German
Protein digestion is critical for infants. Dissimilarities between infants and adults in food intake and digestive physiology lead to distinct patterns of proteolysis between individuals. However, such differences are not well represented in many studies on protein digestion of baby foods. The complex biological structures of baby foods and the physiology of the infant digestive system are key factors affecting proteolysis during the first two years of life. Well-controlled in vitro studies have demonstrated that varying digestion conditions alter the specificity, rate, and extent of proteolysis of baby foods...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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