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Gastrointestinal physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107713/bioaccessibility-of-as-and-pb-in-orchard-and-urban-soils-amended-with-phosphate-fe-oxide-and-organic-matter
#1
Meifang Cai, Murray B McBride, Kaiming Li, Zhian Li
Soils historically contaminated in urban and orchard environments by Pb and As were amended separately with organic matter, soluble Ca phosphate, and Fe oxide to determine whether these materials could lower Pb or As bioaccessibility. After 5 years of equilibration in the laboratory, the amended soils and control were tested for bioaccessibility using the standard physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Bioaccessibilities of Pb and As were not substantially reduced relative to the unamended controls after the 5-year period by any of the soil amendments...
January 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107096/implementation-of-an-aggressive-enteral-nutrition-protocol-and-the-effect-on-clinical-outcomes
#2
Daniel Dante Yeh, Catrina Cropano, Sadeq A Quraishi, Eva Fuentes, Haytham M A Kaafarani, Jarone Lee, Yuchiao Chang, George Velmahos
BACKGROUND: Macronutrient deficiency in critical illness is associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesized that an aggressive enteral nutrition (EN) protocol would result in higher macronutrient delivery and fewer late infections. METHODS: We enrolled adult surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving >72 hours of EN from July 2012 to June 2014. Our intervention consisted of increasing protein prescription (2.0-2.5 vs 1.5-2.0 g/kg/d) and compensatory feeds for EN interruption...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106788/comparison-of-gastric-versus-gastrointestinal-pbet-extractions-for-estimating-oral-bioaccessibility-of-metals-in-house-dust
#3
Kristina Boros, Danielle Fortin, Innocent Jayawardene, Marc Chénier, Christine Levesque, Pat E Rasmussen
Oral bioaccessibility estimates for six metals which are prevalent as contaminants in Canada (zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, and chromium) are investigated for house dust using the simple gastric phase versus the two-phase physiologically-based extraction technique (PBET). The purpose is to determine whether a complete gastrointestinal (GI) assay yields a more conservative (i.e., higher) estimate of metal bioaccessibility in house dust than the gastric phase alone (G-alone). The study samples include household vacuum dust collected from 33 homes in Montreal, Canada, plus four certified reference materials (NIST 2583, NIST 2584, NIST 2710 and NIST 2710a)...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100992/multiple-magnetic-foreign-bodies-causing-severe-digestive-tract-injuries-in-a-child
#4
Xinmin Si, Baofeng Du, Lei Huang
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100629/impact-of-food-alcohol-and-ph-on-modified-release-hydrocortisone-developed-to-treat-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#5
Nayananjani Karunasena, Daniel Margetson, Greg Neal, Martin Whitaker, Richard J Ross
BACKGROUND: We developed a modified-release hydrocortisone, Chronocort®, to replace the cortisol rhythm in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Food, alcohol and pH affect drug absorption and it is important to assess their impact when replicating a physiological rhythm. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vitro dissolution to study impact of alcohol and pH on Chronocort®. A Phase 1, three-period, cross over study in 18 volunteers to assess the impact of food on Chronocort® and to compare bioavailability to immediate-release hydrocortisone...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093052/erk-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-mediated-mitophagy-alleviates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-intestinal-mucosa-damage-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#6
Yinlong Liu, Zhongyuan Bao, Xiupeng Xu, Honglu Chao, Chao Lin, Zheng Li, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of several physiologic complications in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI can result in increased intestinal permeability due to apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, which contain a large number of mitochondria for persisting barrier function. Autophagy of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) controls the quality of the mitochondria and regulates cellular homeostasis. However, the exact mechanism of mitophagy that underlies the pathological changes induced by TBI is unknown...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081488/chemical-and-physiological-metal-bioaccessibility-assessment-in-surface-bottom-sediments-from-the-deba-river-urban-catchment-harmonization-of-pbet-tclp-and-bcr-sequential-extraction-methods
#8
Jessica Unda-Calvo, Miren Martínez-Santos, Estilita Ruiz-Romera
In the present study, the physiologically based extraction test PBET (gastric and intestinal phases) and two chemical based extraction methods, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the sequential extraction procedure BCR 701 (Community Bureau of Reference of the European Commission) have been used to estimate and evaluate the bioaccessibility of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb) in sediments from the Deba River urban catchment. The statistical analysis of data and comparison among physiological and chemical methods have highlighted the relevance of simulate the gastrointestinal tract environment since metal bioaccessibility seems to depend on water and sediment properties such as pH, redox potential and organic matter content, and, primordially, on the form in which metals are present in the sediment...
January 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080213/campylobacter-jejuni-transducer-like-proteins-chemotaxis-and-beyond
#9
Kshipra Chandrashekhar, Issmat I Kassem, Gireesh Rajashekara
Chemotaxis, a process that mediates directional motility towards or away from chemical stimuli (chemoeffectors/ ligands that can be attractants or repellents) in the environment, plays an important role in the adaptation of Campylobacter jejuni to disparate niches. The chemotaxis system consists of core signal transduction proteins and methyl-accepting-domain-containing Transducer like proteins (Tlps). Ligands binding to Tlps relay a signal to chemotaxis proteins in the cytoplasm which initiate a signal transduction cascade, culminating into a directional flagellar movement...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074309/helicobacter-pylori-induced-premature-senescence-of-extragastric-cells-may-contribute-to-chronic-skin-diseases
#10
Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk
Helicobacter pylori, one of the most frequently observed bacterium in the human intestinal flora, has been widely studied since Marshall and Warren documented a link between the presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract and gastritis and gastric ulcers. Interestingly, H. pylori has also been found in several other epithelial tissues, including the eyes, ears, nose and skin that may have direct or indirect effects on host physiology and may contribute to extragastric diseases, e.g. chronic skin diseases...
January 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069752/microbiome-modulated-metabolites-at-the-interface-of-host-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Eran Blacher, Maayan Levy, Evgeny Tatirovsky, Eran Elinav
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and associated mucosal immune system harbor a large repertoire of metabolites of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin that play important roles in eukaryotic development and physiology. These often bioactive small molecules originate from nutrition- and environmental-related sources, or are endogenously produced and modulated by the host and its microbiota. A complex network of interactions exists between the intestinal mucosal immune system and the microbiota. This intimate cross-talk may be driven by metabolite secretion and signaling, and features profound influences on host immunity and physiology, including the endocrine, metabolic, and nervous system function in health and disease...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068165/physiological-and-perceived-effects-of-forearm-or-head-cooling-during-simulated-firefighting-activity-and-rehabilitation
#13
Susan Yeargin, Amy L McKenzie, Lindsey E Eberman, J Derek Kingsley, David J Dziedzicki, Patrick Yoder
CONTEXT:  Cooling devices aim to protect firefighters by attenuating a rise in body temperature. Devices for head cooling (HC) while firefighting and forearm cooling (FC) during rehabilitation (RHB) intervals are commonly marketed, but research regarding their efficacy is limited. OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the physiological and perceived effects of HC and FC during firefighting drills and RHB. DESIGN:  Randomized controlled clinical trial...
November 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-via-toxins-and-metabolites
#14
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062361/redox-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
REVIEW
Salvador Pérez, Raquel Taléns-Visconti, Sergio Rius-Pérez, Isabela Finamor, Juan Sastre
Redox signaling regulates physiological self-renewal, proliferation, migration and differentiation in gastrointestinal epithelium by modulating Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways mainly through NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In the intestine, intracellular and extracellular thiol redox status modulates the proliferative potential of epithelial cells. Furthermore, commensal bacteria contribute to intestine epithelial homeostasis through NOX1- and dual oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The loss of redox homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis and development of a wide diversity of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, ischemic intestinal injury, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#16
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058009/visceral-hypersensitivity-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-role-of-proteases
#17
REVIEW
Hannah Ceuleers, Hanne Van Spaendonk, Nikita Hanning, Jelena Heirbaut, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Joris G De Man, Ingrid De Meester, Benedicte Y De Winter
Proteases, enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, are present at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides their well-known role in the digestive process, they also function as signaling molecules through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Based on their chemical mechanism for catalysis, proteases can be classified into several classes: serine, cysteine, aspartic, metallo- and threonine proteases represent the mammalian protease families. In particular, the class of serine proteases will play a significant role in this review...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056244/-trend-of-development-and-prospect-of-gastrointestinal-surgery-in-era-of-minimally-invasive
#18
X Y Qin
The development and popularization of minimally invasive treatment is gradually evolving in the course of human fighting against disease. Minimally invasive surgery has been widely accepted and carried out because of the advantages of smaller trauma, less pain, little impact on the body and physiological metabolism of the body. The evidence-based medicine makes it important to conduct clinical trials to confirm the technical and oncological safety. With the development of minimally invasive technologies, including three-dimensional laparoscopic, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, robotic surgery system, minimally invasive surgery are providing more opportunities and challenges for gastrointestinal diseases...
January 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055310/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-gist-facing-cell-death-between-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#19
Gloria Ravegnini, Giulia Sammarini, Margherita Nannini, Maria A Pantaleo, Guido Biasco, Patrizia Hrelia, Sabrina Angelini
Autophagy and apoptosis are 2 fundamental biological mechanisms that may cooperate or be antagonistic, although both are involved in deciding the fate of cells in physiological or pathological conditions. These 2 mechanisms coexist simultaneously in cells and share common upstream signals and stimuli. Autophagy and apoptosis play pivotal roles in cancer development. Autophagy plays a key function in maintaining tumor cell survival by providing energy during unfavorable metabolic conditions through its recycling mechanism, and supporting the high energy requirement for metabolism and growth...
January 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050484/sleep-disorder-gastrointestinal-problems-and-behaviour-problems-seen-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-children-and-yoga-as-therapy-a-descriptive-review
#20
REVIEW
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with deficiencies in many developmental milestones during the infantile childhood. Recent researches have shown that apart from behaviour problems, the ASD children also suffer from physiological conditions such as disturbed sleep and gastrointestinal problems that could be the contributing factors to their daytime behaviour problems. Lots of parents have expressed that, lack of sleep among the children have resulted in high levels of stress among the family members particularly among the immediate caretakers which are in most cases the mother of the child...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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