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Farmer, Paul

J Daniel Kelly, Eugene T Richardson, Michael Drasher, M Bailor Barrie, Sahr Karku, Mohamed Kamara, Katrina Hann, Kerry Dierberg, Allan Hubbard, Christina P Lindan, Paul E Farmer, George W Rutherford, Sheri D Weiser
Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Marie Lopez, Athanasios Kousathanas, Hélène Quach, Christine Harmant, Patrick Mouguiama-Daouda, Jean-Marie Hombert, Alain Froment, George H Perry, Luis B Barreiro, Paul Verdu, Etienne Patin, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Understanding how deleterious genetic variation is distributed across human populations is of key importance in evolutionary biology and medical genetics. However, the impact of population size changes and gene flow on the corresponding mutational load remains a controversial topic. Here, we report high-coverage exomes from 300 rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers of central Africa, whose distinct subsistence strategies are expected to have impacted their demographic pasts. Detailed demographic inference indicates that hunter-gatherers and farmers recently experienced population collapses and expansions, respectively, accompanied by increased gene flow...
March 12, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Oussama Mghirbi, Jean-Paul Bord, Philippe Le Grusse, Elisabeth Mandart, Jacques Fabre
Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fernando J Roca Fraga, Malgorzata Lagisz, Shinichi Nakagawa, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Hugh Blair, Paul Kenyon
Across the literature there is large variation in lamb birth weight responses to changes in the ewe pregnancy nutrition. Much of this heterogeneity has been attributed to several factors inherent to each experiment, however, the relative contribution of these experimental factors has not yet been quantified. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the variation in lamb birth weight responses across nutritional studies involving adult multiparous ewes. Effect sizes for individual studies were estimated using the unbiased estimator Hedges' g, whereby, positive and negative values indicate heavier and lighter treatment lambs vs...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Charlotte H Chang, Krithi K Karanth, Paul Robbins
Coffee is a major tropical commodity crop that can provide supplementary habitat for native wildlife. In Asia, coffee production is an increasingly important driver of landscape transformation and shifts between different coffee species is a major dimension of agroforestry trends. Yet few studies have compared the ecological impacts of conversion between different coffee species. We evaluated whether or not the two species of coffee grown globally-Coffea arabica and C. canephora (denoted "robusta")-had equivalent avian conservation value in the Western Ghats, India, where robusta production has become increasingly dominant...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Daniel Orozco, Lauren A Greenberg, Ishaan K Desai, Fabienne Anglade, Deogratias Ruhangaza, Mira Johnson, Louise C Ivers, Danny A Milner, Paul E Farmer
The diagnostic laboratory is essential to patient care and to the achievement of health equity. Through the development of quality laboratories in settings burdened by poverty and weak health systems, Partners In Health has demonstrated the critical contributions of clinical laboratories to the care of patients with HIV, tuberculosis, and cancer, among other conditions. The lessons learned through the organization's experience include the importance of well-trained and well-supported staff; reliable access to supplies, reagents, and diagnostic equipment; adequate facilities to provide diagnostic services; the integration of laboratories into networks of care; and accompaniment of the public health sector...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Guillaume Charrier, Sylvain Delzon, Jean-Christophe Domec, Li Zhang, Chloe E L Delmas, Isabelle Merlin, Deborah Corso, Andrew King, Hernan Ojeda, Nathalie Ollat, Jorge A Prieto, Thibaut Scholach, Paul Skinner, Cornelis van Leeuwen, Gregory A Gambetta
Grapevines are crops of global economic importance that will face increasing drought stress because many varieties are described as highly sensitive to hydraulic failure as frequency and intensity of summer drought increase. We developed and used novel approaches to define water stress thresholds for preventing hydraulic failure, which were compared to the drought stress experienced over a decade in two of the world's top wine regions, Napa and Bordeaux. We identified the physiological thresholds for drought-induced mortality in stems and leaves and found small intervarietal differences...
January 2018: Science Advances
Cory T Zumbar, Aisulu Usubalieva, Paul D King, Xiaohui Li, Caroline S Mifsud, Hailey M Dalton, Muge Sak, Sara Urio, William M Bryant, Joseph P McElroy, George Farmer, Norman L Lehman
Glioblastoma is a highly malignant disease in critical need of expanded treatment options. The AURKA inhibitor alisertib exhibits antiproliferative activity against glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo. Unlike current clinically used taxane drugs, the novel taxane TPI 287 penetrates the CNS. We tested for interactions between three selective AURKA inhibitors and TPI 287 against standard U87 and U1242 cells and primary glioblastoma neurospheres using colony formation assays. Bliss and Chou-Talalay analyses were utilized to statistically test for synergism...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Matthew Grant, Andrew Haydon, Lewis Au, Simon Wilkins, Karen Oliva, Eva Segelov, Yoland Antill, Peter Carne, Pravin Ranchod, Adrian Polglase, Chip Farmer, Martin Chin, Roger Wale, Paul Simpson, Stephen Bell, Stewart Skinner, Paul McMurrick, Jeremy Shapiro
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II colon cancer offers a small (2-3%) overall survival benefit and is not universally recommended. Mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) confers an improved prognosis identifying patients unlikely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of dMMR immunohistochemistry in two major cancer treatment centres. METHODS: Prospective data were collected on all patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2010 and 2015 across two large Australian hospitals...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Jason Flannick, Christian Fuchsberger, Anubha Mahajan, Tanya M Teslovich, Vineeta Agarwala, Kyle J Gaulton, Lizz Caulkins, Ryan Koesterer, Clement Ma, Loukas Moutsianas, Davis J McCarthy, Manuel A Rivas, John R B Perry, Xueling Sim, Thomas W Blackwell, Neil R Robertson, N William Rayner, Pablo Cingolani, Adam E Locke, Juan Fernandez Tajes, Heather M Highland, Josee Dupuis, Peter S Chines, Cecilia M Lindgren, Christopher Hartl, Anne U Jackson, Han Chen, Jeroen R Huyghe, Martijn van de Bunt, Richard D Pearson, Ashish Kumar, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Niels Grarup, Heather M Stringham, Eric R Gamazon, Jaehoon Lee, Yuhui Chen, Robert A Scott, Jennifer E Below, Peng Chen, Jinyan Huang, Min Jin Go, Michael L Stitzel, Dorota Pasko, Stephen C J Parker, Tibor V Varga, Todd Green, Nicola L Beer, Aaron G Day-Williams, Teresa Ferreira, Tasha Fingerlin, Momoko Horikoshi, Cheng Hu, Iksoo Huh, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Bong-Jo Kim, Yongkang Kim, Young Jin Kim, Min-Seok Kwon, Juyoung Lee, Selyeong Lee, Keng-Han Lin, Taylor J Maxwell, Yoshihiko Nagai, Xu Wang, Ryan P Welch, Joon Yoon, Weihua Zhang, Nir Barzilai, Benjamin F Voight, Bok-Ghee Han, Christopher P Jenkinson, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Alisa Manning, Maggie C Y Ng, Nicholette D Palmer, Beverley Balkau, Alena Stančáková, Hanna E Abboud, Heiner Boeing, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Omri Gottesman, James Scott, Jason Carey, Phoenix Kwan, George Grant, Joshua D Smith, Benjamin M Neale, Shaun Purcell, Adam S Butterworth, Joanna M M Howson, Heung Man Lee, Yingchang Lu, Soo-Heon Kwak, Wei Zhao, John Danesh, Vincent K L Lam, Kyong Soo Park, Danish Saleheen, Wing Yee So, Claudia H T Tam, Uzma Afzal, David Aguilar, Rector Arya, Tin Aung, Edmund Chan, Carmen Navarro, Ching-Yu Cheng, Domenico Palli, Adolfo Correa, Joanne E Curran, Dennis Rybin, Vidya S Farook, Sharon P Fowler, Barry I Freedman, Michael Griswold, Daniel Esten Hale, Pamela J Hicks, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Satish Kumar, Benjamin Lehne, Dorothée Thuillier, Wei Yen Lim, Jianjun Liu, Marie Loh, Solomon K Musani, Sobha Puppala, William R Scott, Loïc Yengo, Sian-Tsung Tan, Herman A Taylor, Farook Thameem, Gregory Wilson, Tien Yin Wong, Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Jonathan C Levy, Massimo Mangino, Lori L Bonnycastle, Thomas Schwarzmayr, João Fadista, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Christian Herder, Christopher J Groves, Thomas Wieland, Jette Bork-Jensen, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Heikki A Koistinen, Alex S F Doney, Leena Kinnunen, Tõnu Esko, Andrew J Farmer, Liisa Hakaste, Dylan Hodgkiss, Jasmina Kravic, Valeri Lyssenko, Mette Hollensted, Marit E Jørgensen, Torben Jørgensen, Claes Ladenvall, Johanne Marie Justesen, Annemari Käräjämäki, Jennifer Kriebel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Lars Lannfelt, Torsten Lauritzen, Narisu Narisu, Allan Linneberg, Olle Melander, Lili Milani, Matt Neville, Marju Orho-Melander, Lu Qi, Qibin Qi, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Amy Swift, Anders H Rosengren, Kathleen Stirrups, Andrew R Wood, Evelin Mihailov, Christine Blancher, Mauricio O Carneiro, Jared Maguire, Ryan Poplin, Khalid Shakir, Timothy Fennell, Mark DePristo, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Panos Deloukas, Anette P Gjesing, Goo Jun, Peter Nilsson, Jacquelyn Murphy, Robert Onofrio, Barbara Thorand, Torben Hansen, Christa Meisinger, Frank B Hu, Bo Isomaa, Fredrik Karpe, Liming Liang, Annette Peters, Cornelia Huth, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Colin N A Palmer, Oluf Pedersen, Rainer Rauramaa, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Veikko Salomaa, Richard M Watanabe, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Richard N Bergman, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Erwin P Bottinger, Yoon Shin Cho, Giriraj R Chandak, Juliana C N Chan, Kee Seng Chia, Mark J Daly, Shah B Ebrahim, Claudia Langenberg, Paul Elliott, Kathleen A Jablonski, Donna M Lehman, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Toni I Pollin, Manjinder Sandhu, Nikhil Tandon, Philippe Froguel, Inês Barroso, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Ruth J F Loos, Kerrin S Small, Janina S Ried, Ralph A DeFronzo, Harald Grallert, Benjamin Glaser, Andres Metspalu, Nicholas J Wareham, Mark Walker, Eric Banks, Christian Gieger, Erik Ingelsson, Hae Kyung Im, Thomas Illig, Paul W Franks, Gemma Buck, Joseph Trakalo, David Buck, Inga Prokopenko, Reedik Mägi, Lars Lind, Yossi Farjoun, Katharine R Owen, Anna L Gloyn, Konstantin Strauch, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Taesung Park, Peter Donnelly, Andrew D Morris, Andrew T Hattersley, Donald W Bowden, Francis S Collins, Gil Atzmon, John C Chambers, Timothy D Spector, Markku Laakso, Tim M Strom, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Ravindranath Duggirala, E Shyong Tai, Gilean McVean, Craig L Hanis, James G Wilson, Mark Seielstad, Timothy M Frayling, James B Meigs, Nancy J Cox, Rob Sladek, Eric S Lander, Stacey Gabriel, Karen L Mohlke, Thomas Meitinger, Leif Groop, Goncalo Abecasis, Laura J Scott, Andrew P Morris, Hyun Min Kang, David Altshuler, Noël P Burtt, Jose C Florez, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2017.179.
January 23, 2018: Scientific Data
Paul Poulton, Johnny Johnston, Andy MacDonald, Rodger White, David Powlson
We evaluated the "4 per 1000″ initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in south-east UK. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ yr-1 in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on 3 soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland...
January 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
Brittney O Baumert, Megan Ulmer Carnes, Jane A Hoppin, Chandra L Jackson, Dale P Sandler, Laura Beane Freeman, Paul K Henneberger, David M Umbach, Srishti Shrestha, Stuart Long, Stephanie J London
INTRODUCTION: Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase, and poisoning leads to respiratory depression. Thus, involvement in sleep apnea is plausible, but no data exist at lower levels of exposure. Other pesticides could impact sleep apnea by different mechanisms but have not been studied. Our study examines the associations between pesticide exposure and sleep apnea among pesticide applicators from a US farming population. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 1569 male pesticide applicators, mostly farmers, from an asthma case-control study nested within the prospective Agricultural Health Study...
February 2018: Sleep Health
Matthew H Bonds, Mohammed A Ouenzar, Andres Garchitorena, Laura F Cordier, Meg G McCarty, Michael L Rich, Benjamin Andriamihaja, Justin Haruna, Paul E Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arianne Brown Jordan, Jamie Sookhoo, Lemar Blake, Paul Crooks, Zul Mohammed, Judy Molawatti-Bisnath, Christine V F Carrington, Christopher A L Oura
Viruses affecting poultry cause significant levels of disease leading to severe economic losses among poultry farmers worldwide. The Americas region continues to be vulnerable to the spread of poultry viruses across the continents and Caribbean island chains. In Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) there is limited information on the viruses circulating in poultry. Many flock are vulnerable to infection and there are occasional outbreaks of disease resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify important viruses of poultry circulating in T&T through a broad-based surveillance approach...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Paul Y F Lee, David J Woodnutt, David M Golding
CASE: A 65-year-old farmer re-presented 5 years after sustaining a midshaft prosthetic fracture of a previous long-stem revision hip replacement. He was treated with a proximal-loading short femoral stem, and did not require an extended trochanteric osteotomy for removal of the well-fixed distal implant. He was able to fully bear weight immediately postoperatively, and he remained pain-free without functional loss at the 42-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: This use of a modern short-stem prosthesis is a treatment option for a potentially complex prosthetic fracture in highly active patients, and it reduces intraoperative complexity...
April 2017: JBJS Case Connector
Aviv Regev, Sarah A Teichmann, Eric S Lander, Ido Amit, Christophe Benoist, Ewan Birney, Bernd Bodenmiller, Peter Campbell, Piero Carninci, Menna Clatworthy, Hans Clevers, Bart Deplancke, Ian Dunham, James Eberwine, Roland Eils, Wolfgang Enard, Andrew Farmer, Lars Fugger, Berthold Göttgens, Nir Hacohen, Muzlifah Haniffa, Martin Hemberg, Seung Kim, Paul Klenerman, Arnold Kriegstein, Ed Lein, Sten Linnarsson, Emma Lundberg, Joakim Lundeberg, Partha Majumder, John C Marioni, Miriam Merad, Musa Mhlanga, Martijn Nawijn, Mihai Netea, Garry Nolan, Dana Pe'er, Anthony Phillipakis, Chris P Ponting, Stephen Quake, Wolf Reik, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Joshua Sanes, Rahul Satija, Ton N Schumacher, Alex Shalek, Ehud Shapiro, Padmanee Sharma, Jay W Shin, Oliver Stegle, Michael Stratton, Michael J T Stubbington, Fabian J Theis, Matthias Uhlen, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Allon Wagner, Fiona Watt, Jonathan Weissman, Barbara Wold, Ramnik Xavier, Nir Yosef
The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology)...
December 5, 2017: ELife
Bruce C Ball, Paul R Hargreaves, Christine A Watson
Globally soil quality and food security continue to decrease indicating that agriculture and the food system need to adapt. Improving connection to the soil by knowledge exchange can help achieve this. We propose a framework of three types of connections that allow the targeting of appropriate messages to different groups of people. Direct connection by, for example, handling soil develops soil awareness for management that can be fostered by farmers joining groups on soil-focused farming such as organic farming or no-till...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
Lanae Ball, Amy McCauley, Tracey Paul, Kenneth Gruber, Lauren Haldeman, Jigna Dharod
The present study planned and implemented a new farmers' market (FM) at a WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children) clinic in North Carolina, of which WIC FM Nutrition Program (FMNP) participants were the main priority population. The purpose of this FM was to provide convenience and improve access to locally grown fresh fruits and vegetables in the community and to increase the FMNP coupon redemption rate. The main objective of this study was to describe the overall process and key strategies involved in implementing a FM at a WIC clinic...
November 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
Steven A Farmer, Paul N Casale, Linda D Gillam, John S Rumsfeld, Shari Erickson, Neil M Kirschner, Kevin de Regnier, Bruce R Williams, R Shawn Martin, Mark B McClellan
Importance: The US health care system faces an unsustainable trajectory of high costs and inconsistent outcomes. The fee-for-service payment model has contributed to inefficiency, and new payment methods are a promising approach to improving value. Health reforms are needed to increase patient access, reduce costs, and improve health care quality, and the landmark Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act presents a roadmap for reform. The product of a collaboration between primary care and cardiology clinicians, this review describes a conceptual approach to delivery and payment reforms that aim to better support primary care-cardiology comanagement of chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
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