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So-Jung Bang, Gayoung Kim, Mi Young Lim, Eun-Ji Song, Dong-Hyun Jung, Jun-Seok Kum, Young-Do Nam, Cheon-Seok Park, Dong-Ho Seo
Pectin is a complex dietary fiber and a prebiotic. To investigate pectin-induced changes in the gut microbiome and their effects on the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, we performed in vitro pectin fermentation using the feces of three Korean donors. The pectin degradations in all three donors were observed. While the donors displayed differences in baseline gut microbiota composition, commonly increased bacteria after pectin fermentation included Lachnospira, Dorea, Clostridium, and Sutterella. Regarding SCFAs, acetate levels rapidly increased with incubation with pectin, and butyrate levels also increased after 6 h of incubation...
June 16, 2018: AMB Express
Poonam Velagapudi, Mohit Turagam, Dhaval Kolte, Sahil Khera, Omar Hyder, Paul Gordon, Herbert D Aronow, Jane Leopold, J Dawn Abbott
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial human CD34+ cells may relieve symptoms and improve clinical outcomes in chronic refractory angina unresponsive to optimal medical therapy or not amenable to revascularization. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the impact of human CD34+ cells compared with placebo in chronic refractory angina. Primary efficacy outcomes in our analysis were angina frequency and exercise time...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
Jun Hu, Hua Wang, Yong-Fang Hu, Xiao-Feng Xu, Yuan-Hua Chen, Mi-Zhen Xia, Cheng Zhang, De-Xiang Xu
INTRODUCTION: Several reports demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) had proinflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether Cd induces inflammatory cytokines in mouse placenta and human trophoblast cells. METHODS: Human JEG-3 cells were treated with different concentration of CdCl2 (0-50 μM) or CdCl2 (25 μM) for different times. The pregnant mice were administered with CdCl2 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) on GD15. RESULTS: TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-6 mRNAs were elevated in CdCl2 -treated JEG-3 cells...
May 2018: Placenta
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Mohammad Varahram, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to human health. Understanding the strategies mycobacteria take to overcome immune defense is important in order to control the infection. Micro (mi)RNAs are master regulators of most pathways in the human body.  Infection with mycobacterium impacts upon the host metabolic pathways as they are subverted to obtain the nutrition for intracellular TB survival. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection on the expression of three miRNAs (miR-1224, -484 and -425), which are important in infection and in the regulation of metabolic pathways...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Peng Chen, Jialin Pan, Xinming Zhang, Zhewei Shi, Xiangjun Yang
BACKGROUND The role of miR-181a in the development of cardiac disease and in particular, myocardial fibrosis following myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miR-181a in myocardial fibrosis in a rat model of MI and the expression of TGF-β receptor III (TβRIII). MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an MI model group (n=30) and a control group with (n=10). The rat MI model involved ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in the model group; the control group was treated with a sham operation...
June 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Eunwoo Kim, Anhye Kim, Sojeong Yi, Yu Kyong Kim, Seong Bok Jang, Hae Mi Byun, Seo Hyun Yoon, Joo-Youn Cho, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu, SeungHwan Lee
PURPOSE: YH4808 is a potassium-competitive acid blocker, developed for the treatment of acid-related disorders. Two clinical studies in healthy male subjects were conducted to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of YH4808. METHODS: The first study, a randomized, three-treatment, three-period, crossover study, compared pharmacokinetics of YH4808 (300 mg) after a single dose at fed state with a standard or a high-fat meal to those at fasted state...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Vivek K Bajpai, Md Badrul Alam, Khong Trong Quan, Mi-Kyoung Ju, Rajib Majumder, Shruti Shukla, Yun Suk Huh, MinKyun Na, Sang Han Lee, Young-Kyu Han
We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of (+)-syringaresinol (SGRS), a lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using enzyme-based immuno assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses. Additionally, in vivo effects of SGRS in the acute inflammatory state were examined by using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay in experimental mice. As a result, treatment with SGRS (25, 50, and 100 μM) inhibited protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by LPS...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chen Huang, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of animal feed worldwide and brings significant threats to the animal production. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal physical barrier in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of DON (27, 318, 636, 922, 1243 and 1515 μg/kg diet) for 60 days...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yu Shi, Peng Lin, Xiaoning Wang, Guangmei Zou, Kefeng Li
Uncontrolled cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction (MI) is a critical pathological change leading to heart failure. Current pharmacotherapies are limited by unsatisfactory efficacy and undesired systemic side effects. Astaxanthin (ASX) is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The effects of ASX on MI-induced cardiac fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, after the establishment of MI model, mice were administrated with ASX (200 mg/kg⋅d) for 4 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi-Mi Wu, Marcin Cieślik, Robert J Lonigro, Pankaj Vats, Melissa A Reimers, Xuhong Cao, Yu Ning, Lisha Wang, Lakshmi P Kunju, Navonil de Sarkar, Elisabeth I Heath, Jonathan Chou, Felix Y Feng, Peter S Nelson, Johann S de Bono, Weiping Zou, Bruce Montgomery, Ajjai Alva, Dan R Robinson, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Using integrative genomic analysis of 360 metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) samples, we identified a novel subtype of prostate cancer typified by biallelic loss of CDK12 that is mutually exclusive with tumors driven by DNA repair deficiency, ETS fusions, and SPOP mutations. CDK12 loss is enriched in mCRPC relative to clinically localized disease and characterized by focal tandem duplications (FTDs) that lead to increased gene fusions and marked differential gene expression. FTDs associated with CDK12 loss result in highly recurrent gains at loci of genes involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication...
June 14, 2018: Cell
Jinhyun Cho, Hae Su Kim, Bo Mi Ku, Yoon-La Choi, Razvan Cristescu, Joungho Han, Jong-Mu Sun, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Keunchil Park, Myung-Ju Ahn
Purpose Limited treatment options exist for patients with thymic epithelial tumor (TET) whose disease progresses after platinum-based chemotherapy. We conducted a phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with TET to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed TET whose disease progressed after at least one line of platinum-based chemotherapy were eligible for the study. Patients were excluded if they had an active autoimmune disease requiring systemic treatment within the past year or documented history of clinically severe autoimmune disease...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
JoAnn Trial, Katarzyna A Cieslik
The cardiac fibroblast plays a central role in tissue homeostasis and in repair after injury. With aging, dysregulated cardiac fibroblasts have a reduced capacity to respond to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and poorly differentiate into contractile myofibroblasts. That results in the formation of an insufficient scar after myocardial infarction (MI). By contrast, in the uninjured aged heart fibroblasts are activated and acquire a pro-fibrotic phenotype that leads to interstitial fibrosis, ventricular stiffness, and diastolic dysfunction, all conditions that may lead to heart failure...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Anne E Otwell, Stephen J Callister, Robert W Sherwood, Sheng Zhang, Abby R Goldman, Richard D Smith, Ruth E Richardson
We established Fe(III)-reducing co-cultures of two species of metal-reducing bacteria, the Gram-positive Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 and the Gram-negative Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Co-cultures were given pyruvate, a substrate that D. reducens can ferment and use as electron donor for Fe(III) reduction. G. sulfurreducens relied upon products of pyruvate oxidation by D. reducens (acetate, hydrogen) for use as electron donor in the co-culture. Co-cultures reduced Fe(III) to Fe(II) robustly, and Fe(II) was consistently detected earlier in co-cultures than pure cultures...
June 15, 2018: Geobiology
Sheng Chu, Pengfei Ou, Pegah Ghamari, Srinivas Vanka, Baowen Zhou, Ishiang Shih, Jun Song, Zetian Mi
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) reduction of CO2 with H2 O not only provides an opportunity for reducing net CO2 emissions but also produces value-added chemical feedstocks and fuels. Syngas, a mixture of CO and H2 , is a key feedstock for the production of methanol and other commodity hydrocarbons in industry. However, it is challenging to achieve efficient and stable PEC CO2 reduction into syngas with controlled composition owing to the difficulties associated with the chemical inertness of CO2 and complex reaction network of CO2 conversion...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Natascha Riehle, Tobias Götz, Andreas Kandelbauer, Günter E M Tovar, Günter Lorenz
This article contains data on the synthesis and mechanical characterization of polysiloxane-based urea-elastomers (PSUs) and is related to the research article entitled "Influence of PDMS molecular weight on transparency and mechanical properties of soft polysiloxane-urea-elastomers for intraocular lens application" (Riehle et al., 2018) [1]. These elastomers were prepared by a two-step polyaddition using the aliphatic diisocyanate 4,4'-Methylenbis(cyclohexylisocyanate) (H12 MDI), a siloxane-based chain extender 1,3-Bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (APTMDS) and amino-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) or polydimethyl-methyl-phenyl-siloxane-copolymers (PDMS-Me,Ph), respectively...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Ji Won Kim, Jeong-Mi Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jeong-Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a putative damage mechanism leading to salivary gland (SG) dysfunction following radioiodine (RI) therapy. Ginseng is an antioxidative herb. We examined the SG radioprotective effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) administration prior to RI in a mouse model. METHODS: We divided four-week old mice (n = 60) into four groups; (1) normal control, (2) RI only treated (0.01 mCi/g, p.o), (3) KRG administered (0.2 mg/g, i.p) 0.5 and 6 hours before RI, and (4) amifostine treated (0...
June 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Jae Yun Jung, Eun Mi Ham, Hyuksool Kwon, Young Ho Kwak, Do Kyun Kim, Jin Hee Lee, Jin Hee Jung
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery dilatation (CAD) is a great concern with Kawasaki disease (KD). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and CAD in patients with the hyperacute phase (≤4 days of fever) of KD. METHODS: Serum NT-proBNP levels were compared between patients with and those without CAD, who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) within 24 h of the hyperacute phase of KD in the pediatric emergency department (PED)...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Heng Wang, Liangpo Liu, Heqing Shen
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring infants' exposure to 10 phthalates by measuring their urinary metabolites using a modified high performance liquid chromatography tandemelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry( HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. METHODS: A total of 50 infants at 0-6 month-old were recruited and their urine samples were collected by commercial available gel diapers. After the urine expression, phthalates were hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase, cleaned up by HLB cartridge, then these metabolites were measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS equipped with a Hypersil Gold Phenyl column...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Hye-Yoon Lee, Oh-Jin Kwon, Jung-Eun Kim, Mikyeong Kim, Ae-Ran Kim, Hyo-Ju Park, Jung-Hyo Cho, Joo-Hee Kim, Sun-Mi Choi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of functional constipation (FC) is 3-27%, and FC has been reported to cause discomfort in daily life and various complications. The treatment for FC depends on laxatives, and thus, effective and non-toxic alternative treatments are needed. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, sham-controlled parallel-design, pilot trial. Participants with FC were randomly assigned to either the real acupuncture (RA) or sham acupuncture (SA) group. The RA consisted of eight fixed acupuncture points (bilateral ST25, ST27, BL52 and BL25) and four additional points targeted to the individual based on Traditional Korean medicine (TKM)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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