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Aviation heart

Ilya V Ryaboy, James A Watts, Megan L Barnwell
Athlete's heart is the condition of cardiac remodeling as a result of physiologic stress induced by regular strenuous physical activity by professional or elite amateur individuals. The literature describes several characteristics of the athletic heart, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased left ventricular mass, right ventricular dilatation, atrial enlargement, electrocardiographic changes, and abnormalities on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present a case of athletic heart in an exceptionally physically fit active duty naval aviator who experienced syncope and underwent extensive cardiac testing...
May 31, 2018: Military Medicine
Sophie Duignan, Aedin Ryan, Dara O'Keeffe, Damien Kenny, Colin J McMahon
The complexity and potential biases involved in decision making have long been recognised and examined in both the aviation and business industries. More recently, the medical community have started to explore this concept and its particular importance in our field. Paediatric cardiology is a rapidly expanding field and for many of the conditions we treat, there is limited evidence available to support our decision-making. Variability exists within decision-making in paediatric cardiology and this may influence outcomes...
May 12, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Antonio R Hidalgo-Muñoz, Damien Mouratille, Nadine Matton, Mickaël Causse, Yves Rouillard, Radouane El-Yagoubi
In aviation, emotion and cognitive workload can considerably increase the probability of human error. An accurate online physiological monitoring of pilot's mental state could prevent accidents. The heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of 21 private pilots were analysed during two realistic flight simulator scenarios. Emotion was manipulated by a social stressor and cognitive workload with the difficulty of a secondary task. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the HR to cognitive demand and training effects, with increased HR when the task was more difficult and decreased HR with training (time-on-task)...
June 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Sungho Kim, Booyong Choi, Taehwan Cho, Yongkyun Lee, Hyojin Koo, Dongsoo Kim
Pilots are required to have the ability to evaluate their own physical and psychological status to operate high performance aircrafts effectively. Existing studies have lacked consideration of applying bio signal of pilots in real time flight situation. The purpose of this study is to develop a wearable bio signal monitoring system that can measure the condition of pilots under an extreme flight environment to ensure flight safety. The wearable bio signal monitoring system consists of an algorithm for evaluating pilots' physiological stability, algorithms for detecting Gravity-induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) prognosis, pilots' interaction module, and pilots' context awareness platform...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sunday R Saenz, Russell J Lewis, Mike K Angier, Jarrad R Wagner
Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Heather J Mahaney, Valarie M Schroeder, Genny M Maupin
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the use of statin therapy in U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators with isolated hypercholesterolemia in terms of compliance with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and effectiveness in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: This was a mixed design, 8-yr retrospective study that included 8185 participants with isolated hypercholesterolemia, of which 1458 (17.81%) were prescribed statin monotherapy...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Gwénolé Rohel, Eric Perrier, Aurélien Delluc, Jonathan Monin, Olivier Manen, Philippe Paule, Marie Piquemal, Jacques Mansourati, Ulric Vinsonneau
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence, the appearance, and the distribution, as well as the fluctuation over time of early repolarization patterns after four years in a female population derived from the French aviation sector. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study from 1998 to 2010 of a population of female employees who received a full clinical examination and an electrocardiogram (ECG) upon their recruitment and after a period of four years. RESULTS: A total of 306 women were included (average of 25...
May 30, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Marionne Cronin
In May 1926, U.S. newspapers were full of the story that Richard Byrd, an American aviator, had become the first person to reach the North Pole by air. The announcement triggered patriotic outpourings across the country and Byrd was widely hailed as a national hero. The young aviator's flight was part of a burgeoning interwar expeditionary practice that placed machines at the heart of new modes of exploration. This development, however, challenged preexisting notions of masculine heroism and threatened to undercut the explorer's heroic status...
April 2016: Technology and Culture
Thomas E Sather, Donald R Delorey
INTRODUCTION: Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption...
June 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Heikki Mansikka, Petteri Simola, Kai Virtanen, Don Harris, Lauri Oksama
Fighter pilots' heart rate (HR), heart rate variation (HRV) and performance during instrument approaches were examined. The subjects were required to fly instrument approaches in a high-fidelity simulator under various levels of task demand. The task demand was manipulated by increasing the load on the subjects by reducing the range at which they commenced the approach. HR and the time domain components of HRV were used as measures of pilot mental workload (PMWL). The findings of this study indicate that HR and HRV are sensitive to varying task demands...
October 2016: Ergonomics
Xu Wu, Xiaoru Wanyan, Damin Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Human factors involved with visual attention mechanism and fatigue are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the connection between attention and flight fatigue, a mathematical model of pilot's visual attention allocation was established based on information processing channels. Multi-task condition and current psychophysical state were taken into account as well. METHODS: Sixteen participants were recruited to perform a long-term dual-task in a Boeing 737-800 flight simulator...
2015: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Russell J Lewis, Philip M Kemp, Robert D Johnson
Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. While the use of paroxetine is considered relatively safe, negative side effects, including nausea, drowsiness, insomnia and dizziness, can adversely affect a pilot's ability to safely operate an aircraft. The use of paroxetine may increase suicidal behavior and suicidal ideation. When relying on postmortem specimens for toxicological evaluation, a general understanding of drug distribution throughout postmortem specimens is important...
October 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anne-Sophie Evrard, Liacine Bouaoun, Patricia Champelovier, Jacques Lambert, Bernard Laumon
The impact of aircraft noise on health is of growing concern. We investigated the relationship between this exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We performed an ecological study on 161 communes (commune being the smallest administrative unit in France) close to the following three major French airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon Saint-Exupéry, and Toulouse-Blagnac. The mortality data were provided by the French Center on Medical Causes of Death for the period 2007-2010...
September 2015: Noise & Health
Philip M Kemp, Patrick S Cardona, Arvind K Chaturvedi, John W Soper
Little is known of the postmortem distribution of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Data from 55 pilots involved in fatal aviation accidents are presented in this study. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis obtained mean THC concentrations in blood from multiple sites, liver, lung, and kidney of 15.6 ng/mL, 92.4 ng/g, 766.0 ng/g, 44.1 ng/g and mean THCCOOH concentrations of 35.9 ng/mL, 322.4 ng/g, 42.6 ng/g, 138.5 ng/g, respectively...
July 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Haitao Zhang, Huilan Luo, Jinjin Sun, Chaozhong Liu, Yi Tian, Hao Chen, Chao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Exposure of pilots' heart to acceleration-associated stress (+Gz stress) is an adverse effect of high-performance aviation. The occurrence of coronary heart diseases is one of the most frequent medical causes leading to cessation of flying. AIM: To assess the effects of +Gz stress on coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in a minimally invasive miniature swine model with a fast recovery. METHODS: The proximal left anterior descending branch was ligated in 20 swine using silk suture...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
R M Baevskiĭ, A G Chernikova
Trends in the development of modern ideas about health as the ability to adapt require personalization and preventive orientation in evaluating and predicting individual health. It can be realized only on the basis ofprenosological approach, which is necessary in medicine and physiology of labor, in particular--in the aviation and space medicine. The article analyzes the concept of adaptation risks and its application for health, assessing on the basis of the results of space and Earth modeling studies of autonomic regulation according to the HRV (heart rate variability) analysis...
October 2014: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Jeffrey R Baden, Maria Abrosimova, Lindsey M Boulet, Michael M Tymko, Jamie R Pfoh, Rachel J Skow, Trevor A Day
BACKGROUND: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is characterized by normal fluctuations in heart rate in phase with the respiratory cycle. There are many proposed mechanisms underlying the RSA phenomenon, including respiratory-induced cardiac loading (i.e., Bainbridge reflex), arterial baroreflex activation, vagal feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors, and central neural mechanisms. It is currently unclear to what extent these mechanisms are responsible for eliciting RSA in humans, particularly in response to stressors...
December 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Adrian J Mellor, David R Woods, John O'Hara, Mark Howley, James Watchorn, Christopher Boos
BACKGROUND: There is a widely held belief that strenuous exercise should be avoided on arrival at high altitude (HA) and during acclimatization. Data from chamber studies are contradictory and the studies are usually of short duration, therefore differing from the "real world." METHODS: We studied 48 trekkers during a 10-d ascent to 16,827 ft (5129 m) in the Cordillera Real area of Bolivia. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores were recorded for the hardest perceived exertion during the day after ascents to 12,576, 14,600, and 16,827 ft (3833, 4450, and 5129 m)...
December 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Makoto Ando, Yukihiro Takahashi, In-Sam Park, Hitonobu Tomoike
BACKGROUND: There is currently a well-established network for the allocation of donor organs for transplantation in Japan, and emergency patients are often transported by the "Doctor Helicopter". However, interhospital transfer of patients, which can require aircraft with specialized equipment, depends on arrangement by each responsible hospital. METHODS AND RESULTS: Since 2009 there were 41 interhospital aviation transfers of pediatric patients with intractable cardiac or airway diseases seeking surgical treatment at Sakakibara Heart Institute...
2015: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Stephanie M Davis, Eddie D Davenport, Jared T Haynes, Rosa L Alvarado
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence, progression rates, and outcomes affecting aviator valvular heart disease have not been extensively studied. METHODS: The U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine's Clinical Sciences Database was used to determine prevalence and progression rates for regurgitant valvular disease. A subset of the initial population was further evaluated for risk factors that increased the likelihood of progression. Descriptive statistical analysis, analysis of variance, and t-test calculations were completed...
October 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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