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Peer observation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937930/feasibility-of-a-multidisciplinary-caregiving-training-protocol-for-young-caregivers-in-families-with-als
#1
Melinda S Kavanaugh, Megan Howard, Lori Banker-Horner
Feasibility of a multidisciplinary caregiving training protocol for young caregivers in families with ALS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a multidisciplinary young caregiver group training protocol for children and youth who provide care to a family member with ALS. METHOD: Peer group experiential young caregiver model based on theories of self-management and self-efficacy. Training conducted by a multidisciplinary team of therapists in ALS (PT, OT, Speech and social work), as well as assistive device vendors...
September 22, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933023/to-whistleblow-or-not-to-whistleblow-affective-and-cognitive-differences-in-reporting-peers-and-advisors
#2
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages in misconduct, and positive and the negative consequences of whistleblowing are either directed to the wrongdoer, department, or university...
September 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932579/patient-reported-outcomes-following-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-vats-resection-or-stereotactic-ablative-body-radiotherapy-sabr-for-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-protocol-for-an-observational-pilot-study-lilac
#3
Cecilia Pompili, Kevin N Franks, Alessandro Brunelli, Yusuf S Hussain, Patricia Holch, Matthew E Callister, Jonathan M Robson, Kostas Papagiannopoulos, Galina Velikova
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is increasingly a disease of the elderly and frail population with a median age of 70 years at diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of the impact of interventions on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and not only absolute survival is especially important. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been gaining popularity over the last few decades, replacing traditional open lobectomies. For high-risk patients who are not deemed suitable for surgery, stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) provides a potentially curative alternative...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931829/peer-punishment-promotes-enforcement-of-bad-social-norms
#4
Klaus Abbink, Lata Gangadharan, Toby Handfield, John Thrasher
Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931382/using-peer-review-to-distribute-group-work-marks-equitably-between-medical-students
#5
Alex R Cook, Mikael Hartman, Nan Luo, Judy Sng, Ngan Phoon Fong, Wei Yen Lim, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Mee Lian Wong, Natarajan Rajaraman, Jeannette Jen-Mai Lee, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
BACKGROUND: Although peer assessment has been used for evaluating performance of medical students and practicing doctors, it has not been studied as a method to distribute a common group work mark equitably to medical students working in large groups where tutors cannot observe all students constantly. METHODS: The authors developed and evaluated a mathematical formulation whereby a common group mark could be distributed among group members using peer assessment of individual contributions to group work, maintaining inter-group variation in group work scores...
September 20, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929540/diabetes-management-in-a-foreign-land-a-case-study-on-chinese-australians
#6
Tammie S T Choi, Karen Z Walker, Claire Palermo
The aim of this study was to understand the experience of Chinese migrants living with type 2 diabetes in Australia and explore their culturally specific diabetes management needs, habits and expectations in the Australian context to help shape an Australian Chinese diabetes service. A case study approach was employed across two Australian cities (Melbourne and Sydney), using participant-observations and qualitative interviews. Purposive sampling was used to find diabetes education sessions for observation and facilitators for interviews before snowball technique was used to identify relevant clinicians...
September 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928191/economic-volatility-in-childhood-and-subsequent-adolescent-mental-health-problems-a-longitudinal-population-based-study-of-adolescents
#7
Tormod Bøe, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Børge Sivertsen, Mari Hysing, Keith J Petrie, Eric Dearing, Henrik Daae Zachrisson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current paper was to investigate the association between the patterns of duration, timing and sequencing of exposure to low family income during childhood, and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence. SETTING: Survey administered to a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: Survey data from 9154 participants of 16-19 years age (53% participation rate; 52.7% girls) were linked to registry-based information about childhood family income from tax return data...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927396/socioeconomic-disparities-in-orthodontic-treatment-outcomes-and-expenditure-on-orthodontics-in-england-s-state-funded-national-health-service-a-retrospective-observational-study
#8
Juliet Price, William Whittaker, Stephen Birch, Paul Brocklehurst, Martin Tickle
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess whether there are potential areas for efficiency improvements in the National Health Service (NHS) orthodontic service in North West England and to assess the socioeconomic status (SES)-related equity of the outcomes achieved by the NHS. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of 2008-2012 administrative data, and the study population comprised patients aged ≥10 who started NHS primary care orthodontic treatment in North West England in 2008...
September 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927385/frontline-learning-of-medical-teaching-you-pick-up-as-you-go-through-work-and-practice
#9
W Hartford, L Nimmon, T Stenfors
BACKGROUND: Few medical teachers have received formal teaching education. Along with individual and organizational barriers to participation in teacher training programs, increasing numbers and altered distribution of physicians away from major teaching centers have increased the difficulty of attendance. Furthermore, it is not known if traditional faculty development formats are the optimal learning options given findings from existing studies document both positive and negative outcomes...
September 19, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915470/emotional-and-behavioural-problems-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-exploring-parent-and-teacher-reports
#10
Laura Crane, Emma Sumner, Elisabeth L Hill
BACKGROUND: Although characterised by motor impairments, children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) also show high rates of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, low self-esteem). Such findings have led to calls for the screening of mental health problems in this group. AIMS: To investigate patterns and profiles of emotional and behavioural problems in children with and without DCD, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Teachers and parents completed SDQs for 30 children with DCD (7-10 years)...
September 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913966/good-practices-for-real-world-data-studies-of-treatment-and-or-comparative-effectiveness-recommendations-from-the-joint-ispor-ispe-special-task-force-on-real-world-evidence-in-health-care-decision-making
#11
Marc L Berger, Harold Sox, Richard J Willke, Diana L Brixner, Hans-Georg Eichler, Wim Goettsch, David Madigan, Amr Makady, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Rosanna Tarricone, Shirley V Wang, John Watkins, C Daniel Mullins
PURPOSE: Real-world evidence (RWE) includes data from retrospective or prospective observational studies and observational registries and provides insights beyond those addressed by randomized controlled trials. RWE studies aim to improve health care decision making. METHODS: The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) created a task force to make recommendations regarding good procedural practices that would enhance decision makers' confidence in evidence derived from RWD studies...
September 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913590/challenges-of-anticoagulation-therapy-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Annemarie E Fogerty
Thrombotic complications in pregnancy represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is a primary hypercoagulable state due to enhanced production of clotting factors, a decrease in protein S activity, and inhibition of fibrinolysis. These physiologic changes will yield a collective rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of about 1-2 in 1000 pregnancies for the general obstetric population, which represents a five- to tenfold increased risk in pregnancy compared to age-matched non-pregnant peers...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911327/negotiating-power-relations-gender-equality-and-collective-agency-are-village-health-committees-transformative-social-spaces-in-northern-india
#13
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901269/recent-advances-in-cancer-drug-development-targeting-induced-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-mcl-1-differentiation-protein
#14
Mohammad Abid, Yogesh A Sonawane, Jacob I Contreras, Sandeep Rana, Amarnath Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins are upregulated in a majority of cancers and are potential therapeutic targets. Fragment-based design led to the development of clinical candidates that target Bcl-xL/Bcl-2. Although these Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 inhibitors showed promise in pre-clinical studies, resistance was observed to several Bcl-xL inhibitors, when used alone. This has been attributed to the over-expression of Mcl-1, another member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898968/systematic-review-factors-associated-with-return-to-work-in-burnout
#15
R Kärkkäinen, T Saaranen, S Hiltunen, O P Ryynänen, K Räsänen
Background: Professional burnout predicts sick leave and even permanent withdrawal from the labour force. However, knowledge of the barriers to and facilitators of return to work (RTW) in such burnout is limited. Aims: To identify factors associated with RTW of burned-out individuals to inform occupational health care (OHC) RTW policy. Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed quantitative and mixed-method studies published from January 2005 to July 2016 in English and Finnish in ARTO, CINAHL (EBSCO), Medic, PsycINFO (ProQuest), PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, followed by a manual search...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895637/eating-frequency-and-carbohydrate-intake-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-differ-from-those-in-their-peers-and-are-associated-with-glycemic-control
#16
Christina Baechle, Annika Hoyer, Katty Castillo-Reinado, Anna Stahl-Pehe, Oliver Kuss, Reinhard W Holl, Mathilde Kersting, Joachim Rosenbauer
Aim The diet of people with type 1 diabetes may differ from that of healthy peers due to disease-related factors that may affect the course of diabetes. This cross-sectional study sought to compare meal and snacking frequency and corresponding carbohydrate intake among adolescents with intensively-treated type 1 diabetes and healthy peers and to analyze their association with glycemic control among diabetes patients. Methods Nutritional data of 712 11- to <19-year-olds from a nationwide population-based survey on early-onset type 1 diabetes (52...
September 11, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894688/current-diagnosis-and-management-of-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy
#17
REVIEW
Joshua Bakhsheshian, Vivek A Mehta, John C Liu
STUDY DESIGN: Review. OBJECTIVES: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a major cause of disability, particular in elderly patients. Awareness and understanding of CSM is imperative to facilitate early diagnosis and management. This review article addresses CSM with regard to its epidemiology, anatomical considerations, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, treatment approaches and outcomes, and the cost-effectiveness of surgical options...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894644/anthropometric-physical-function-and-general-health-markers-of-masters-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Samantha Fien, Mike Climstein, Clodagh Quilter, Georgina Buckley, Timothy Henwood, Josie Grigg, Justin W L Keogh
Once the general decline in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance falls below specific thresholds, the middle aged or older adult will be diagnosed as having sarcopenia (a loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength). Sarcopenia contributes to a range of adverse events in older age including disability, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and falls. One potentially relevant but understudied population for sarcopenia researchers would be Masters athletes. Masters sport is becoming more common as it allows athletes (typically 40 years and older) the opportunity to participate in individual and/or team sports against individuals of similar age...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893747/the-health-and-well-being-of-australia-s-future-medical-doctors-protocol-for-a-5-year-observational-cohort-study-of-medical-trainees
#19
Erin Cvejic, Gordon Parker, Samuel B Harvey, Zachery Steel, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Claire L Macnamara, Uté Vollmer-Conna
INTRODUCTION: Clinical training in the undergraduate medical course places multiple stressors on trainees, which have been held to lead to heightened distress, depression, suicide, substance misuse/abuse and poor mental health outcomes. To date, evidence for morbidity in trainees is largely derived from cross-sectional survey-based research. This limits the accuracy of estimates and the extent to which predispositional vulnerabilities (biological and/or psychological), contextual triggers and longer-term consequences can be validly identified...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892482/-spin-in-published-biomedical-literature-a-methodological-systematic-review
#20
Kellia Chiu, Quinn Grundy, Lisa Bero
In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
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