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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#1
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035385/class-2-crispr-cas-rna-guided-endonucleases-swiss-army-knives-of-genome-editing
#2
REVIEW
Stefano Stella, Pablo Alcón, Guillermo Montoya
CRISPR-Cas is a bacterial defense system against phage infection and nucleic acid invasion. Class 2 type II CRISPR-Cas9 has also been widely used for genome engineering. Here, we review novel insights into the CRISPR class 2 type V enzymes, specifically Cpf1 and C2c1, which display different DNA-recognition and cleavage characteristics than those of Cas9, the best-characterized member of class 2. Recent structures of these ribonucleoprotein complexes that capture several stages of the endonuclease reaction have provided molecular details of recognition, unzipping and cleavage of the target DNA, allowing their comparison with Cas9...
October 16, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034245/handshakes-and-fights-the-regulatory-interplay-of-rna-binding-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Erik Dassi
What drives the flow of signals controlling the outcome of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression? This regulatory layer, presiding to processes ranging from splicing to mRNA stability and localization, is a key determinant of protein levels and thus cell phenotypes. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) form a remarkable army of post-transcriptional regulators, strong of more than 1,500 genes implementing this expression fine-tuning plan and implicated in both cell physiology and pathology. RBPs can bind and control a wide array of RNA targets...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033312/higher-serum-albumin-was-related-with-diabetes-incidence-and-the-impact-of-bmi-changes-based-on-cohort-study-of-18-384-chinese-male-elderly
#4
Miao Liu, Jingping Tang, Jing Zeng, Yao He
AIMS: Albumin (ALB) was a useful marker of nutrition and general health status. However, the conclusion about the association between ALB and diabetes was inconsistent, and little information was known about the elderly. METHODS: A cohort study based on 18,384 army cadres was conducted Beijing, from 2009 to 2013. RESULTS: The mean age of the total 18,384 participants was 71±14years, and the mean ALB concentration was 44.33±3.94g/L at baseline...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031158/a-potential-contribution-to-human-identification-using-peri-mortem-trauma-an-example-from-peru
#5
Jose P Baraybar
This is an exploratory study into the need for additional lines of forensic evidence in humanitarian cases using applied research. One hundred and twenty four, still unidentified terrorism inmates, were killed after surrendering to the Peruvian Army once it took control of the San Pedro-Lurigancho prison in Lima, Peru in 1986. Two questions are put forward: first, to what extent mechanism of injury (gunshot, blunt, sharp force) and bodily distribution of those injuries allow us to classify individuals into discrete sub-groups of people? The second question is to what respect can such a classification become an additional line of evidence assisting in generating hypotheses of identity regarding those individuals? The analysis of the 109 recovered bodies and their associated evidence show a sub group of four individuals differentiated from the rest based on the combination of injuries (gunshot and blunt force trauma), opposing trajectories and weapons...
September 21, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027043/clinical-psychological-features-and-quality-of-life-of-fibromyalgia-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-of-chinese-sample
#6
Ying Zhang, Dongfeng Liang, Ronghuan Jiang, Xiaojian Ji, Yiwen Wang, Jian Zhu, Jianglin Zhang, Feng Huang
This study aimed to determine the clinical, psychological features, and quality of life in Chinese fibromyalgia (FM) patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 FM classification criteria at initial diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital. A hundred and seven Chinese FM patients (86 females, 21 males) were included. Eighty-six patients completed the questionnaires. Descriptive, differences, and correlation analyses were performed...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025024/implementing-prescription-drug-monitoring-and-other-clinical-decision-support-for-opioid-risk-mitigation-in-a-military-health-care-setting-a-qualitative-feasibility-study
#7
Erin P Finley, Suyen Schneegans, Claudina Tami, Mary Jo Pugh, Don McGeary, Lauren Penney, Jennifer Sharpe Potter
Objective: Chronic noncancer pain is a highly prevalent condition among service members returning from deployment overseas. The US Army has a higher rate of opioid misuse than the civilian population. Although most states and many health care systems have implemented prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) or other clinician decision support (CDS) to aid providers in delivering guideline-recommended opioid therapy, similar tools are lacking in military health settings. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pre-implementation feasibility and needs assessment guided by the Promoting Action Research in Health Services framework...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024363/prevalence-predictors-and-correlates-of-insomnia-in-us-army-soldiers
#8
Elizabeth A Klingaman, Janeese A Brownlow, Elaine M Boland, Caterina Mosti, Philip R Gehrman
The objective of this study was to investigate the rates, predictors and correlates of insomnia in a national sample of US Army soldiers. Data were gathered from the cross-sectional survey responses of the All-Army Study, of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members. Participants were a representative sample of 21 499 US Army soldiers who responded to the All-Army Study self-administered questionnaire between 2011 and 2013. Insomnia was defined by selected DSM-5 criteria using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022736/preliminary-evaluation-of-treatment-outcomes-at-a-military-intensive-outpatient-program
#9
Tim Hoyt, David Barry, So Heui Kwon, Claire Capron, Noriko De Guzman, James Gilligan, Amanda Edwards-Stewart
Recent U.S. Army policy has established intensive outpatient programs at several installations as part of a comprehensive behavioral health system of care. This study presents retrospective program evaluation data from a case series without randomization or a control group at 1 recently established intensive outpatient program for active duty service members at a joint military installation. Out of 240 patients referred to the program at 1 installation, 200 enrolled in treatment. Of these, 169 completed treatment in a Skills & Resiliency Track (n = 97), Trauma Track (n = 34), or both (Combined Track; n = 38)...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021518/the-lethal-spanish-influenza-pandemic-in-poland
#10
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap, Lidia B Brydak
The Spanish influenza pandemic in the years 1918-1920 was the largest and most tragic pandemic of infectious disease in human history. Deciphering the structure of the virus (including the determination of complete genome sequence) of this pandemic and the phylogenetic analysis and explanation of its virulence became possible thanks to molecular genetic analysis of the virus isolated from the fixed and frozen lung tissue of influenza victims who died in 1918 and were buried frozen in Alaska and Spitsbergen...
October 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021307/commercially-available-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-another-piece-in-our-tool-box-but-not-a-swiss-army-knife-yet
#11
EDITORIAL
Leif-Hendrik Boldt, Abdul S Parwani, Frank R Heinzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021243/zucchini-dependent-pirna-processing-is-triggered-by-recruitment-to-the-cytoplasmic-processing-machinery
#12
Alicia K Rogers, Kathy Situ, Edward M Perkins, Katalin Fejes Toth
The piRNA pathway represses transposable elements in the gonads and thereby plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of germline genomes of animals. Mature piRNAs are processed from longer transcripts, piRNA precursors (pre-piRNAs). In Drosophila, processing of pre-piRNAs is initiated by piRNA-guided Slicer cleavage or the endonuclease Zucchini (Zuc). As Zuc does not have any sequence or structure preferences in vitro, it is not known how piRNA precursors are selected and channeled into the Zuc-dependent processing pathway...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020197/sickle-cell-trait-and-heat-injury-among-u-s-army-soldiers
#13
D Alan Nelson, Patricia A Deuster, Francis G O'Connor, Lianne M Kurina
There is concern that sickle cell trait increases risk of exertional collapse, a primary cause of which is heat injury. However, no population-based studies among active individuals have addressed this, representing a critical evidence gap. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of sickle cell trait-tested African American soldiers on active-duty in the U.S. Army anytime between January 2011 and December 2014. Using Cox proportional hazards models and adjusting for demographic and medical factors, we observed no significant associations between sickle cell trait and either mild heat injury (hazard ratio (HR), 1...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016321/nationwide-seroprevalence-of-leptospirosis-among-young-thai-men-2007-2008
#14
Siriphan Gonwong, Thippawan Chuenchitra, Patchariya Khantapura, Dilara Islam, Nattaya Ruamsap, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Leptospirosis, a global neglected zoonotic disease, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Nonspecific symptoms, lack of laboratory confirmation, and underreporting contribute to its neglected disease status. To better understand the distribution of leptospirosis exposure in Thailand, a retrospective leptospirosis seroprevalence study was conducted on repository serum specimens obtained from young Thai men entering the Royal Thai Army during 2007-2008. The overall nationwide leptospirosis IgG seroprevalence among these young Thai men was 28% (95% confidence interval = 26-30%) and the range by province was 10-52% confirming leptospirosis as an endemic disease throughout Thailand...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993131/impact-of-physical-fitness-and-body-composition-on-injury-risk-among-active-young-adults-a-study-of-army-trainees
#15
Bruce H Jones, Keith G Hauret, Shamola K Dye, Veronique D Hauschild, Stephen P Rossi, Melissa D Richardson, Karl E Friedl
OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of physical fitness and body composition on risk of training-related musculoskeletal injuries among Army trainees. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Rosters of soldiers entering Army basic combat training (BCT) from 2010 to 2012 were linked with data from multiple sources for age, sex, physical fitness (heights, weights (mass), body mass index (BMI), 2 mile run times, push-ups), and medical injury diagnoses...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992572/ecotoxicity-of-the-insensitive-munitions-compound-3-nitro-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-nto-and-its-reduced-metabolite-3-amino-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-ato
#16
Camila L Madeira, Jim A Field, Michael T Simonich, Robert L Tanguay, Jon Chorover, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. Army to replace cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) in conventional explosives. As its use becomes widespread, concern about the potential toxicity of NTO increases. NTO can undergo microbial reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO), which is recalcitrant in waterlogged soils. In this study, the acute toxicity of NTO and ATO towards various organisms, including microorganisms (i.e., methanogenic archaea, aerobic heterotrophs, and Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay)), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (ATO only), and zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), was assessed...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991760/centenary-of-the-birth-of-academician-prof-dr-isak-tadzer-founder-of-the-pathophysiology-and-nuclear-medicine-in-macedonia
#17
Borislav Karanfilski
Academician Prof. Dr. Isak Tadzer was born a hundred years ago on December 24, 1916 in Sofia. He completed the primary and secondary education at the German College in Sofia. In 1935 he began his studies at the Medical Faculty in Vienna, which he had to stop because of the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938. He returned to Bulgaria where he continued his studies and graduated from the Medical Faculty in Sofia in 1941. During the War, 1941-1944, he was forcedly mobilized and he worked as a doctor in several villages...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989915/management-of-substance-use-disorder-in-military-services-a-comprehensive-approach
#18
Mohammad Reza Sharbafchi, Mostafa Heydari
BACKGROUND: Historically, substance misuse has been a serious problem faced by worldwide military personnel. Some research showed that military personnel have higher rates of unhealthy substance use than their age peers in the general population. These problems have serious consequences and may lead to significant military difficulties in the field of readiness, discipline, and mental or physical health. In this review, we gathered various methods for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use disorders and suggested a comprehensive plan for Iran Armed Forces to improve existing services...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986390/relationship-between-1-5-mile-run-time-injury-risk-and-training-outcome-in-british-army-recruits
#19
Lianne J Hall
BACKGROUND: 1.5-mile run time, as a surrogate measure of aerobic fitness, is associated with musculoskeletal injury (MSI) risk in military recruits. This study aimed to determine if 1.5-mile run times can predict injury risk and attrition rates from phase 1 (initial) training and determine if a link exists between phase 1 and 2 discharge outcomes in British Army recruits. METHOD: 1.5-mile times from week 1 of initial training and MSI reported during training were retrieved for 3446 male recruits...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986087/risk-factors-for-injury-associated-with-low-moderate-and-high-mileage-road-marching-in-a-u-s-army-infantry-brigade
#20
Anna Schuh-Renner, Tyson L Grier, Michelle Canham-Chervak, Veronique D Hauschild, Tanja C Roy, Jeremy Fletcher, Bruce H Jones
OBJECTIVES: Road marching is an important physical training activity that prepares soldiers for a common occupational task. Continued exploration of risk factors for road marching-related injuries is needed. This analysis has assessed the association between modifiable characteristics of physical training and injury risk. METHODS: Injuries in the previous 6 months were captured by survey from 831 U.S. Army infantry soldiers. Road marching-related injuries were reported as those attributed to road marching on foot for specified distances while carrying equipment...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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