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Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
Volker Sommer, Umaru Buba, Gonçalo Jesus, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
OBJECTIVE: At some sites across Africa, chimpanzees consume army ants, often aided by plant tools, although consumption frequencies vary greatly. Other populations do not eat these insects at all, despite apparent abundance. The relative importance of this type of myrmecophagy for chimpanzee diet therefore remains unclear. We investigate if army ants constitute a preferred food or a fallback resource for chimpanzees at Gashaka, Nigeria, where army ants are consumed much more frequently than elsewhere...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Max E Winston, Daniel J C Kronauer, Corrie S Moreau
The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the isthmus...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Nina Galanter, Dennis Silva, Jonathan T Rowell, Jan Rychtář
Many organisms maintain collective territories and compete on behalf of the fitness of the overall group. Inspired by this concept, the territorial raider model is a graph-based resource competition in which populations have fixed home locations and a limited range of sites accessible for raiding. In our present extension of the model, groups control "colonies" or "armies" which can be divided across multiple locations. We present Nash equilibria for games played on both regular graphs and regular bipartite graphs, and we also examine differences that emerge when populations are composed of discrete units (pack scale) or when they are continuously divisible (colony scale)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Jeffrey M Pyne, Joseph I Constans, Mark D Wiederhold, Douglas P Gibson, Timothy Kimbrell, Teresa L Kramer, Jeffery A Pitcock, Xiaotong Han, D Keith Williams, Don Chartrand, Richard N Gevirtz, James Spira, Brenda K Wiederhold, Rollin McCraty, Thomas R McCune
Heart rate variability is a physiological measure associated with autonomic nervous system activity. This study hypothesized that lower pre-deployment HRV would be associated with higher post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Three-hundred-forty-three Army National Guard soldiers enrolled in the Warriors Achieving Resilience (WAR) study were analyzed. The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity using the PTSD Checklist - Military version (PCL) measured at baseline, 3- and 12-month post-deployment...
October 20, 2016: Biological Psychology
J T Nelson, A A Swan, B Swiger, M Packer, M J Pugh
Hearing loss is the second most common disability awarded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to former members of the U.S. uniformed services. Hearing readiness and conservation practices differ among the four largest uniformed military services (Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy). Utilizing a data set consisting of all hearing loss claims submitted to the VA from fiscal years 2003-2013, we examined characteristics of veterans submitting claims within one year of separation from military service...
October 18, 2016: Hearing Research
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Brian C Kok, David E Reed, Robert E Wickham, Lisa M Brown
OBJECTIVE: Although the prevalence of adult ADHD has been well established in the general population, few studies have examined the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the military. METHOD: The present study used data from 21,449 active duty soldiers, whose responses were collected as part of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Positive ADHD screens were identified using two alternative scoring methods of the Adult Self-Report ADHD Scale Screener...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Alex H S Harris, Cheng Chen, Beth A Mohr, Rachel Sayko Adams, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Military Medicine
Deydre S Teyhen, Scott W Shaffer, Robert J Butler, Stephen L Goffar, Kyle B Kiesel, Daniel I Rhon, Robert E Boyles, Daniel J McMillian, Jared N Williamson, Phillip J Plisky
: Performance on movement tests helps to predict injury risk in a variety of physically active populations. Understanding baseline measures for normal is an important first step. OBJECTIVES: Determine differences in physical performance assessments and describe normative values for these tests based on military unit type. METHODS: Assessment of power, balance, mobility, motor control, and performance on the Army Physical Fitness Test were assessed in a cohort of 1,466 soldiers...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Brian R Waterman, Baris Gun, Julia O Bader, Justin D Orr, Philip J Belmont
PURPOSE: To comprehensively quantify established risk factors for the development of lower extremity stress fractures within a contemporary U.S. military cohort. METHODS: Using the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database, all U.S. service members diagnosed with tibia/fibula, metatarsal, other bone, femoral neck, and femoral shaft stress fractures were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code from 2009 to 2012...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Richard G Malish
The Army transitioned to a Patient-Centered Medical Home concept for primary care beginning in 2011. In spite of organizational commitment to the paradigm, the transition has not been without pitfalls. This performance improvement project operated under the hypothesis that focusing on the market-based incentives of a capitated system would result in a quantum leap toward the Patient-Centered Medical Home ideal. Utilizing a simple teaching device to repetitively highlight clinic and provider behaviors incentivized in a value-based payment system, a single clinic achieved significant improvements in enrollment, patient satisfaction, and measures associated with prevention while assuming an identity as a "virtual clinic"...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Peter C Wever, Mike B J M Korst, Maarten Otte
In December 1913, a board of medical officers was appointed to adapt new U.S. Army equipment to the needs of the Hospital Corps. One of the improvements concerned substitution of the satchel-like Hospital Corps pouch used to carry first aid equipment. A waist belt with 10 pockets, known as the medical belt, was devised, and supplied with a tourniquet, adhesive plaster, safety pins, iodine swabs, sublimated gauze, individual dressing packets, gauze bandages, aromatic spirit of ammonia, and common pins. In addition, an ax carrier accommodating a hand ax, a canteen hanger, and a pouch to carry diagnosis tags and instruments were attached to the medical belt...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Scott C Woodard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Military Medicine
Camila L Madeira, Samuel A Speet, Cristina A Nieto, Leif Abrell, Jon Chorover, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Jim A Field
Insensitive munitions, such as 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), are being considered by the U.S. Army as replacements for conventional explosives. Environmental emissions of NTO are expected to increase as its use becomes widespread; but only a few studies have considered the remediation of NTO-contaminated sites. In this study, sequential anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of NTO was investigated in bioreactors using soil as inoculum. Batch bioassays confirmed microbial reduction of NTO under anaerobic conditions to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) using pyruvate as electron-donating cosubstrate...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Nakia S Clemmons, Zachary D McCormic, Joel C Gaydos, Anthony W Hawksworth, Nikki N Jordan
The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thomas Wyss, Maria Boesch, Lilian Roos, Céline Tschopp, Klaus M Frei, Hubert Annen, Roberto La Marca
BACKGROUND: Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. METHODS: The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Kimberley A Andersen, Paul N Grimshaw, Richard M Kelso, David J Bentley
Injuries are common within military populations, with high incidence rates well established in the literature. Injuries cause a substantial number of working days lost, a significant cost through compensation claims and an increased risk of attrition. In an effort to address this, a considerable amount of research has gone into identifying the most prevalent types of injury and their associated risk factors. Collective evidence suggests that training and equipment contribute to a large proportion of the injuries sustained...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Eric D Hill, Maria Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Ji Zheng Ma, Shu Fang Cui, Fei Hu, Qiu Ju Lu, Wei Li
CONTEXT:  Meniscal injury is common among military service members. OBJECTIVE:  To examine the incidence and characteristics of meniscal injuries in cadets at a single military institution between 2013 and 2015. DESIGN:  Cohort study. SETTING:  Meniscal-injury data were collected at the Center of Rehabilitation Training, the People's Liberation Army University of Science and Technology. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:  A total of 2479 cadets participating in physical activities between 2013 and 2015...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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