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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749614/dissecting-the-dynamics-of-trans-generational-immune-priming
#1
Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
The transfer of immunity from mother to offspring is a central way to endow the offspring with increased protection against pathogens. This phenomenon is not only found within the vertebrate domain: in some circumstances, invertebrate mothers can also give their offspring an immune kick-start, which is termed trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP has been uncovered for a number of invertebrate species, but it is not ubiquitously evident. The reasons for which are not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Tate, Andolfatto, Demuth, and Graham () probe the molecular underpinnings of TGIP in concert with the temporal dynamics of the response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, infected with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Figure )...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749572/new-zealand-adolescents-discouragement-of-smoking-among-their-peers
#2
Louise Marsh, Ella Iosua, Rob McGee, Joanna White
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the extent to which young people are acting as 'agents of change' in discouraging smoking among their peers. METHODS: This study used data from a survey of 2,919 New Zealand secondary school students who participated in the 2014 national Youth In-depth Survey. Relevant questions were used to assess the extent to which students engaged in behaviours to discourage or promote smoking among their peers. RESULTS: About half of all students reported some form of behaviour discouraging others from smoking, while only one in ten reported encouraging smoking...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749568/experts-views-regarding-australian-school-leavers-knowledge-of-nutrition-and-food-systems
#3
Sanaz Sadegholvad, Heather Yeatman, Anne-Maree Parrish, Anthony Worsley
OBJECTIVE: To explore Australian experts' views regarding strengths and gaps in school-leavers' knowledge of nutrition and food systems ( N&FS) and factors that influence that knowledge. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced food-related experts in Australia. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using Attride-Stirling's thematic network framework. RESULTS: Two global themes and several organising themes were identified...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749550/combined-resistance-and-endurance-training-at-a-moderate-high-intensity-improves-physical-condition-and-quality-of-life-in-liver-transplant-patients
#4
Diego Moya-Nájera, Ángel Moya-Herraiz, Luis Compte-Torrero, David Hervás, Sebastien Borreani, Joaquin Calatayud, Marina Berenguer, Juan C Colado
BACKGROUND: Although currently, moderate and high intensity concurrent physical exercise is prescribed in populations with special needs due to its greater effect on physical condition and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there are no data in the liver transplantation (LT) setting. AIM: To evaluate changes in maximal strength, aerobic capacity, body composition, liver function, and HRQOL in LT patients after a moderate to high intensity combined resistance-endurance training...
July 27, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749525/perceived-barriers-to-implementing-screening-and-brief-intervention-for-alcohol-consumption-by-adolescents-in-hospital-emergency-department-in-spain
#5
María Falcón, Javier Navarro-Zaragoza, Rosa María García-Rodríguez, Daniel Nova-López, María Dulce González-Navarro, María Mercadal, Oscar García-Algar, Aurelio Luna Ruiz-Cabello
BACKGROUND: Screening for alcohol consumption in adolescents is widely justified in the health care field because of the particular vulnerability of this population, which starts drinking alcohol at a very early age and frequently consumes high levels of the same. Hospital emergency departments (ED) could be a good venue to manage early detection and carry out brief intervention (BI) programmes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify perceived barriers for medical staff of three hospitals in Spain to successfully implement a protocol for alcohol detection and BI for minors in the ED...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749456/tumour-vaccines-personal-training-by-vaccination
#6
Ulrike Harjes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749452/combined-effects-of-high-speed-railway-noise-and-ground-vibrations-on-annoyance
#7
Shigenori Yokoshima, Takashi Morihara, Tetsumi Sato, Takashi Yano
The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749410/awareness-of-the-risk-of-exposure-to-infectious-material-and-the-behaviors-of-polish-paramedics-with-respect-to-the-hazards-from-blood-borne-pathogens-a-nationwide-study
#8
Anna Garus-Pakowska, Mariusz Górajski, Franciszek Szatko
(1) Background: To determine paramedics' frequency of contact with blood and other body fluids, as well as the analysis of knowledge of paramedics about blood-borne infections, their attitudes to patients infected with blood-borne viruses, and the post-exposure procedures implemented by paramedics; (2) Methods: An anonymous questionnaire among 190 paramedics working in various health care facilities in Poland (adjusted response rate, 76.3%); (3) Results: 78% of paramedics had contact with potentially infectious material at least several times a week...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749397/action-oriented-colour-coded-foot-length-calliper-for-primary-healthcare-workers-as-a-proxy-for-birth-weight-gestational-period
#9
Asha K Pratinidhi, Abhijit C Bagade, Satish V Kakade, Hemangi P Kale, Vinayak Y Kshirsagar, Rohini Babar, Shilpa Bagal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Foot length of the newborn has a good correlation with the birth weight and is recommended to be used as a proxy measure. There can be variations in the measurement of foot length. A study was, therefore, carried out to develop a foot length calliper for accurate foot length measurement and to find cut-off values for birth weight and gestational age groups to be used by primary healthcare workers. METHODS: This study was undertaken on 645 apparently healthy newborn infants with known gestational age...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749364/bayesian-random-vector-functional-link-networks-for-robust-data-modeling
#10
Simone Scardapane, Dianhui Wang, Aurelio Uncini
Random vector functional-link (RVFL) networks are randomized multilayer perceptrons with a single hidden layer and a linear output layer, which can be trained by solving a linear modeling problem. In particular, they are generally trained using a closed-form solution of the (regularized) least-squares approach. This paper introduces several alternative strategies for performing full Bayesian inference (BI) of RVFL networks. Distinct from standard or classical approaches, our proposed Bayesian training algorithms allow to derive an entire probability distribution over the optimal output weights of the network, instead of a single pointwise estimate according to some given criterion (e...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749362/incremental-codebook-adaptation-for-visual-representation-and-categorization
#11
Chunjie Zhang, Jian Cheng, Qi Tian
The bag-of-visual-words model is widely used for visual content analysis. For visual data, the codebook plays an important role for efficient representation. However, the codebook has to be relearned with the changes of training images. Once the codebook is changed, the encoding parameters of local features have to be recomputed. To alleviate this problem, in this paper, we propose an incremental codebook adaptation method for efficient visual representation. Instead of learning a new codebook, we gradually adapt a prelearned codebook using new images in an incremental way...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749357/k-times-markov-sampling-for-svmc
#12
Bin Zou, Chen Xu, Yang Lu, Yuan Yan Tang, Jie Xu, Xinge You
Support vector machine (SVM) is one of the most widely used learning algorithms for classification problems. Although SVM has good performance in practical applications, it has high algorithmic complexity as the size of training samples is large. In this paper, we introduce SVM classification (SVMC) algorithm based on k-times Markov sampling and present the numerical studies on the learning performance of SVMC with k-times Markov sampling for benchmark data sets. The experimental results show that the SVMC algorithm with k-times Markov sampling not only have smaller misclassification rates, less time of sampling and training, but also the obtained classifier is more sparse compared with the classical SVMC and the previously known SVMC algorithm based on Markov sampling...
July 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749350/distributed-adaptive-binary-quantization-for-fast-nearest-neighbor-search
#13
Xianglong Liu, Zhujin Li, Cheng Deng, Dacheng Tao
Hashing has been proved an attractive technique for fast nearest neighbor search over big data. Compared to the projection based hashing methods, prototype based ones own stronger power to generate discriminative binary codes for the data with complex intrinsic structure. However, existing prototype based methods like Spherical Hashing (SPH) and K-Means Hashing (KMH) still suffer from the ineffective coding that utilizes the complete binary codes in a hypercube. To address this problem, we propose an adaptive binary quantization (ABQ) method that learns a discriminative hash function with prototypes associated with small unique binary codes...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749346/attribute-and-or-grammar-for-joint-parsing-of-human-pose-parts-and-attributes
#14
Seyoung Park, Xiaohan Nie, Song-Chun Zhu
This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style...
July 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749306/successful-treatment-of-digital-osteitis-by-intravenous-regional-perfusion-of-ceftiofur-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#15
Christopher J Dutton, Pauline G Delnatte, Simon R Hollamby, Graham J Crawshaw
A 41-yr-old African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) presented with a swollen third digit of the left forelimb and a 2-cm hole in the pad. Corrective trimming, topical treatments, and an oral antibiotic resulted in apparent resolution; however, it reoccurred after 4 mo. Radiographs suggested bone lysis in the third phalanx, with the primary differential diagnosis being septic osteitis. Flushing with metronidazole solution and intravenous regional perfusion (IVRP) of the foot were commenced. A tourniquet was applied just above the carpus, an interdigital vein was identified by ultrasound, and into this vein 2 g (20 ml) of ceftiofur sodium solution, followed by 60 ml of heparinized saline, was administered...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749254/individualised-training-at-different-intensities-in-untrained-participants-results-in-similar-physiological-and-performance-benefits
#16
Sarah L Coakley, Louis Passfield
This study compared effects of training at moderate, high, or a combination of the two intensities (mixed) on performance and physiological adaptations, when training durations were individualised. Untrained participants (n = 34) were assigned to a moderate, high, or mixed group. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), power output at V̇O2max (MAP), time-to-exhaustion and gross efficiency were recorded before and after four weeks of cycling training (four times per week). The moderate group cycled at 60% MAP in blocks of 5 min with 1 min recovery, and training duration was individualised to 100% of pre-training time-to-exhaustion...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749224/army-medical-center-fortifies-training-to-improve-efficiency
#17
Gavin Stern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749198/empathy-training-in-medical-students-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
M Wündrich, C Schwartz, B Feige, D Lemper, C Nissen, U Voderholzer
AIM: Empathy is a core element in the doctor-patient relationship. This study examined whether empathy in medical students can be improved by specific training. METHODS: 158 medical students were randomized into two groups. The intervention group participated in an empathy skills training with simulated patients (SPs). The control group participated in a history course. After the intervention, empathy was assessed by blinded SPs and experts in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)...
July 27, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749153/leadership-training-design-delivery-and-implementation-a-meta-analysis
#19
Christina N Lacerenza, Denise L Reyes, Shannon L Marlow, Dana L Joseph, Eduardo Salas
Recent estimates suggest that although a majority of funds in organizational training budgets tend to be allocated to leadership training (Ho, 2016; O'Leonard, 2014), only a small minority of organizations believe their leadership training programs are highly effective (Schwartz, Bersin, & Pelster, 2014), calling into question the effectiveness of current leadership development initiatives. To help address this issue, this meta-analysis estimates the extent to which leadership training is effective and identifies the conditions under which these programs are most effective...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749004/-linking-scientific-research-with-undergraduate-training-in-health-science-related-majors
#20
Edgardo Rojas-Mancilla, Manuel E Cortés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
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