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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667537/parasympathetic-activity-delayed-after-self-paced-exercise
#1
Lucas Rosiello Trojbicz, Mayara Vieira Damasceno, Leonardo Alves Pasqua, Arthur Fernandes Gáspari, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi
The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the constant load and self-paced exercise with similar total work on autonomic control after endurance exercise. Ten physically active men were submitted to (i) a maximal incremental exercise test, (ii) a 4-km cycling time trial (4-km TT), and (iii) a constant workload test with identical total external work performed at 4-km TT. Gas exchange was measured throughout the tests, while blood lactate, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during the passive recovery...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666584/differences-in-muscle-metabolism-between-triathletes-and-normally-active-volunteers-investigated-using-multinuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-7t
#2
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Thomas Hochwartner, Christoph Triska, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Siegfried Trattnig, Michael Krebs, Martin Krššák
Purpose: The influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle metabolism can currently be studied only by invasive sampling or through a few related parameters that are investigated by either proton (1 H) or phosphorus (31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic differences between endurance-trained triathletes and healthy volunteers using multi-parametric data acquired by both, 31 P- and 1 H-MRS, at ultra-high field (7T) in a single experimental protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666578/individual-experiences-in-four-cancer-patients-following-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy
#3
Tara C Malone, Sarah E Mennenga, Jeffrey Guss, Samantha K Podrebarac, Lindsey T Owens, Anthony P Bossis, Alexander B Belser, Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
A growing body of evidence shows that existential and spiritual well-being in cancer patients is associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and serves as a buffer against depression, hopelessness, and desire for hastened death. Historical and recent research suggests a role for psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in treating cancer-related anxiety and depression. A double-blind controlled trial was performed, where 29 patients with cancer-related anxiety and depression were randomly assigned to treatment with single-dose psilocybin (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666257/thermally-stable-highly-efficient-ultraflexible-organic-photovoltaics
#4
Xiaomin Xu, Kenjiro Fukuda, Akchheta Karki, Sungjun Park, Hiroki Kimura, Hiroaki Jinno, Nobuhiro Watanabe, Shuhei Yamamoto, Satoru Shimomura, Daisuke Kitazawa, Tomoyuki Yokota, Shinjiro Umezu, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, Takao Someya
Flexible photovoltaics with extreme mechanical compliance present appealing possibilities to power Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and wearable electronic devices. Although improvement in thermal stability is essential, simultaneous achievement of high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and thermal stability in flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs) remains challenging due to the difficulties in maintaining an optimal microstructure of the active layer under thermal stress. The insufficient thermal capability of a plastic substrate and the environmental influences cannot be fully expelled by ultrathin barrier coatings...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665736/fear-avoidance-and-clinical-outcomes-from-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Noah D Silverberg, William Panenka, Grant L Iverson
Characterizing psychological factors that contribute to persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) can inform early intervention. To determine whether fear avoidance, a known risk factor for chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, is associated with worse clinical outcomes from MTBI, adults were recruited from four outpatient MTBI clinics and assessed at their first clinic visit (M=2.7, SD=1.5 weeks post-injury) and again 4-5 months later. Of 273 patients screened, 102 completed the initial assessment and 87 returned for the outcome assessment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665389/application-of-pectin%C3%A2-zinc-oxide-hybrid-nanocomposite-in-the-delivery-of-a-hydrophilic-drug-and-a-study-of-its-isotherm-kinetics-and-release-mechanism
#6
Arun K Kodoth, Vivek M Ghate, Shaila A Lewis, B Vishalakshi
Pectin-based gel and its nanocomposite with zinc oxide have been compared for their capacity to release Donepezil for the possible use as an implantable drug delivery platform for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Adsorption capacities of the samples were determined as a function of pH, temperatures, concentrations of the drug, and the mass of the adsorbent. The nanocomposite exhibited significant adsorption compared to the parent gel. Adsorption data for the nanocomposite system fits well with Langmuir model and followed pseudo-first order kinetics, while that of the parent polymeric system followed pseudo-second-order kinetics...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665261/charge-trap-memory-based-on-hybrid-0d-quantum-dot-2d-wse-2-structure
#7
Xiang Hou, Heng Zhang, Chunsen Liu, Shijin Ding, Wenzhong Bao, David Wei Zhang, Peng Zhou
Recently, layered ultrathin 2D semiconductors, such as MoS2 and WSe2 are widely studied in nonvolatile memories because of their excellent electronic properties. Additionally, discrete 0D metallic nanocrystals and quantum dots (QDs) are considered to be outstanding charge-trap materials. Here, a charge-trap memory device based on a hybrid 0D CdSe QD-2D WSe2 structure is demonstrated. Specifically, ultrathin WSe2 is employed as the channel of the memory, and the QDs serve as the charge-trap layer. This device shows a large memory window exceeding 18 V, a high erase/program current ratio (reaching up to 104 ), four-level data storage ability, stable retention property, and high endurance of more than 400 cycles...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664681/effect-of-bronchodilation-and-exercise-training-with-behavior-modification-on-exercise-tolerance-and-downstream-effects-on-symptoms-and-physical-activity-in-copd
#8
Thierry Troosters, François Maltais, Nancy Leidy, Kim L Lavoie, Maria Sedeno, Wim Janssens, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Damijan Erzen, Dorothy De Sousa, Lawrence Korducki, Alan Hamilton, Jean Bourbeau
RATIONALE: Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVES: To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. METHODS: A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161)...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664558/associations-among-mothers-depression-emotional-and-learning-material-support-to-their-child-and-children-s-cognitive-functioning-a-16-year-longitudinal-study
#9
Victoria Wu, Patricia East, Erin Delker, Estela Blanco, Gabriela Caballero, Jorge Delva, Betsy Lozoff, Sheila Gahagan
This study examined the associations among maternal depression, mothers' emotional and material investment in their child, and children's cognitive functioning. Middle-class Chilean mothers and children (N = 875; 52% males) were studied when children were 1, 5, 10, and 16 years (1991-2007). Results indicated that highly depressed mothers provided less emotional and material support to their child across all ages, which related to children's lower IQ. Children with lower mental abilities at age 1 received less learning-material support at age 5, which led to mothers' higher depression at child age 10...
April 17, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663075/comparison-of-running-and-cycling-economy-in-runners-cyclists-and-triathletes
#10
Wannes Swinnen, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. METHODS: We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662767/reconstruction-of-the-lateral-tibia-plateau-fracture-with-a-third-triangular-support-screw-a-biomechanical-study
#11
Eduardo Moran, Ivan Zderic, Kajetan Klos, Paul Simons, Miguel Triana, R Geoff Richards, Boyko Gueorguiev, Mark Lenz
Background: Split fractures of the lateral tibia plateau in young patients with good bone quality are commonly treated using two minimally invasive percutaneous lag screws, followed by unloading of the knee joint. Improved stability could be achieved with the use of a third screw inserted either in the jail-technique fashion or with a triangular support screw configuration. The aim of this study was to investigate under cyclic loading the compliance and endurance of the triangular support fixation in comparison with the standard two lag-screw fixation and the jail technique...
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662455/fitness-level-and-not-aging-per-se-determines-the-oxygen-uptake-kinetics-response
#12
Mitchell A George, Kaitlin M McLay, Patricia K Doyle-Baker, Raylene A Reimer, Juan M Murias
Although aging has been associated to slower [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics, some evidence indicates that fitness status and not aging per se might modulate this response. The main goal of this study was to examine the [Formula: see text]O2 , deoxygenated hemoglobin+myoglobin (deoxy-[Hb+Mb]) kinetics, and the NIRS-derived vascular reperfusion responses in older compared to young men of different training levels (i.e., inactive, recreationally active, and endurance trained). Ten young inactive [YI; 26 ± 5 yrs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661032/results-from-a-pilot-study-of-handheld-vibration-exercise-intervention-reduces-upper-limb-dysfunction-and-fatigue-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy-vibbra-study
#13
Sarah Kneis, Anja Wehrle, Anne Ilaender, Natalja Volegova-Neher, Albert Gollhofer, Hartmut Bertz
PURPOSE: Although there is evidence that breast cancer patients benefit from exercising during treatment, exercising during radiotherapy and especially the effects on upper-limb dysfunctions have been infrequently assessed. Therefore, we primarily aimed to confirm our interventions' feasibility and secondarily aimed to affect upper-limb dysfunctions and fatigue. METHODS: Twenty-two breast cancer patients scheduled for radiotherapy were allocated to an intervention (IG) or a passive control group (CG) as they preferred...
April 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660975/synergistic-effects-of-psychosocial-stress-and-mild-peripheral-infection-on-inducing-microglial-activation-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-and-long-lasting-deficits-in-hippocampus-related-memory
#14
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chien-Chou Su, Li-Han Sun, Chianfang G. Cherng, Lung Yu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice...
April 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660418/evolution-of-cooperation-in-a-hierarchical-society-with-corruption-control
#15
Feng Huang, Xiaojie Chen, Long Wang
Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution of cooperation in the cases without and with corruption control...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660417/rdoc-based-categorization-of-amygdala-functions-and-its-implications-in-autism
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Hennessey, Elissar Andari, Donald G Rainnie
Confusion endures as to the exact role of the amygdala in relation to autism. To help resolve this we turned to the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) which provides a classification schema that identifies different categories of behaviors that can turn pathologic in mental health disorders, e.g. autism. While RDoC incorporates all the known neurobiological substrates for each domain, this review will focus primarily on the amygdala. We first consider the amygdala from an anatomical, historical, and developmental perspective...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660080/contributions-of-ankle-knee-hip-and-trunk-muscle-function-to-gait-performance-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#17
Mark M Mañago, Jeffrey R Hebert, John Kittelson, Margaret Schenkman
Background: The relative importance of lower extremity and trunk muscle function to gait in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of lower extremity and trunk muscle function with gait performance in people who have MS and mild to moderate disability. Design: This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: Participants were people who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of ≤ 5...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659723/age-related-slowing-of-contractile-properties-differs-between-power-endurance-and-non-athletes-a-tensiomyographic-assessment
#18
Boštjan Šimunic, Rado Pišot, Jörn Rittweger, Hans Degens
Although master athletes maintain high levels of physical activity, they also suffer from an age-related decline in skeletal muscle function. There are indications of disproportional age- and physical inactivity-induced muscle wasting between muscles. Tensiomyography is a non-invasive tool that has been used to study the effects of a variety of sports on the contraction time (Tc) in different skeletal muscles. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess age-related changes in the Tc of the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis and biceps femoris muscles with Tensiomyography in older non-athletes (age = 62...
April 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659019/an-enduring-legacy-dr-alina-szczesniak-s-classification-of-food-texture
#19
Carol M Christensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658804/comparison-of-effects-of-endurance-and-strength-training-programs-in-patients-with-copd
#20
Michael J Berry, Katherine L Sheilds, Norman E Adair
Comparisons between endurance and strength training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have produced equivocal findings when examining physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQL). One reason for these differences may be due to individual patient responses to the different training modalities. PURPOSE: To compare changes in physical function and HRQL in a group of COPD patients completing both an endurance and a strength training program. METHODS: Eleven mildly diseased patients completed a three month endurance training program and, approximately 5 years later, completed a three month strength training program...
April 16, 2018: COPD
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