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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444166/fairness-informs-social-decision-making-in-infancy
#1
Kelsey Lucca, Jacqueline Pospisil, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to reason about fairness plays a defining role in the development of morality. Thus, researchers have long been interested in understanding when and how a sensitivity to fairness first develops. Here, we examined infants' ability to use fairness information in selecting social partners. Using a novel experimental paradigm that combined pre-recorded stimuli with an active behavioral measure, we tested whether infants preferred to socially engage with an individual they had previously seen behave fairly or unfairly...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444097/the-effects-of-intensified-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-rmr-body-composition-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#2
Amy L Woods, Anthony J Rice, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Alice M Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443549/endurance-exercise-training-and-high-fat-diet-differentially-affect-composition-of-diacylglycerol-molecular-species-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#3
Noriaki Kawanishi, Kana Takagi, Hyeon-Cheol Lee, Daiki Nakano, Toshiaki Okuno, Takehiko Yokomizo, Shuichi Machida
Insulin resistance of peripheral muscle is implicated in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome in obesity. Although accumulation of glycerolipids, such as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol (DAG), in muscle contributes to insulin resistance in obese individuals, endurance-trained athletes also have higher glycerolipid levels but normal insulin sensitivity. We hypothesised that the difference in insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle between athletes and obese individuals stems from changes in fatty acid composition of accumulated lipids...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443439/complexity-of-the-relationships-of-pain-posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-in-combat-injured-populations-an-integrative-review-to-inform-evidence-based-practice
#4
Nicholas A Giordano, Christine Bader, Therese S Richmond, Rosemary C Polomano
BACKGROUND: Understanding the complex interrelationships between combat injuries, physical health, and mental health symptoms is critical to addressing the healthcare needs of wounded military personnel and veterans. The relationship between injury characteristics, pain, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression among combat-injured military personnel is unique to modern conflicts and understudied in the nursing literature. AIM: This integrative review synthesizes clinical presentations and relationships of combat injury, PTSD, depression, and pain in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) United States military service members and veterans...
February 14, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443024/battery-of-behavioral-tests-assessing-general-locomotion-muscular-strength-and-coordination-in-mice
#5
Karlaina Jl Osmon, Meera Vyas, Evan Woodley, Patrick Thompson, Jagdeep S Walia
Behavioral testing is used in pre-clinical trials to assess the phenotypic effects and outcomes that a particular disease or treatment has on the animal's wellbeing and health. There are numerous behavioral tests that may be applied. We selected a test for general locomotion, the open field test (OFT); a test for muscular strength, the mesh test (MT); and a test for coordination, the rotarod test (RR). Testing can be accomplished on a weekly or monthly basis. As a test for general locomotion, the OFT works by objectively monitoring movement parameters while the mouse is in an open field apparatus...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442746/fast-microfluidic-chip-fabrication-technique-by-laser-erosion-and-sticky-tape-assist-bonding-technique
#6
Zhifu Yin, E Cheng, Helin Zou
Disposable microfluidic chips are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical researches. Future advances in their commercial applications depends on the mass fabrication of low cost microfluidic chip. In this study we are presenting a simple, low cost and fast way of fabricating PMMA microfluidic chips based on laser erosion. The influence of the width and depth of PMMA microchannels on erosion current and erosion times was analyzed. To bond the open PMMA microchannels at low pressure and temperature, sticky tape assist bonding method was proposed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440695/combination-of-nutritional-polyphenols-supplementation-with-exercise-training-counteracts-insulin-resistance-and-improves-endurance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#7
Karen Lambert, Marie Hokayem, Claire Thomas, Odile Fabre, Cécile Cassan, Annick Bourret, Florence Bernex, Christine Feuillet-Coudray, Cécile Notarnicola, Jacques Mercier, Antoine Avignon, Catherine Bisbal
Separately, polyphenols and exercise are known to prevent insulin resistance (IR) but their combined curative effects on established obesity and IR require further investigation. Therefore, we compared the metabolic effects of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenols supplementation in obese IR rats with high-fat diet (EXOPP) to the effect of high-fat diet alone (HF) or with a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (PP) or with endurance exercise (EXO) during 8 wks. We observed an improvement of systemic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in EXO and EXOPP rats...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440194/upper-limits-of-aerobic-power-and-performance-in-heart-transplant-recipients-legacy-effect-of-prior-endurance-training
#8
Mark J Haykowsky, Martin Halle, Aaron Baggish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439924/canada-s-evacuation-policy-for-pregnant-first-nations-women-resignation-resilience-and-resistance
#9
Karen M Lawford, Audrey R Giles, Ivy L Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth...
February 10, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439648/effect-of-12-weeks-of-once-daily-tiotropium-olodaterol-on-exercise-endurance-during-constant-work-rate-cycling-and-endurance-shuttle-walking-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
François Maltais, Denis O'Donnell, Juan Bautista Gáldiz Iturri, Anne-Marie Kirsten, Dave Singh, Alan Hamilton, Kay Tetzlaff, Yihua Zhao, Richard Casaburi
BACKGROUND: The TORRACTO ® study evaluated the effects of tiotropium/olodaterol versus placebo on endurance time during constant work-rate cycling and constant speed shuttle walking in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after 12 weeks of treatment. METHODS: The effects of once-daily tiotropium/olodaterol (2.5/5 and 5/5 μg) on endurance time during constant work-rate cycle ergometry (CWRCE) after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment were compared with placebo in patients with COPD in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439362/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-walking-ability-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Yi Li, Jingjing Fan, Jingyi Yang, Chengqi He, Shasha Li
BACKGROUND: As a promising technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has gained so much attention in its potential effects on functional recovery of lower limb following stroke. However, individual studies have yielded inconsistent or conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of tDCS for the functional recovery of lower limb following stroke reported in the randomized controlled trials by using a meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database was comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials published until April 2017 that investigated the effects of tDCS on lower limb function...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439360/aerobic-rehabilitation-program-for-improving-muscle-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Siria Di Martino, Caterina Tramonti, Elisa Unti, Claudia Del Gamba, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Bruno Rossi, Roberto Ceravolo, Carmelo Chisari
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by progressive and disabling symptoms. An impaired oxidative metabolism efficiency was supposed to be involved in the systemic impairment. Rehabilitative treatment represents a valid tool in promoting skeletal muscle's adaptations, even if no solid studies on muscle metabolic features are still available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in PD patients in comparison with age-matched controls and test the role of an intensive aerobic treatment on muscle oxidative metabolism and its clinical effects...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439330/hypoxia-induced-signaling-activation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-targets-for-new-therapeutic-strategies
#13
Niraj Kumar Jha, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Renu Sharma, Dhiraj Kumar, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
For the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and energy metabolism, an uninterrupted supply of oxygen (O2) is routinely required in the brain. However, under the impaired level of O2 (hypoxia) or reduced blood flow (ischemia), the tissues are not sufficiently oxygenated, which triggers disruption of cellular homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia is known to have a notable effect on controlling the expression of proteins involved in a broad range of biological processes varying from energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, neurogenesis to mitochondrial trafficking and autophagy, thus facilitating neuronal cells to endure in deprived O2...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439327/stabilized-low-n-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-induce-robust-novel-object-recognition-deficits-associated-with-inflammatory-synaptic-and-gabaergic-dysfunction-in-the-rat
#14
William Watremez, Joshua Jackson, Bushra Almari, Samantha L McLean, Ben Grayson, Joanna C Neill, Nicolas Fischer, Ahmad Allouche, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, Michael K Harte
BACKGROUND: With current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) only providing temporary symptomatic benefits, disease modifying drugs are urgently required. This approach relies on improved understanding of the early pathophysiology of AD. A new hypothesis has emerged, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). These small soluble Aβo, which precede the formation of larger fibrillar assemblies, may be the main cause of early AD pathologies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438824/low-bone-toughness-in-the-tallyho-model-of-juvenile-type-2-diabetes-does-not-worsen-with-age
#15
Amy Creecy, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mustafa Unal, R Clay Bunn, Paul Voziyan, Jeffry S Nyman
Fracture risk increases as type 2 diabetes (T2D) progresses. With the rising incidence of T2D, in particular early-onset T2D, a representative pre-clinical model is needed to study mechanisms for treating or preventing diabetic bone disease. Towards that goal, we hypothesized that fracture resistance of bone from diabetic TallyHO mice decreases as the duration of diabetes increases. Femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from male, TallyHO mice and male, non-diabetic SWR/J mice at 16 weeks (n ≥ 12 per strain) and 34 weeks (n ≥ 13 per strain) of age...
February 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438607/improved-gout-outcomes-in-primary-care-using-a-novel-disease-management-program-a-pilot-study
#16
David Bulbin, Alfred E Denio, Andrea Berger, Jason Brown, Carson Maynard, Tarun Sharma, H Lester Kirchner, William T Ayoub
OBJECTIVE: To pilot a primary care gout management improvement intervention. METHODS: Two large primary care sites were selected: one underwent the intervention, the other, a control, underwent no intervention. The intervention consisted of: engagement of intervention site staff, surveys of provider performance improvement preferences, and onsite live and enduring online education. Electronic Health Record reminders were constructed. Both the intervention and control sites had 3 quality measures assessed monthly: percent of gout patients treated with urate lowering therapy, percent of treated patients monitored with serum urate, and percent of treated patients at target serum urate ≤ 6...
February 13, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437246/early-movement-restriction-leads-to-enduring-disorders-in-muscle-and-locomotion
#17
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434751/clinical-optimal-dose-of-solifenacin-succinate-for-nursing-patients-after-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-during-the-perioperative-period
#18
Baodi Zhang, Jia Wei, Xuan Wu, Lei Wang, Hongdan Huo, Junrong Wang
Transurethral plasma kinetic resection is an efficient and safe surgery for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Solifenacin succinate (SOL) is safe and clinically efficient for patients who endure transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) during the perioperative period. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical optimal dose of SOL for nursing patients after TURP during the perioperative period. Patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: SOL (3 mg), SOL (6 mg), and SOL (10 mg)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434550/select-skeletal-muscle-mrnas-related-to-exercise-adaptation-are-minimally-affected-by-different-pre-exercise-meals-that-differ-in-macronutrient-profile
#19
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Jeroen A Wouters, Marco Mensink
Background: Substantial research has been done on the impact of carbohydrate and fat availability on endurance exercise adaptation, though its role in the acute adaptive response to resistance exercise has yet to be fully characterized. Purpose: We aimed to assess the effects of a pre-resistance exercise isocaloric mixed meal containing different amounts of carbohydrates and fat, on post-resistance exercise gene expression associated with muscle adaptation. Methods: Thirteen young (age 21.2 ± 1.6 year), recreationally trained (VO 2max 51...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434463/initial-outcomes-from-a-multicenter-study-utilizing-the-indego-powered-exoskeleton-in-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Candy Tefertiller, Kaitlin Hays, Janell Jones, Arun Jayaraman, Clare Hartigan, Tamara Bushnik, Gail F Forrest
Objective: To assess safety and mobility outcomes utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor walking conditions with individuals previously diagnosed with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: We conducted a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in outpatient clinics associated with 5 rehabilitation hospitals. A convenience sample of nonambulatory individuals with SCI (N = 32) completed an 8-week training protocol consisting of walking training 3 times per week utilizing the Indego powered exoskeleton in indoor and outdoor conditions...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
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