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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538690/dysregulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-cafs-and-its-consequences-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#1
REVIEW
Maren Schoepp, Anda Jana Ströse, Jörg Haier
The tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell-tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537897/mek-inhibitors-cobimetinib-and-trametinib-regressed-a-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-pdox
#2
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Murakami, Tasuku Kiyuna, Thinzar M Lwin, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Jonathan C Delong, Bryan M Clary, Michael Bouvet, Michiaki Unno, Robert M Hoffman
A pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), obtained from a patient, was grown orthotopically in the pancreatic tail of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic (PDOX) model. Seven weeks after implantation, PDOX nude mice were divided into the following groups: untreated control (n = 7); gemcitabine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); cobimetinib (5 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); trametinib (0.3 mg/kg, p.o., 14 consecutive days, n = 7); trabectedin (0.15 mg/kg, i.v., once a week for 2 weeks, n = 7); temozolomide (25 mg/kg, p...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537879/increased-expression-of-calponin-2-is-a-positive-prognostic-factor-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#3
Zhaoyan Qiu, Yi Chu, Bing Xu, Qian Wang, Mingzuo Jiang, Xiaowei Li, Gang Wang, Pengfei Yu, Guoxiao Liu, Hua Wang, Huijie Kang, Jiayu Liu, Yu Zhang, Jian-Ping Jin, Kaichun Wu, Jie Liang
Calponin 2 plays an important role in regulating actin cytoskeleton, which is critical for cell division and migration. Previous studies have demonstrated that calponin 2 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of calponin 2 in pancreatic tumor growth, metastasis and patient survival remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the level of calponin 2 is a positive prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients with high calponin 2 expression in the tumor presented less lymph node metastasis and longer survival...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535439/critical-focus-on-mechanisms-of-resistance-and-toxicity-of-m-tor-inhibitors-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#4
REVIEW
L Antonuzzo, M Del Re, V Barucca, F Spada, G Meoni, G Restante, R Danesi, F Di Costanzo, N Fazio
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms representing less than 2% of all pancreatic malignancies. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is often deregulated in pNETs and seems to play a key role in tumorigenesis. Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of pNETs. Nevertheless de novo or acquired drug resistance is responsible for disease progression and represents a major obstacle to overcome by clinicians. Blocking the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway may cover the supposed main mechanisms of resistance to everolimus...
May 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534950/microrna%C3%A2-296-targets-akt2-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-functions-as-a-potential-tumor-suppressor
#5
Hailing Li, Jilin Li, Baolin Shi, Feng Chen
Although microRNA-296 (miR-296) has been studied in various types of human cancer, its expression, biological role and mechanism of action in pancreatic cancer remains to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression level, possible roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR‑296 in pancreatic cancer. The present study revealed that miR‑296 is significantly downregulated in tissue from patients with pancreatic cancer and in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, when compared with matched healthy tissue and normal human pancreatic cell lines, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534865/the-impact-of-smad4-loss-on-outcome-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-treated-with-systemic-chemotherapy
#6
Steffen Ormanns, Michael Haas, Anna Remold, Stephan Kruger, Stefan Holdenrieder, Thomas Kirchner, Volker Heinemann, Stefan Boeck
The role of the tumor suppressor mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) has not yet been defined in patients (pts) with advanced pancreatic cancer (aPC). This translational research study was designed to evaluate the impact of tumoral SMAD4 loss on clinicopathological parameters and outcome in PC patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined SMAD4 expression in tumor tissue of 143 aPC pts treated within completed prospective clinical and biomarker trials. In uni- and multivariate analyses, SMAD4 expression status was correlated to clinicopathological patient characteristics and outcome...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534807/lobophorin-k-a-new-natural-product-with-cytotoxic-activity-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-m-207-associated-with-the-deep-sea-coral-lophelia-pertusa
#7
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Miguel Osset, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Nuria de Pedro, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)...
May 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533666/comparison-of-imaging-based-and-pathological-dimensions-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
Salvatore Paiella, Harmony Impellizzeri, Elisabetta Zanolin, Giovanni Marchegiani, Marco Miotto, Anna Malpaga, Riccardo De Robertis, Mirko D'Onofrio, Borislav Rusev, Paola Capelli, Sara Cingarlini, Giovanni Butturini, Maria Vittoria Davì, Antonio Amodio, Claudio Bassi, Aldo Scarpa, Roberto Salvia, Luca Landoni
AIM: To establish the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) and computer tomography (CT) to predict pathologic dimensions of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) in a caseload of a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Patients submitted to surgery for PanNET at the Surgical Unit of the Pancreas Institute with at least 1 preoperative imaging examination (MR or CT scan) from January 2005 to December 2015 were included and data retrospectively collected. Exclusion criteria were: multifocal lesions, genetic syndromes, microadenomas or mixed tumors, metastatic disease and neoadjuvant therapy...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533658/checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancers-expectations-and-reality
#9
EDITORIAL
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Samer Tabchi, Marwan Ghosn
Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent revolutionary anti-cancer agents, being rapidly approved in different malignancies and settings. Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers represent a wide variety of tumors with specific characteristics and different responses to various therapeutic alternatives; while some are chemo-sensitive others are chemo-resistant and only respond to more aggressive cytotoxic regimens, targeted therapies or a combination of both. Preliminary results of immune checkpoint inhibitors in some GI cancers are promising, namely in hepatocellular carcinoma, anal cancers and microsatellite instability high colorectal cancers...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533536/a-systemic-review-and-an-updated-meta-analysis-minimally-invasive-vs-open-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#10
Zhanwei Zhao, Zifang Yin, Zhenning Hang, Gang Ji, Quanxin Feng, Qingchuan Zhao
The feasible of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) remains controversial when compared with open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD). We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to summarise the available evidence to compare MIPD vs OPD. We systemically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published through February 2016. The primary endpoint was postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, grade B/C). A total of 27 studies involving 14,231 patients (2,377 MIPD and 11,854 OPD) were included...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530019/men1-in-children-and-adolescents-data-from-patients-of-a-regional-referral-center-for-hereditary-endocrine-tumors
#11
Letizia Vannucci, Francesca Marini, Francesca Giusti, Simone Ciuffi, Francesco Tonelli, Maria Luisa Brandi
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the age of onset of MEN1-associated lesions in a group of affected children and adolescents and to compare the clinical features of our series with the evidence derived from the literature. METHODS: The study population consisted of 22 Italian children and adolescents (age 6-31 years at the time of the inclusion in this study) all with a clinical and/or a genetic diagnosis of MEN1 performed before the age of 16 who have been followed-up regularly from 1998 to 2016 at the Regional Referral Center for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors...
May 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529742/intraductal-tubulopapillary-neoplasm-accompanied-by-invasive-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Li Niu, Zhigao Xu, Huan Liu, Hong Cao, Guifang Yang
Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPNs) are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for ~0.4% of pancreatic tumors. However, their clinicopathological characteristics have not been clearly determined and the number of available clinical studies on this type of tumor is limited at present. Due to the rare incidence of ITPN, diagnosis is often delayed. We herein present a unique case of a 38-year-old man who was diagnosed with ITPN accompanied with invasive carcinoma of the pancreas and underwent total pancreatectomy...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529740/copy-number-variation-and-protein-expression-of-dot1l-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-as-a-potential-drug-target
#13
Heike Loeser, Dirk Waldschmidt, Fabian Kuetting, Carina Heydt, Thomas Zander, Patrick Plum, Hakan Alakus, Reinhard Buettner, Alexander Quaas
Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has a poor prognosis. At present, no relevant personalized targets have been identified. Sequencing studies have implicated gene alterations of disruptor of telomeric silencing 1 like histone lysine methyltransferase (DOT1L) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. DOT1L is part of the histone modification system and catalyzes methylation of H3K79, which is crucial in cell signaling and DNA damage repair. DOT1L is considered to be a target of therapy in mixed lineage leukemia gene-deficient leukemia cases and a potential target in breast carcinoma...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529726/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-the-basics-the-gray-zone-and-the-target
#14
REVIEW
Dionysia Kelgiorgi, Christos Dervenis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) manifest with a range of symptoms and pose a therapeutic challenge. A team approach, in which many specialists come together, is necessary in the quest for the best patient-tailored treatment. Disciplines such as oncology, surgery, basic science, endocrinology, radiology, and nuclear medicine need to work side by side, equally contributing to patient care and to advancing our better understanding of this fascinating disease.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529645/tumor-penetrating-theranostic-nanoparticles-for-enhancement-of-targeted-and-image-guided-drug-delivery-into-peritoneal-tumors-following-intraperitoneal-delivery
#15
Ning Gao, Erica N Bozeman, Weiping Qian, Liya Wang, Hongyu Chen, Malgorzata Lipowska, Charles A Staley, Y Andrew Wang, Hui Mao, Lily Yang
The major obstacles in intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy of peritoneal tumors are fast absorption of drugs into the blood circulation, local and systemic toxicities, inadequate drug penetration into large tumors, and drug resistance. Targeted theranostic nanoparticles offer an opportunity to enhance the efficacy of i.p. therapy by increasing intratumoral drug delivery to overcome resistance, mediating image-guided drug delivery, and reducing systemic toxicity. Herein we report that i.p. delivery of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) led to intratumoral accumulation of 17% of total injected nanoparticles in an orthotopic mouse pancreatic cancer model, which was three-fold higher compared with intravenous delivery...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529632/imaging-of-chemokine-receptor-4-expression-in-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-triple-tracer-comparative-approach
#16
Rudolf A Werner, Alexander Weich, Takahiro Higuchi, Jan S Schmid, Andreas Schirbel, Michael Lassmann, Vanessa Wild, Martina Rudelius, Theodor Kudlich, Ken Herrmann, Michael Scheurlen, Andreas K Buck, Saskia Kropf, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are overexpressed in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the feasibility of non-invasive CXCR4 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in GEP-NET patients using [(68)Ga]Pentixafor in comparison to (68)Ga-DOTA-D-Phe-Tyr3-octreotide ([(68)Ga]DOTATOC) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG). Twelve patients with histologically proven GEP-NET (3xG1, 4xG2, 5xG3) underwent [(68)Ga]DOTATOC, [(18)F]FDG, and [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT for staging and planning of the therapeutic management...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529573/comparative-metabolomic-analysis-of-hpac-cells-following-the-acquisition-of-erlotinib-resistance
#17
Sooyeun Lee, Won-Jun Jang, Boyeon Choi, Sang Hoon Joo, Chul-Ho Jeong
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, due to difficulty in early detection and the limited efficacy of available treatments. Erlotinib is used to inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor for the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however, erlotinib resistance is a major issue and the mechanisms underlying the development of erlotinib resistance remain unclear. To better understand the alterations in tumor metabolism by acquired resistance to erlotinib, an erlotinib-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line (HPAC-ER) was established, followed by a comparison of the metabolic characteristics between these cells and their erlotinib-sensitive parental cells (HPAC)...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529153/model-of-vascular-desmoplastic-multispecies-tumor-growth
#18
Chin F Ng, Hermann B Frieboes
We present a three-dimensional nonlinear tumor growth model composed of heterogeneous cell types in a multicomponent-multispecies system, including viable, dead, healthy host, and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) tissue species. The model includes the capability for abnormal ECM dynamics noted in tumor development, as exemplified by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, including dense desmoplasia typically characterized by a significant increase of interstitial connective tissue. An elastic energy is implemented to provide elasticity to the connective tissue...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528374/pancreatic-cysts-and-guidelines
#19
REVIEW
James J Farrell
Pancreatic cysts, especially incidental asymptomatic ones seen on noninvasive imaging such as CT or MR imaging, remain a clinical challenge. The etiology of such cysts may range from benign cysts without any malignant potential such as pancreatic pseudocysts and serous cystadenomas to premalignant or frankly malignant cysts such as mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, cystic degeneration associated with solid tumors such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma or pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms...
May 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#20
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
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