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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926626/do-privacy-and-security-regulations-need-a-status-update-perspectives-from-an-intergenerational-survey
#1
Stacey Pereira, Jill Oliver Robinson, Hayley A Peoples, Amanda M Gutierrez, Mary A Majumder, Amy L McGuire, Mark A Rothstein
BACKGROUND: The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925532/the-interplay-between-regulatory-focus-and-temporal-distance-in-the-health-context
#2
Aleksandra Berezowska, Arnout R H Fischer, Hans C M van Trijp
OBJECTIVES: This study identifies how the interaction between temporal distance, regulatory focus, and framing of health outcomes affects individuals' intention to adopt a personalized nutrition service. DESIGN: A 2 (temporal distance: immediate health outcomes vs. delayed health outcomes) × 2 (regulatory focus: prevention vs. promotion) × 2 (health outcome framing: illness prevention vs. health promotion) full-factorial between-subjects design. METHODS: In two experiments with samples of 236 and 242 students, regulatory focus was manipulated by asking participants to describe which academic outcomes they want to either achieve or prevent and how they aim to do this...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923121/-i-think-it-is-right-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-acceptability-and-desired-future-use-of-oral-swab-and-finger-prick-hiv-self-tests-by-lay-users-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#3
Lucia Knight, Tawanda Makusha, Jeanette Lim, Roger Peck, Miriam Taegtmeyer, Heidi van Rooyen
BACKGROUND: The uptake of HIV testing has increased in sub-Saharan Africa over the past three decades. However, the proportion of people aware of their HIV status remains lower than required to change the pandemic. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may meet this gap. Assessment of readiness for and the acceptability of HIVST by lay users in South Africa is limited. This paper presents results from a formative study designed to assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes...
September 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922829/the-threshold-of-the-state-civil-defence-the-blackout-and-the-home-in-second-world-war-britain
#4
James Greenhalgh
This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919841/a-comprehensive-comparison-of-multiparty-secure-additions-with-differential-privacy
#5
Slawomir Goryczka, Li Xiong
This paper considers the problem of secure data aggregation (mainly summation) in a distributed setting, while ensuring differential privacy of the result. We study secure multiparty addition protocols using well known security schemes: Shamir's secret sharing, perturbation-based, and various encryptions. We supplement our study with our new enhanced encryption scheme EFT, which is efficient and fault tolerant. Differential privacy of the final result is achieved by either distributed Laplace or Geometric mechanism (respectively DLPA or DGPA), while approximated differential privacy is achieved by diluted mechanisms...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916924/detecting-nonadherence-without-loss-in-efficiency-a-simple-extension-of-the-crosswise-model
#6
Daniel W Heck, Adrian Hoffmann, Morten Moshagen
In surveys concerning sensitive behavior or attitudes, respondents often do not answer truthfully, because of social desirability bias. To elicit more honest responding, the randomized-response (RR) technique aims at increasing perceived and actual anonymity by prompting respondents to answer with a randomly modified and thus uninformative response. In the crosswise model, as a particularly promising variant of the RR, this is achieved by adding a second, nonsensitive question and by prompting respondents to answer both questions jointly...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916453/making-the-legal-and-ethical-case-for-universal-screening-for-postpartum-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-pediatric-primary-care
#7
Amy Lewis Gilbert, Casey Balio, Nerissa S Bauer
Postpartum depression (PPD), part of a larger spectrum of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, affects up to 15% of women following the birth of an infant. Fathers may also be affected. PPD not only affects caregivers, but also impacts infants through mechanisms such as inadequate caregiver-infant interactions and non-adherence to safety practices. The negative impact on infants may extend across the life course through adulthood. This article seeks to move the needle toward universal screening for PPD using validated tools in pediatric primary care settings for new caregivers by making the legal and ethical case for this course of action in a manner that is both compelling and accessible for clinicians...
September 12, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916372/tracking-and-controlling-soft-surface-contamination-in-health-care-settings
#8
Jonathan D Sexton, Amanda M Wilson, Hannah P Sassi, Kelly A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. METHODS: Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915991/adolescent-and-parental-reactions-to-puberty-in-nigeria-and-kenya-a-cross-cultural-and-intergenerational-comparison
#9
Bamidele M Bello, Adesegun O Fatusi, Oluwatomi E Adepoju, Beatrice W Maina, Caroline W Kabiru, Marni Sommer, Kristin Mmari
PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915431/ethical-implications-of-location-and-accelerometer-measurement-in-health-research-studies-with-mobile-sensing-devices
#10
Daniel Fuller, Martine Shareck, Kevin Stanley
Quantification of individual behaviours using mobile sensing devices, including physical activity and spatial location, is a rapidly growing field in both academic research and the corporate world. In this case study, we summarize the literature examining the ethical aspects of mobile sensing and argue that a robust discussion about the ethical implications of mobile sensing for research purposes has not occurred sufficiently in the literature. Based on our literature summary and guided by basic ethical principles set out in Canadian, US, and International Ethics documents we propose four areas where further discussion should occur: consent, privacy and confidentiality, mitigating risk, and consideration of vulnerable populations...
September 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914927/secure-communications-of-cap-4-and-ook-signals-over-mmf-based-on-electro-optic-chaos
#11
Jianzhou Ai, Lulu Wang, Jian Wang
Chaos-based secure communication can provide a high level of privacy in data transmission. Here, we experimentally demonstrate secure signal transmission over two kinds of multimode fiber (MMF) based on electro-optic intensity chaos. High-quality synchronization is achieved in an electro-optic feedback configuration. Both 5  Gbit/s carrier-less amplitude/phase (CAP-4) modulation and 10  Gbit/s on-off key (OOK) signals are recovered efficiently in electro-optic chaos-based communication systems. Degradations of chaos synchronization and communication system due to mismatch of various hardware keys are also discussed...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914268/impact-of-hipaa-s-minimum-necessary-standard-on-genomic-data-sharing
#12
Barbara J Evans, Gail P Jarvik
This article provides a brief introduction to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule's minimum necessary standard, which applies to sharing of genomic data, particularly clinical data, following 2013 Privacy Rule revisions. This research used the Thomson Reuters Westlaw database and law library resources in its legal analysis of the HIPAA privacy tiers and the impact of the minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing. We considered relevant example cases of genomic data-sharing needs...
September 14, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913771/criminal-prohibition-of-wrongful-re%C3%A2-identification-legal-solution-or-minefield-for-big-data
#13
Mark Phillips, Edward S Dove, Bartha M Knoppers
The collapse of confidence in anonymization (sometimes also known as de-identification) as a robust approach for preserving the privacy of personal data has incited an outpouring of new approaches that aim to fill the resulting trifecta of technical, organizational, and regulatory privacy gaps left in its wake. In the latter category, and in large part due to the growth of Big Data-driven biomedical research, falls a growing chorus of calls for criminal and penal offences to sanction wrongful re-identification of "anonymized" data...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905735/surgery-in-shackles-what-are-surgeons-obligations-to-incarcerated-patients-in-the-operating-room
#14
Sara Scarlet, Elizabeth Dreesen
Incarcerated patients frequently require surgery outside of the correctional setting, where they can be shackled to the operating table in the presence of armed corrections officers who observe them throughout the procedure. In this circumstance, privacy protection-central to the patient-physician relationship-and the need to control the incarcerated patient for the safety of health care workers, corrections officers, and society must be balanced. Surgeons recognize the heightened need for gaining a patient's trust within the context of an operation...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905725/ethics-students-go-to-the-jail
#15
Oliver Schirokauer, Thomas A Tallman, Leah Jeunnette, Despina Mavrakis, Monica L Gerrek
This article describes an educational initiative in which clinical ethics students, who were either in a bioethics master's degree program or in the fourth year of medical school, spent two days observing health care in an urban jail. Students submitted reflections about their experience, in which they drew attention to concerns about privacy, physical restriction, due care, drug addiction, mistrust, and the conflicting expectations that arise when incarcerated people become patients. The rotation was of great value to the students both because it exposed them to many of the ethical issues that arise in a correctional setting and because it deepened their understanding of various ethical concerns that are pervasive in health care...
September 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903895/putting-the-focus-back-on-the-patient-how-privacy-concerns-affect-personal-health-information-sharing-intentions
#16
Mohamed Abdelhamid, Joana Gaia, G Lawrence Sanders
BACKGROUND: Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903886/patient-privacy-in-the-era-of-big-data
#17
Mehmet Kayaalp
Privacy was defined as a fundamental human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the 1948 United Nations General Assembly. However, there is still no consensus on what constitutes privacy. In this review, we look at the evolution of privacy as a concept from the era of Hippocrates to the era of social media and big data. To appreciate the modern measures of patient privacy protection and correctly interpret the current regulatory framework in the United States, we need to analyze and understand the concepts of individually identifiable information, individually identifiable health information, protected health information (PHI), and de-identification...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903594/book-review-confidentiality-and-its-discontents-dilemmas-of-privacy-in-psychotherapy-confidentiality-and-its-discontents-dilemmas-of-privacy-in-psychotherapy-by-mosher-paul-w-berman-jeffrey-new-york-fordham-university-press-2015-xiv-343-pp-125-00-hardcover
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893766/barriers-facilitators-and-survival-strategies-for-gps-seeking-treatment-for-distress-a-qualitative-study
#19
Johanna Spiers, Marta Buszewicz, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Clare Gerada, David Kessler, Nick Leggett, Chris Manning, Anna Kathryn Taylor, Gail Thornton, Ruth Riley
BACKGROUND: GPs are under increasing pressure due to a lack of resources, a diminishing workforce, and rising patient demand. As a result, they may feel stressed, burnt out, anxious, or depressed. AIM: To establish what might help or hinder GPs experiencing mental distress as they consider seeking help for their symptoms, and to explore potential survival strategies. DESIGN AND SETTING: The authors recruited 47 GP participants via e-mails to doctors attending a specialist service, adverts to local medical committees (LMCs) nationally and in GP publications, social media, and snowballing...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893160/relationship-between-ethical-ideology-and-moral-judgment-academic-nurse-educators-perception
#20
Ebtsam Aly Abou Hashish, Nadia Hassan Ali Awad
BACKGROUND: Ascertaining the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision among academic nurse educators at work appears to be a challenge particularly in situations when they are faced with a need to solve an ethical problem and make a moral decision. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision as perceived by academic nurse educators. METHODS: A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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