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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748775/reduction-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-context-of-antiretroviral-therapy-scale-up-in-rural-south-africa
#1
J C Hoogendoorn, L Ranoto, N Muditambi, J Railton, M Maswanganyi, H E Struthers, J A McIntyre, R P H Peters
Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has reduced the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in South Africa. Despite the strong association of HIV infection with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), the effect of ART on the epidemiology of EPTB remains undocumented. We conducted a retrospective record review of patients initiated on treatment for EPTB in 2009 (ART coverage <5%) and 2013 (ART coverage 41%) at four public hospitals in rural Mopani District, South Africa...
July 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748196/developing-interactive-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-infection-prevention-curricula-for-diverse-learners-a-tailored-approach
#2
Priya Nori, Theresa Madaline, Iona Munjal, Shubha Bhar, Yi Guo, Susan K Seo, Andrea Porrovecchio, Elizabeth Gancher, Joshua Nosanchuk, Liise-Anne Pirofski, Belinda Ostrowsky
BACKGROUND: To impart principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and infection prevention and control (IPC), we developed a curriculum tailored to the diverse aptitudes of learners at our medical center. METHODS: We integrated case-based modules, group learning activities, smartphone applications (apps), decision support tools, and prescription audit and feedback into curricula of the medical school, medicine residency program, infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program, and hospital medicine program operations...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748089/the-role-of-nanotechnology-in-the-treatment-of-viral-infections
#3
REVIEW
Lavanya Singh, Hendrik G Kruger, Glenn E M Maguire, Thavendran Govender, Raveen Parboosing
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with viruses in particular making global impact on healthcare and socioeconomic development. In addition, the rapid development of drug resistance to currently available therapies and adverse side effects due to prolonged use is a serious public health concern. The development of novel treatment strategies is therefore required. The interaction of nanostructures with microorganisms is fast-revolutionizing the biomedical field by offering advantages in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745951/preventing-bloodstream-infection-in-iv-therapy
#4
Kevin Hugill
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are one cause of preventable harm to patients, and are a clinical, political and economic concern. Vascular access, via a peripheral or central vascular device, is a routine experience for most patients receiving hospital care and is increasingly commonplace in health care at home. Because it is so common, ensuring safe vascular access is an essential focus for all health professionals. All vascular access procedures are invasive, regardless of patient group, therapeutic rationale, the device used, route and site of insertion and particular technique...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743646/sepsis-and-septic-shock-new-definitions-new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Silvano Esposito, Giuseppe De Simone, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Pasquale Pagliano
Sepsis and septic shock are common life-threatening pathologies associated with high mortality and substantial costs for healthcare system. Clinical guidelines and bundles for the management of patients with sepsis have recently been updated. Herein, we review the history of sepsis and related conditions definitions from the first consensus conference in 1991 to nowadays, the epidemiologic data resulting from worldwide studies on incidence and mortality, the diagnostic approaches including the microbiological assessment of infection and the use of several prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and finally we review the main therapeutic measures as the intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and the administration of appropriate antibiotic treatment to provide patients with sepsis a favourable outcome in the antibiotic-resistance era...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743246/associations-between-national-viral-hepatitis-policies-programmes-and-country-level-socioeconomic-factors-a-sub-analysis-of-data-from-the-2013-who-viral-hepatitis-policy-report
#6
Jeffrey V Lazarus, Ida Sperle, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Charles Gore, Beatriz Cebolla, Alexander Spina
BACKGROUND: As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). METHODS: WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density...
July 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742226/documentation-of-penicillin-adverse-drug-reactions-in-electronic-health-records-inconsistent-use-of-allergy-and-intolerance-labels
#7
Joshua M Inglis, Gillian E Caughey, William Smith, Sepehr Shakib
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with penicillin allergy labels tolerate penicillins. Inappropriate avoidance of penicillin is associated with increased hospitalisation, infections and healthcare costs. AIMS: To examine the documentation of penicillin adverse drug reactions (ADR) in a large-scale hospital-based electronic health record. METHODS: Penicillin ADRs were extracted from 96,708 patient records in the Enterprise Patient Administration System in South Australia...
July 25, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738847/longitudinal-genomic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-carriage-in-a-long-term-care-facility-in-the-united-kingdom
#8
Hayley J Brodrick, Kathy E Raven, Teemu Kallonen, Dorota Jamrozy, Beth Blane, Nicholas M Brown, Veronique Martin, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) may have high carriage rates of multidrug-resistant pathogens, but are not currently included in surveillance programmes for antimicrobial resistance or healthcare-associated infections. Here, we describe the value derived from a longitudinal epidemiological and genomic surveillance study of drug-resistant Escherichia coli in a LTCF in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Forty-five of 90 (50%) residents were recruited and followed for six months in 2014...
July 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737318/-perceptions-of-a-healthcare-associated-infections-reporting-system-in-a-tunisian-university-hospital
#9
Olfa Ezzi, Nabiha Bouafia, Mohamed Mahjoub, Asma Ben Cheikh, Wadiaa Bannour, Radhia Helali, Hassan Bayar, Amel Nouira, Mansour Njah
Objective: The implementation of a healthcare-associated infections reporting system is a principal component of infection control and quality improvement policies in healthcare institutions. This study was designed to determine the perceptions of health professionals concerning implementation of a healthcare-associated infections reporting system and to analyse factors influencing these perceptions.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 using a predefined, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire in 380 health professionals working in 16 different departments of Farhat Hached University Hospital, Tunisia...
March 6, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736358/-emergence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-sccmec-type-iv-v-epidemic-clones-in-a-large-teaching-hospital-in-china
#10
Yi-Ming Zhong, Rui Yuan, Jian-Sheng Ding, Fang Yang, Wen-En Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genotype and molecular epidemiological characteristics of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) in a large teaching hospital in China. METHDOS: From January 2012 to December 2012, a total of 71 nonduplicate HA-MRSA were collected in a teaching hospital in Changsha, China. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene was detected by PCR...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736184/attitudes-towards-zika-virus-infection-among-medical-doctors-in-aceh-province-indonesia
#11
Harapan Harapan, Alma Alleta, Samsul Anwar, Abdul M Setiawan, Reza Maulana, Nur Wahyuniati, Muhammad R Ramadana, Ikram Ikram, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Kurnia F Jamil, Ulrich Kuch, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, a public health emergency of international concern, has recently been confirmed in Indonesia. However, to date, there has been no study to assess how prepared healthcare workers in Indonesia are to confront this emerging infectious disease. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of medical doctors in Indonesia towards ZIKV infection and its associated explanatory variables. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was conducted from 3 May to 3 June 2016 in Aceh province, Indonesia...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736032/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-rate-elevation-attributable-to-national-healthcare-safety-network-surveillance-definition-changes-ongoing-opportunities-for-infection-prevention-or-both
#12
Andrew Corley, Maggie Cantara, Julia Gardner, Polly Trexler, Clare Rock, Lisa L Maragakis
Calendar year 2015 intensive care unit (ICU) central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) from 1 hospital were reviewed using 2014 CLABSI surveillance definitions to assess the relative impact of definition changes and infection control practices on CLABSI rates. Increased ICU primary CLABSI rates were found to be a result of both surveillance definition changes and infection control practices.
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735246/nurses-reports-of-staffing-adequacy-and-surgical-site-infections-a-cross-sectional-multi-centre-study
#13
Christine Tvedt, Ingeborg Strømseng Sjetne, Jon Helgeland, Hege Line Løwer, Geir Bukholm
BACKGROUND: It is indicated that healthcare personnel's perceptions of the work environment may reflect the clinical outcomes for the patients they care for. However, the body of evidence is inconsistent when it comes to the association between work environment and surgical site infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between nurse-reported characteristics of the work environment and incidence of surgical site infections after total hip arthroplasty...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735046/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-australia-and-new-zealand-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#14
M A Pfaller, D Shortridge, H S Sader, R K Flamm, M Castaneheira
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients in Australia and New Zealand with healthcare-associated infection. METHODS: A total of 1,459 gram-negative organisms (440P. aeruginosa and 1,019 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected from 11 medical centers located in Australia and New Zealand. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods as described by the CLSI M07-A10 document and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734630/management-of-an-acinetobacter-baumannii-outbreak-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#15
M Tanguy, A Kouatchet, B Tanguy, É Pichard, S Fanello, M-L Joly-Guillou
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen resistant to desiccation and responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAI), especially in intensive care units (ICU) where it is responsible for 5-10% of HAIs. An A. baumannii outbreak occurred in the ICU of the University Hospital of Angers, France. OBJECTIVES: To describe the A. baumannii outbreak and to evaluate the control measures taken. The secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of the electronic alert system on the incidence of multidrug resistance to antibiotics...
July 19, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733718/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-next-30%C3%A2-years-humankind-bugs-and-drugs-a-visionary-approach
#16
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Garyphallia Poulakou, Etienne Ruppe, Emilio Bouza, Sebastian J Van Hal, Adrian Brink
PURPOSE: To describe the current standards of care and major recent advances with regard to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and to give a prospective overview for the next 30 years in this field. METHODS: Review of medical literature and expert opinion were used in the development of this review. RESULTS: There is undoubtedly a large clinical and public health burden associated with AMR in ICU, but it is challenging to quantify the associated excess morbidity and mortality...
July 21, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733213/risk-factors-for-the-infection-and-or-colonization-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Xuan Li, Xuan Xu, Xianxian Yang, Mei Luo, Pin Liu, Kewen Su, Ying Qing, Shuai Chen, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are the important causes of healthcare associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This study performed a meta-analysis to identify the risk factors associated with infection and/or colonization of ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU. METHODS: Relevant studies in the literature published from January 1, 2000 to July 1, 2016 were searched in the electronic databases. The literature was screened and data were extracted according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732563/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-the-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacillus-bacteremia-a-retrospective-propensity-matched-case-control-study
#18
Shih-Wen Ting, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Jien-Wei Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A substantial number of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) have been identified among the etiologic multidrug-resistant GNB in healthcare-associated infections. For achieving a better therapeutic outcome by minimizing inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before blood culture and susceptibility testing results are available, it is very important to identify patients who are at risk for the development of CR GNB bacteremia. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of propensity-score matched (PSM) adult patients with CR GNB bacteremia (PSM-group 1 [n = 95]) and those with non-CR GNB bacteremia (PSM-group 2 [n = 190])...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731725/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2013-2016
#19
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Gi-Taik Oh, Eugene V Millar, Jason W Bennett
During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 282,571 incident cases of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) among active component U.S. military members diagnosed in inpatient or outpatient settings, corresponding to an overall incidence of 558.2 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). An additional 10,904 cases occurred in theater of operations (460.0 per 10,000 p-yrs). Approximately half (49.4%) were classified as "other SSTI" (e.g., folliculitis, impetigo); 45.9% were cellulitis/abscess; 4.6% were carbuncles/furuncles; and 0...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731388/electronic-visits-for-minor-acute-illnesses-analysis-of-patient-demographics-prescription-rates-and-follow-up-care-within-an-asynchronous-text-based-online-visit
#20
Kristine S Penza, Martha A Murray, Jennifer L Pecina, Jane F Myers, Joseph W Furst
INTRODUCTION: Patients can obtain medical advice and treatment from a healthcare provider asynchronously through an electronic visit (eVisit) within a secure online portal. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective record review of Mayo Clinic Rochester primary care empaneled patients who had an eVisit for a minor acute illness and were reviewed for 30-day outcomes of follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 1,009 eVisits analyzed, a total of 340 (34%) had follow-up within 30 days, with a follow-up rate of 154 (20%) when those who were advised to follow-up were excluded...
July 20, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
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