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Healthcare-associated infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782913/statewide-collaborative-to-reduce-surgical-site-infection-results-of-the-hawaii-surgical-unit-based-safety-program
#1
Della M Lin, Kathryn A Carson, Lisa H Lubomski, Elizabeth C Wick, Julius Cuong Pham
BACKGROUND: Surgical Site Infections (SSI) after colorectal surgery are common, lead to patient harm, and are costly to the healthcare system. This study's purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Safety Program for Surgery in Hawaii. STUDY DESIGN: This pre-post cohort study involved 100% of 15 hospitals in Hawaii from January 2013-June 2015. The intervention was a statewide implementation of the Comprehensive-Unit-based-Safety-Program (CUSP) and individualized bundles of interventions to reduce SSI...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782516/how-a-smiley-protects-health-a-pilot-intervention-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-hospitals-by-activating-injunctive-norms-through-emoticons
#2
Susanne Gaube, Dimitrios Tsivrikos, Daniel Dollinger, Eva Lermer
Hand hygiene practice in hospitals is unfortunately still widely insufficient, even though it is known that transmitting pathogens via hands is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. Previous research has shown that improving knowledge, providing feedback on past behaviour and targeting social norms are promising approaches to improve hand hygiene practices. The present field experiment was designed to direct people on when to perform hand hygiene and prevent forgetfulness. This intervention is the first to examine the effect of inducing injunctive social norms via an emoticon-based feedback system on hand hygiene behaviour...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781881/individual-and-network-factors-associated-with-hiv-care-continuum-outcomes-among-nigerian-msm-accessing-healthcare-services
#3
Habib O Ramadhani, Nicaise Ndembi, Rebecca G Nowak, Uchenna Ononaku, Jerry Gwamna, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Sylvia Adebajo, Trevor A Crowell, Hongjie Liu, Stefan D Baral, Julie Ake, Man E Charurat
BACKGROUND: and setting: As data on the determinants of the HIV care continuum from key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource-limited, settings (RLS) are limited, the study aimed to characterize HIV care continuum outcomes and assess individual and network barriers to progression through the HIV care continuum among MSM in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: TRUST/RV368 study used respondent-driven-sampling to accrue MSM into community-based clinics in Nigeria...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778961/uva-induced-antimicrobial-activity-of-zno-ag-nanocomposite-covered-surfaces
#5
Meeri Visnapuu, Merilin Rosenberg, Egle Truska, Ergo Nõmmiste, Andris Šutka, Anne Kahru, Mihkel Rähn, Heiki Vija, Kaja Orupõld, Vambola Kisand, Angela Ivask
Application of efficient antimicrobial surfaces has been estimated to decrease both, the healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we prepared ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle covered surfaces and evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy towards a Gram-negative bacterial model (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacterial model (Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal model (Candida albicans) in the dark and under UVA illumination. The surfaces were prepared by spin coating aliquots of ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle suspensions onto glass substrates...
May 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778845/predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-status-epilepticus
#6
Somsak Tiamkao, Pawinee Saybungkla, Prapassara Sirikarn, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: There were several studies that have reported on the long-term mortality rate of status epilepticus (SE). However, these studies were conducted mainly in Western countries using small study populations. This study aimed to evaluate predictors for long-term mortality in SE using the Thai national healthcare database. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Thai national Universal Health Coverage (UC) database. The eligibility criteria for this study were that all patients were diagnosed with SE and had been admitted to any hospital between 2005 and 2015...
May 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777842/nationally-representative-readmission-factors-in-patients-with-claudication-and-critical-limb-ischemia
#7
Rennier A Martinez, Michelle Shnayder, Joshua Parreco, Lukas Gaffney, Marcus Eby, Nicholas Cortolillo, Michael Lopez, Jack Zeltzer
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions are not only associated with increased mortality, morbidity and costs but also, with current healthcare reform, tied to significant financial and administrative penalties. Some studies show that patients undergoing vascular surgery may have higher than average readmission rates. The recently released Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) is the most comprehensive national source of readmission data, gathering discharge information from 22 geographically dispersed states, accounting for 51...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776929/antibacterial-effects-of-phage-lysin-lysgh15-on-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-diverse-staphylococci
#8
Yufeng Zhang, Mengjun Cheng, Hao Zhang, Jiaxin Dai, Zhimin Guo, Xinwei Li, Yalu Ji, Ruopeng Cai, Hengyu Xi, Xinwu Wang, Yibing Xue, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Treatment of infections caused by staphylococci has become more difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as biofilm formation. In this study, we observed the ability of the phage lysin LysGH15 to eliminate staphylococcal planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis All these strains were sensitive to LysGH15, showing reductions in bacterial counts of approximately 4 log units within 30 min after treatment with 20 μg/mL LysGH15, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 8 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776778/three-years-post-affordable-care-act-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-remain-critical-among-vulnerable-populations
#9
Nicky J Mehtani, Christina M Schumacher, Luke E Johnsen, Adena Greenbaum, C Patrick Chaulk, Khalil G Ghanem, Jacky M Jennings, Kathleen R Page
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study is to examine whether demand for publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics changed after Affordable Care Act implementation. METHODS: The percentages of total incident sexually transmitted infections in Baltimore City that occurred at publicly funded sexually transmitted disease clinics were compared between the 3 years prior to and following the 2014 Medicaid and private insurance expansions. Risk factors associated with diagnosis at sexually transmitted disease clinics were identified using log binomial regression...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775774/hospital-admissions-2000-2014-a-retrospective-analysis-of-288-096-events-in-patients-with-dementia
#10
Catarina Bernardes, João Massano, Alberto Freitas
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, imposing a significant burden on healthcare systems. The evidence on the long-term evolution of this issue and broadly on healthcare systems is currently limited. This study aims to describe the hospitalizations of people who received a diagnosis of dementia admitted to public general hospitals in a western European country with universal health coverage, over more than a decade...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774289/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-worms-in-children-up-to-5-years-of-age-in-huaphan-province-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#11
Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Lavy Lorphachan, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Sylvie Goossens, Yves Buisson, Fabrice Quet, Claude P Muller, Satoshi Nakamura
Background: The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), reaching 62% among school-children. However, this prevalence presents wide regional variations, due to differences in healthcare access and environmental factors. Curiously, there are few studies on helminth infections in pre-school children - an age group targeted by the national de-worming campaign. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted in a remote region of Huaphan Province, North Laos, to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in pre-school children...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770546/risk-factors-for-nursing-and-healthcare-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#12
Keiji Sugishita, Toshiaki Saito, Takashi Iwamoto
AIM: In concordance with population aging, the number of patients living in long-term care facilities or who require nursing care has been increasing in Japan. However, little is known about the characteristics of urinary tract infection in these patients. The present study aimed to clarify the background or risk factors for multidrug-resistant urinary tract infection in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of patients aged ≥65 years who presented to Kesennuma City Municipal Motoyoshi Hospital from April 2014 to July 2017 with suspected urinary tract infection and a positive urine culture...
May 17, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767683/large-outbreak-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-with-drug-diversion-by-a-healthcare-technician
#13
Sharon Alroy-Preis, Elizabeth R Daly, Christine Adamski, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Elizabeth A Talbot, Fengxiang Gao, Steffany J Cavallo, Katrina Hansen, Jennifer C Mahoney, Erin Metcalf, Carol Loring, Christine Bean, Jan Drobeniuc, Guo-Liang Xia, Saleem Kamili, José T Montero
Background: In May 2012, the New Hampshire (NH) Division of Public Health Services (DPHS) was notified of 4 persons with newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at hospital X. Initial investigation suggested a common link to the hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) because the infected persons included 3 CCL patients and a CCL technician. NH DPHS initiated an investigation to determine the source and control the outbreak. Methods: NH DPHS conducted site visits, case patient and employee interviews, medical record and medication use review, and employee and patient HCV testing using enzyme immunoassay for anti-HCV, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for HCV RNA, nonstructural 5B (NS5B) and hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequencing, and quasispecies analysis...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765776/what-is-the-impact-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-healthcare-facilities-on-care-seeking-behaviour-and-patient-satisfaction-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Maha Bouzid, Oliver Cumming, Paul R Hunter
Patient satisfaction with healthcare has clear implications on service use and health outcomes. Barriers to care seeking are complex and multiple and delays in seeking care are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the relationship between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) provision in healthcare facilities (HCF) and patient satisfaction/care seeking behaviour in low-income and middle-income countries. Pubmed and Medline Ovid were searched using a combination of search terms...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765440/prevalence-of-bacteria-and-fungi-in-samples-of-cornea-preservation-fluid
#15
Grażyna Broniek, Ewa Langwińska-Wośko, Małgorzata Sybilska, Jerzy Szaflik, Jacek P Szaflik, Marta Wróblewska
Introduction: Recipients of corneal transplants are at risk of healthcare-associated infections, which, apart from other causes of surgical site infections, may also occur as a result of the transfer of infected corneal tissue. In this study we assessed the risk of bacterial and fungal infections based on the results of routine microbiological testing of cornea preservation fluid samples. Material and methods: We examined a total of 725 samples of corneal preservation fluid, obtained during a period of 3 years (2011-2013)...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764876/integrated-versus-non-integrated-peripheral-intravenous-catheter-which-is-the-most-effective-system-for-peripheral-intravenous-catheter-management-the-optimum-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Maria Isabel Castillo, Emily Larsen, Marie Cooke, Nicole M Marsh, Marianne C Wallis, Julie Finucane, Peter Brown, Gabor Mihala, Peter J Carr, Joshua Byrnes, Rachel Walker, Prudence Cable, Li Zhang, Candi Sear, Gavin Jackson, Anna Rowsome, Alison Ryan, Julie C Humphries, Susan Sivyer, Kathy Flanigan, Claire M Rickard
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are frequently used in hospitals. However, PIVC complications are common, with failures leading to treatment delays, additional procedures, patient pain and discomfort, increased clinician workload and substantially increased healthcare costs. Recent evidence suggests integrated PIVC systems may be more effective than traditional non-integrated PIVC systems in reducing phlebitis, infiltration and costs and increasing functional dwell time...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762662/national-costs-associated-with-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#17
Eili Y Klein, Wendi Jiang, Nestor Mojica, Katie K Tseng, Ryan McNeill, Sara E Cosgrove, Trish M Perl
Background: Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with worse patient outcomes and higher costs of care than susceptible (MSSA) infections. However, the healthcare landscape has changed since prior studies found these differences, including widespread dissemination of community-associated strains of MRSA. Our objective was to provide updated estimates of the excess costs of resistant S. aureus infections. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from the National Inpatient Sample from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for the years 2010 to 2014...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758064/risk-perception-and-sex-behaviour-in-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-programmatic-implications-for-prep-delivery
#18
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Catriona Towriss, Yolanda Gomba, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Steven Shoptaw, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner's serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757390/battery-longevity-of-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-and-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-defibrillators-technical-clinical-and-economic-aspects-an-expert-review-paper-from-ehra
#19
Giuseppe Boriani, Josè Merino, David J Wright, Fredrik Gadler, Beat Schaer, Maurizio Landolina
In recent years an extension of devices longevity has been obtained for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), including ICDs for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) through improved battery chemistry and device technology and this implies important clinical benefits (reduced need for device replacements and associated complications, particularly infections), as well as economic benefits, in line with patient preferences and needs. From a clinical point of view, the availability of this improvement in technology allows to better tune the choice of the device to be implanted, taking into account that the reasons supporting the value of an extended device longevity as a clinical priority may differ according to the clinical setting (purely electrical diseases or left ventricular dysfunction/heart failure, respectively)...
May 10, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755435/analysis-of-phylogenetic-variation-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-reveals-human-specific-branches
#20
Joerg Steinmann, Uwe Mamat, Ebrahim M Abda, Lisa Kirchhoff, Wolfgang R Streit, Ulrich E Schaible, Stefan Niemann, Thomas A Kohl
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a non-fermenting Gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment. In humans, this opportunistic multi-drug-resistant pathogen is responsible for a plethora of healthcare-associated infections. Here, we utilized a whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based phylogenomic core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach to characterize S. maltophilia subgroups, their potential association with human infection, and to detect any possible transmission events. In total, 89 isolates (67 clinical and 22 environmental) from Germany were sequenced...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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