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Human patient simulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#1
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923860/in-silico-modeling-of-immunotherapy-and-stroma-targeting-therapies-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#2
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Jan Poleszczuk, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Johannes Krisam, Pornpimol Charoentong, Nektarios A Valous, Cleo-Aron Weis, Luca Tavernar, Florian Leiss, Esther Herpel, Fee Klupp, Alexis Ulrich, Martin Schneider, Alexander Marx, Dirk Jaeger, Niels Halama
Despite the fact that the local immunological microenvironment shapes the prognosis of colorectal cancer, immunotherapy has shown no benefit for the vast majority of colorectal cancer patients. A better understanding of the complex immunological interplay within the microenvironment is required. In this study, we utilized wet lab migration experiments and quantitative histological data of human colorectal cancer tissue samples (n=20) including tumor cells, lymphocytes, stroma and necrosis to generate a multi-agent spatial model...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922806/linezolid-as-treatment-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#3
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Sampling to confirm that the intended linezolid pharmacokinetics had been achieved, and for enumeration of MAC colony-forming units, was performed based on repetitive sampling from each system over the 28 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921846/improvement-of-polytrauma-management-quality-inspection-of-a-newly-introduced-course-concept
#4
Ingo Gräff, Shahab Ghamari, Sylvia Schacher, Procula Glien, Rolf Fimmers, Torsten Baehner, Se-Chan Kim
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: A systematic literature search for training course concepts for care of severely injured and severely ill patients respecting improvement of process and outcome yielded little data. For several years, the University Hospital of Bonn has hosted a shock-room management course which, on the one hand, communicates human factor aspects and, on the other hand, pursues interdisciplinary and interprofessional team training. The Bonn shock-room management course (BSM-course®) differs from other courses in both format and principles...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917147/combined-in-silico-approaches-for-the-identification-of-novel-inhibitors-of-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-hiapp-fibrillation
#5
Palak Patel, Krupali Parmar, Vivek K Vyas, Dhaval Patel, Mili Das
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a natively unfolded polypeptide hormone of glucose metabolism, which is co-secreted with insulin by the β-cells of the pancreas. In patients with type 2 diabetes, IAPP forms amyloid fibrils because of diabetes-associated β-cells dysfunction and increasing fibrillation, in turn, lead to failure of secretory function of β-cells. This provides a target for the discovery of small organic molecules against protein aggregation diseases. However, the binding mechanism of these molecules with monomers, oligomers and fibrils to inhibit fibrillation is still an open question...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913826/modeling-tolerance-development-for-the-effect-on-heart-rate-of-the-selective-s1p1-receptor-modulator-ponesimod
#6
Dominik Lott, Thorsten Lehr, Jasper Dingemanse, Andreas Krause
Ponesimod is a selective sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1 ) receptor modulator currently under investigation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. S1P receptor modulators reduce heart rate following treatment initiation. This effect disappears with repeated dosing, enabling development of innovative up-titration regimens to optimize patient safety. There are currently no published pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models describing the heart rate reduction of S1P receptor modulators in humans. The model developed here provides quantification of this effect for ponesimod...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905413/simultaneous-acquisition-sequence-for-improved-hepatic-pharmacokinetics-quantification-accuracy-saha-for-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-of-liver
#7
Jia Ning, Yongliang Sun, Sheng Xie, Bida Zhang, Feng Huang, Peter Koken, Jouke Smink, Chun Yuan, Huijun Chen
PURPOSE: To propose a simultaneous acquisition sequence for improved hepatic pharmacokinetics quantification accuracy (SAHA) method for liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. METHODS: The proposed SAHA simultaneously acquired high temporal-resolution 2D images for vascular input function extraction using Cartesian sampling and 3D large-coverage high spatial-resolution liver dynamic contrast-enhanced images using golden angle stack-of-stars acquisition in an interleaved way...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905390/validation-of-the-gatortail-method-for-accurate-sizing-of-pulmonary-vessels-from-3d-medical-images
#8
Walter G O'Dell, Anne K Gormaley, David A Prida
PURPOSE: Detailed characterization of changes in vessel size is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Because clinical measurement of vessel size is typically dependent on the radiologist's subjective interpretation of the vessel borders, it is often prone to high inter- and intra-user variability. Automatic methods of vessel sizing have been developed for two-dimensional images but a fully three-dimensional (3D) method suitable for vessel sizing from volumetric X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging has heretofore not been demonstrated and validated robustly...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#9
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895034/whole-body-biodistribution-and-the-influence-of-body-activity-on-brain-kinetic-analysis-of-the-11-c-pib-pet-scan
#10
Go Akamatsu, Tomoyuki Nishio, Kazuhiko Adachi, Yasuhiko Ikari, Michio Senda
Dynamic (11)C-PiB PET imaging with kinetic analysis has been performed for accurate quantification of amyloid binding in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we measured the whole-body biodistribution of (11)C-PiB in nine subjects. We then evaluated the effect of body activity on quantitative accuracy of brain (11)C-PiB three-dimensional (3D) dynamic PET. Based on clinical biodistribution data, we conducted phantom experiments to estimate the effect of body activity on quantification of the brain 3D dynamic (11)C-PiB PET data and the error introduced by body activity using six different PET camera models...
September 11, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893136/investigation-on-the-binding-mechanism-of-loratinib-with-the-c-ros-oncogene-1-ros1-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-via-molecular-dynamics-simulation-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#11
XiaoYun Wu, YuanYuan Wang, ShanHe Wan, JiaJie Zhang
The c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) has proven to be an important cancer target for the treatment of various human cancers. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor crizotinib has been granted approval for the treatment of patients with ROS1 positive metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 2016. However, serious resistance due to the secondary mutation of glycine 2032 to arginine (G2032R) was developed in clinical studies. Loratinib (PF-06463922), a macrocyclic analogue of crizotinib, showed significantly improved inhibitory activity against wild-type (WT) ROS1 and ROS1(G2032R) mutant...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887245/a-pulsatile-fresh-frozen-human-cadaver-circulation-model-for-endovascular-training-a-trial-of-face-validity
#12
Craig Nesbitt, Samuel James Tingle, Robin Williams, James McCaslin, Roger Searle, Sebastian Mafeld, Gerard Stansby
OBJECTIVES: Determine the face validity of a pulsatile fresh frozen human cadaver model (PHCM) for training endovascular practitioners. METHODS: 12 endovascular clinicians performed the same two procedures (catheterisation of the left renal artery and left subclavian artery) on PHCM, and Simbionix angiomentor virtual reality simulator (SVR). They were randomised to begin on either the PHCM or SVR. A pre-trial questionnaire determined participants' endovascular experience...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886196/fully-coupled-fluid-structure-interaction-simulation-of-the-aortic-and-mitral-valves-in-a-realistic-3d-left-ventricle-model
#13
Wenbin Mao, Andrés Caballero, Raymond McKay, Charles Primiano, Wei Sun
In this study, we present a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework that combines smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and nonlinear finite element (FE) method to investigate the coupled aortic and mitral valves structural response and the bulk intraventricular hemodynamics in a realistic left ventricle (LV) model during the entire cardiac cycle. The FSI model incorporates valve structures that consider native asymmetric leaflet geometries, anisotropic hyperelastic material models and human material properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885944/the-value-of-live-tissue-training-for-combat-casualty-care-a-survey-of-canadian-combat-medics-with-battlefield-experience-in-afghanistan
#14
Michael Kim, Ian Torrie, Robert Poisson, Nicholas Withers, Stephen Bjarnason, Luis Teodoro DaLuz, Dylan Pannell, Andrew Beckett, Homer C Tien
INTRODUCTION: The optimum method for training military personnel for combat casualty care is unknown. In particular, there is debate regarding the incremental benefit of live animal tissue training (LTT) over inanimate human patient simulators (HPSs). Although both LTT and HPS are currently used for predeployment training, the efficacy of these models has not been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Canadian Armed Forces combat medics, deployed to Afghanistan between 2006 and 2011, were surveyed retrospectively regarding their experience with combat casualty care and predeployment training...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879577/models-and-tissue-mimics-for-brain-shift-simulations
#15
Antonio E Forte, Stefano Galvan, Daniele Dini
Capturing the deformation of human brain during neurosurgical operations is an extremely important task to improve the accuracy or surgical procedure and minimize permanent damage in patients. This study focuses on the development of an accurate numerical model for the prediction of brain shift during surgical procedures and employs a tissue mimic recently developed to capture the complexity of the human tissue. The phantom, made of a composite hydrogel, was designed to reproduce the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the brain tissue in a range of strain rates suitable for surgical procedures...
September 6, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877273/virtual-reality-simulator-for-dental-anesthesia-training-in-the-inferior-alveolar-nerve-block
#16
Cléber Gimenez Corrêa, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira Machado, Edith Ranzini, Romero Tori, Fátima de Lourdes Santos Nunes
Objectives: This study shows the development and validation of a dental anesthesia-training simulator, specifically for the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The system developed provides the tactile sensation of inserting a real needle in a human patient, using Virtual Reality (VR) techniques and a haptic device that can provide a perceived force feedback in the needle insertion task during the anesthesia procedure. Material and Methods: To simulate a realistic anesthesia procedure, a Carpule syringe was coupled to a haptic device...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876987/a-novel-approach-to-simulation-based-education-for-veterinary-medical-communication-training-over-eight-consecutive-pre-clinical-quarters
#17
Ryane E Englar
Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876466/patient-specific-in-silico-models-can-quantify-primary-implant-stability-in-elderly-human-bone
#18
Juri A Steiner, Urs A T Hofmann, Patrik Christen, Jean M Favre, Stephen J Ferguson, G Harry van Lenthe
Secure implant fixation is challenging in osteoporotic bone. Due to the high variability in inter- and intra-patient bone quality, ex vivo mechanical testing of implants in bone is very material- and time-consuming. Alternatively, in silico models could substantially reduce costs and speed up the design of novel implants if they had the capability to capture the intricate bone microstructure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate a micro-finite element model of a multi-screw fracture fixation system...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874934/emergency-physician-performed-transesophageal-echocardiography-in-simulated-cardiac-arrest
#19
Don V Byars, Jordan Tozer, John M Joyce, Michael J Vitto, Lindsay Taylor, Turan Kayagil, Matt Jones, Matthew Bishop, Barry Knapp, David Evans
INTRODUCTION: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a well-established method of evaluating cardiac pathology. It has many advantages over transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), including the ability to image the heart during active cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This prospective simulation study aims to evaluate the ability of emergency medicine (EM) residents to learn TEE image acquisition techniques and demonstrate those techniques to identify common pathologic causes of cardiac arrest...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873174/performing-reliable-lens-capsulotomy-in-the-presence-of-corneal-edema-with-a-femtosecond-laser
#20
Geraint P Williams, Benjamin L George, Yoke R Wong, Gary H F Yam, Marcus Ang, Shian C Tay, Jodhbir S Mehta
Purpose: To determine the effects of the Ziemer LDV Z8 liquid interface femtosecond laser platform during capsulotomy under different energy settings in the presence of corneal edema. Methods: Cadaveric porcine eyes (n = 36) employed at less than 6 and greater than 24 post enucleation hours to simulate clear/edematous corneas, underwent capsulotomy with the Ziemer LDV Z8 femtosecond laser (5-mm diameter, energy 90%, 130%, or 150%). Lens capsules were removed for evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and rupture strengths determined by the single column universal testing system...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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