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Human patient simulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#1
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739242/helicopter-emergency-medical-service-simulation-training-in-the-extreme-simulation-based-training-in-a-mountain-weather-chamber
#2
Urs Pietsch, Ludwig Ney, Oliver Kreuzer, Armin Berner, Volker Lischke
Mountain rescue operations often confront crews with extreme weather conditions. Extremely cold temperatures make standard treatment sometimes difficult or even impossible. It is well-known that most manual tasks, including those involved in mountain rescue operations, are slowed by extremely cold weather. To lessen and improve the decrement in performance of emergency medical treatment caused by cold-induced manual impairment and inadequate medical equipment and supplies, simulation training in a weather chamber, which can produce wind and temperatures up to -22°C, was developed...
July 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736284/adam-a-breathing-phantom-for-lung-sbrt-quality-assurance
#3
Stefania Pallotta, Silvia Calusi, Leonardo Foggi, Riccardo Lisci, Laura Masi, Livia Marrazzo, Cinzia Talamonti, Lorenzo Livi, Gabriele Simontacchi
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy treatment of moving lesions is a challenging task in which different strategies can be used to adequately treat the tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue. The complexity of these strategies requires accurate and appropriate quality assurance tests. For this purpose, ADAM (Anthropomorphic Dynamic breAthing Model), a new phantom which simulates realistic patient breathing, was developed aiming to test the image quality and dose delivery in lung cancer treatments...
July 20, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734073/differential-calcium-sensitivity-in-nav-1-5-mixed-syndrome-mutants
#4
Mena Abdelsayed, Alban-Elouen Baruteau, Karen Gibbs, Shubhayan Sanatani, Andrew D Krahn, Vincent Probst, Peter C Ruben
INTRODUCTION: Inherited arrhythmias may arise from mutations in the SCN5a gene, which encodes the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, NaV 1.5. Mutants in NaV 1.5 result in Brugada Syndrome (BrS1), Long-QT Syndrome (LQT3), or mixed syndromes (an overlap of BrS1/LQT3). Exercise is a potential arrhythmogenic trigger in mixed syndromes. We sought to determine the effects of elevated cytosolic calcium, common during exercise, in mixed syndrome NaV 1.5 mutants. METHODS: We used whole-cell patch-clamp to assess the biophysical properties of NaV 1...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733203/in-silico-pharmacogenetic-approach-the-natalizumab-case-study
#5
Francesca Cavaliere, Enrico Montanari, Andrew Emerson, Annamaria Buschini, Pietro Cozzini
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to α4β1 integrin and is approved for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. In patients there is a great variation in drug response and there is much evidence that genetic contributors play an important role in defining an individual's susceptibility. Natalizumab binds to α4-residues Gln-152, Lys-201, Lys256, and these seem to be essential for its activity. Studies on a range of species in disease model have showed a loss of reactivity when any one of those three residues were different to human...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725482/systems-biology-driving-drug-development-from-design-to-the-clinical-testing-of-the-anti-erbb3-antibody-seribantumab-mm-121
#6
REVIEW
Birgit Schoeberl, Art Kudla, Kristina Masson, Ashish Kalra, Michael Curley, Gregory Finn, Emily Pace, Brian Harms, Jaeyeon Kim, Jeff Kearns, Aaron Fulgham, Olga Burenkova, Viara Grantcharova, Defne Yarar, Violette Paragas, Jonathan Fitzgerald, Marisa Wainszelbaum, Kip West, Sara Mathews, Rachel Nering, Bambang Adiwijaya, Gabriela Garcia, Bill Kubasek, Victor Moyo, Akos Czibere, Ulrik B Nielsen, Gavin MacBeath
The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprises four members: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), human EGFR 2 (HER2/ErbB2), ErbB3/HER3, and ErbB4/HER4. The first two members of this family, EGFR and HER2, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer progression for several decades, and numerous drugs have now been approved that target these two proteins. Less attention, however, has been paid to the role of this family in mediating cancer cell survival and drug tolerance. To better understand the complex signal transduction network triggered by the ErbB receptor family, we built a computational model that quantitatively captures the dynamics of ErbB signaling...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714013/glioblastoma-entities-express-subtle-differences-in-molecular-composition-and-response-to-treatment
#7
Joana Balça-Silva, Diana Matias, Anália Do Carmo, Luiz Gustavo Dubois, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Henrique Girão, Nathalie Henriques Silva Canedo, Ana Helena Correia, Jorge Marcondes De Souza, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Lopes, Vivaldo Moura-Neto
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a grade IV astrocytoma. GBM patients show resistance to chemotherapy such as temozolomide (TMZ), the gold standard treatment. In order to simulate the molecular mechanisms behind the different chemotherapeutic responses in GBM patients we compared the cellular heterogeneity and chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms in different GBM cell lines. We isolated and characterized a human GBM cell line obtained from a GBM patient, named GBM11. We studied the GBM11 behaviour when treated with Tamoxifen (TMX) that, among other functions, is a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, alone and in combination with TMZ in comparison with the responses of U87 and U118 human GBM cell lines...
July 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708305/a-novel-variant-of-dhh-in-a-familial-case-of-46-xy-disorder-of-sex-development-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#8
Francoise Paris, Delphine Flatters, Sandrine Caburet, Bérangère Legois, Nadège Servant, Hervé Lefebvre, Charles Sultan, Reiner A Veitia
OBJECTIVE: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of conditions affecting the differentiation and development of the internal and external genitalia. Here, we aimed at identifying the genetic cause of DSD in two 46,XY sisters from a consanguineous family. DESIGN: We performed a whole-exome sequencing of two 46,XY female individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the most likely candidate variant, affecting the desert hedgehog (DHH) gene...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705158/-no-patient-should-die-of-pph-just-for-the-lack-of-training-experiences-from-multi-professional-simulation-training-on-postpartum-hemorrhage-in-northern-tanzania-a-qualitative-study
#9
Signe Egenberg, Bjørg Karlsen, Deodatus Massay, Happiness Kimaro, Lars Edvin Bru
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In Tanzania, PPH causes 25% of maternal deaths. Skilled attendance is crucial to saving the lives of mothers and their newborns during childbirth. This study is a follow-up after multi-professional simulation training on PPH in northern Tanzania. The purpose was to enhance understanding and gain knowledge of important learning features and outcomes related to multi-professional simulation training on PPH...
July 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704187/striving-for-better-medical-education-the-simulation-approach
#10
REVIEW
Boris E Sakakushev, Blagoi I Marinov, Penka P Stefanova, Stefan St Kostianev, Evangelos K Georgiou
Medical simulation is a rapidly expanding area within medical education due to advances in technology, significant reduction in training hours and increased procedural complexity. Simulation training aims to enhance patient safety through improved technical competency and eliminating human factors in a risk free environment. It is particularly applicable to a practical, procedure-orientated specialties. Simulation can be useful for novice trainees, experienced clinicians (e.g. for revalidation) and team building...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703903/dosage-optimization-of-nemolizumab-using-population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-and-simulation
#11
Tomohisa Saito, Satofumi Iida, Kimio Terao, Yuji Kumagai
Nemolizumab is a humanized anti-interleukin-31 receptor A monoclonal antibody for treating atopic dermatitis, and it especially improves pruritus. The objective of the simulation study was to optimize the dose regimen using a flat dose. The serum nemolizumab concentration and pruritus visual analog scale as an efficacy end point were modeled using the population analysis approach in 299 patients with atopic dermatitis who received placebo or doses between 0.1 and 3 mg/kg as a single dose once every 4 weeks or 2 mg/kg once every 8 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702812/characterisation-of-human-av-nodal-properties-using-a-network-model
#12
Mikael Wallman, Frida Sandberg
Characterisation of the AV-node is an important step in determining the optimal form of treatment for supraventricular tachycardias. To integrate and analyse patient-specific measurements, mathematical modelling has emerged as a valuable tool. Here we present a model of the human AV-node, consisting of a series of interacting nodes, each with separate dynamics in refractory time and conduction delay. The model is evaluated in several scenarios, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinical pacing, using simulated and measured data...
July 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696514/modulation-of-lateral-positions-of-bragg-peaks-via-magnetic-fields-inside-cancer-patients-towards-magnetic-field-modulated-proton-therapy
#13
Wencheng Shao, Xiaobin Tang, Yanling Bai, Changran Geng, Diyun Shu, Chunhui Gong, Da Chen
PURPOSE: This work investigated whether the Bragg peak (BP) positions of proton beams can be modulated to produce uniform doses and cover a tumor under the magnetic fields inside cancer patients, and whether magnetic field modulated proton therapy (MMPT) is effective in vital organ protection. METHODS: The authors initially constructed an ideal water phantom comprising a central tumor surrounded by cuboid organ regions using GEANT4. Second, we designed the proton beams passing through the gap between two adjacent organ regions during beam configuration...
July 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683828/virfinder-a-novel-k-mer-based-tool-for-identifying-viral-sequences-from-assembled-metagenomic-data
#14
Jie Ren, Nathan A Ahlgren, Yang Young Lu, Jed A Fuhrman, Fengzhu Sun
BACKGROUND: Identifying viral sequences in mixed metagenomes containing both viral and host contigs is a critical first step in analyzing the viral component of samples. Current tools for distinguishing prokaryotic virus and host contigs primarily use gene-based similarity approaches. Such approaches can significantly limit results especially for short contigs that have few predicted proteins or lack proteins with similarity to previously known viruses. METHODS: We have developed VirFinder, the first k-mer frequency based, machine learning method for virus contig identification that entirely avoids gene-based similarity searches...
July 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680402/molecular-simulations-of-carbohydrates-with-a-fucose-binding-burkholderia-ambifaria-lectin-suggest-modulation-by-surface-residues-outside-the-fucose-binding-pocket
#15
Tamir Dingjan, Anne Imberty, Serge Pérez, Elizabeth Yuriev, Paul A Ramsland
Burkholderia ambifaria is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a collection of species responsible for the rapidly fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. A fucose-binding lectin identified in the B. ambifaria genome, BambL, is able to adhere to lung tissue, and may play a role in respiratory infection. X-ray crystallography has revealed the bound complex structures for four fucosylated human blood group epitopes (blood group B, H type 1, H type 2, and Le(x) determinants)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678068/anesthesia-adverse-events-voluntarily-reported-in-the-veterans-health-administration-and-lessons-learned
#16
Julia Neily, Elda S Silla, Sam John T Sum-Ping, Roberta Reedy, Douglas E Paull, Lisa Mazzia, Peter D Mills, Robin R Hemphill
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia providers have long been pioneers in patient safety. Despite remarkable efforts, anesthesia errors still occur, resulting in complications, injuries, and even death. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Center of Patient Safety uses root cause analysis (RCA) to examine why system-related adverse events occur and how to prevent future similar events. This study describes the types of anesthesia adverse events reported in VHA hospitals and their root causes and preventative actions...
July 1, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675605/intrahost-milieu-modulates-production-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-vesicle-associated-shiga-toxin-2a-and-cytotoxicity-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-o104-h4
#17
Andreas Bauwens, Lisa Kunsmann, Monika Marejková, Wenlan Zhang, Helge Karch, Martina Bielaszewska, Alexander Mellmann
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important virulence tools of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), but other biological functions of these nanostructures are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of OMV production enables EHEC to resist the intrahost environment during infection by investigating if simulated human gastrointestinal conditions affect OMV production in EHEC O157:H7 and O104:H4. All the conditions tested including a low pH, simulated ileal and colonic media, presence of mucin, intestinal epithelial cell lysate or antimicrobial peptides, as well as iron limitation, significantly increased OMV production by these pathogens...
July 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671950/formal-reasoning-about-systems-biology-using-theorem-proving
#18
Adnan Rashid, Osman Hasan, Umair Siddique, Sofiène Tahar
System biology provides the basis to understand the behavioral properties of complex biological organisms at different levels of abstraction. Traditionally, analysing systems biology based models of various diseases have been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and simulations. However, these methods cannot provide an accurate analysis, which is a serious drawback for the safety-critical domain of human medicine. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a framework to formally analyze biological networks and pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668358/a-new-algebraic-method-for-quantitative-proton-density-mapping-using-multi-channel-coil-data
#19
Dietmar Cordes, Zhengshi Yang, Xiaowei Zhuang, Karthik Sreenivasan, Virendra Mishra, Le H Hua
A difficult problem in quantitative MRI is the accurate determination of the proton density, which is an important quantity in measuring brain tissue organization. Recent progress in estimating proton density in vivo has been based on using the inverse linear relationship between the longitudinal relaxation rate T1 and proton density. In this study, the same type of relationship is being used, however, in a more general framework by constructing 3D basis functions to model the receiver bias field. The novelty of this method is that the basis functions developed are suitable to cover an entire range of inverse linearities between T1 and proton density...
June 23, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668337/modeling-the-synergistic-elimination-of-bacteria-by-phage-and-the-innate-immune-system
#20
Chung Yin Joey Leung, Joshua S Weitz
Phage therapy has been viewed as a potential treatment for bacterial infections for over a century. Yet, the year 2016 marks one of the first phase I/II human trials of a phage therapeutic - to treat burn wound patients in Europe. The slow progress in realizing clinical therapeutics is matched by a similar dearth in principled understanding of phage therapy. Theoretical models and in vitro experiments find that combining phage and bacteria often leads to coexistence of both phage and bacteria or phage elimination altogether...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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