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Human patient simulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786774/computational-fluid-dynamics-modeling-of-the-human-pulmonary-arteries-with-experimental-validation
#1
Alifer D Bordones, Matthew Leroux, Vitaly O Kheyfets, Yu-An Wu, Chia-Yuan Chen, Ender A Finol
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782617/patient-specific-neurosurgical-phantom-assessment-of-visual-quality-accuracy-and-scaling-effects
#3
Felipe Wilker Grillo, Victor Hugo Souza, Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Carlo Rondinoni, Theo Zeferino Pavan, Oswaldo Baffa, Helio Rubens Machado, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro
Background: Training in medical education depends on the availability of standardized materials that can reliably mimic the human anatomy and physiology. One alternative to using cadavers or animal bodies is to employ phantoms or mimicking devices. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) gels are biologically inert and present tunable properties, including mechanical properties that resemble the soft tissue. Therefore, SEBS is an alternative to develop a patient-specific phantom, that provides real visual and morphological experience during simulation-based neurosurgical training...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781037/microrna-485-plays-tumour-suppressive-roles-in-colorectal-cancer-by-directly-targeting-gab2
#4
Jibin Li, Jian Xu, Xiaofei Yan, Keer Jin, Wenya Li, Rui Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. MicroRNA-485 (miR-485) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed and play important roles in several types of human malignancy. However, the expression level, biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-485 in CRC remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine miR-485 expression levels and their clinical significance in CRC and to explore the functions and underlying mechanisms of miR-485 in this disease...
May 17, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776841/-medical-simulation-as-a-tool-in-the-training-of-perinatal-professionals
#5
B Tosello, J Blanc, C Kelway, V Pellegrin, E Quarello, F Comte, C Zakarian, C D'Ercole
Though technology plays an increasingly important role in modern health systems, human performance remains a major determinant of safety, effectiveness and efficiency of patient care. This is especially true in the delivery room. Thus, the training of professionals must aim not only for the acquisition of theory and practical skills on an individual basis, but also for the learning of teamwork systematically. Training health professionals with simulation enhances their theoretical knowledge and meets formal requirements in literacy, technical skills and communication...
May 15, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774017/identifying-group-specific-sequences-for-microbial-communities-using-long-k-mer-sequence-signatures
#6
Ying Wang, Lei Fu, Jie Ren, Zhaoxia Yu, Ting Chen, Fengzhu Sun
Comparing metagenomic samples is crucial for understanding microbial communities. For different groups of microbial communities, such as human gut metagenomic samples from patients with a certain disease and healthy controls, identifying group-specific sequences offers essential information for potential biomarker discovery. A sequence that is present, or rich, in one group, but absent, or scarce, in another group is considered " group-specific " in our study. Our main purpose is to discover group-specific sequence regions between control and case groups as disease-associated markers...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767302/amyloid-causes-intermittent-network-disruptions-in-cognitively-intact-older-subjects
#7
Susanne G Mueller
Recent findings in AD models but also human patients suggest that amyloid can cause intermittent neuronal hyperactivity. The overall goal of this study was to use dynamic fMRI analysis combined with graph analysis to a) characterize the graph analytical signature of two types of intermittent hyperactivity (spike-like (spike) and hypersynchronus-like (synchron)) in simulated data and b) to attempt to identify one of these signatures in task-free fMRIs of cognitively intact subjects (CN) with or without increased brain amyloid...
May 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766575/development-of-a-novel-humanoid-robot-simulator-for-endoscope-with-pharyngeal-reflex-and-real-life-responses
#8
Masaru Ueki, Kazutake Uehara, Hajime Isomoto
In recent years, there has been a growing need for skills quantification of endoscopic specialist. Various educational simulators have been created to help increase the endoscopy performance of medical students and trainees. Recent research seems to show that the use of simulators helps increase the skill level of endoscopists, while improving patient safety 1, 2 . However, previous simulators lack sufficient realism and are unable to replicate natural human reactions during endoscopy or quantify endoscopic skills...
May 15, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765255/distribution-of-pomalidomide-into-semen-of-healthy-male-subjects-after-multiple-doses
#9
Yan Li, Xiaomin Wang, Liangang Liu, Josephine Reyes, Maria Palmisano, Simon Zhou
Objective: To assess whether pomalidomide can distribute into human semen and its duration in human semen. Method: A phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (CC-4047-CP-006) was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of pomalidomide (CC-4047) following multiple daily doses in healthy male subjects. Semen samples were collected on Day -1 and 4 hours after dosing on Day 4 to quantify the pomalidomide concentrations in ejaculate after multiple oral doses of pomalidomide...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761422/computational-pre-surgical-planning-of-arterial-patch-reconstruction-parametric-limits-and-in-vitro-validation
#10
S Samaneh Lashkarinia, Senol Piskin, Tijen A Bozkaya, Ece Salihoglu, Can Yerebakan, Kerem Pekkan
Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) involves complex vascular reconstructions utilizing artificial and native surgical materials. A successful surgical reconstruction achieves an optimal hemodynamic profile through the graft in spite of the complex post-operative vessel growth pattern and the altered pressure loading. This paper proposes a new in silico patient-specific pre-surgical planning framework for patch reconstruction and investigates its computational feasibility. The proposed protocol is applied to the patch repair of main pulmonary artery (MPA) stenosis in the Tetralogy of Fallot CHD template...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760728/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cultured-in-serum-from-heart-failure-patients-are-more-resistant-to-simulated-chronic-and-acute-stress
#11
Timo Z Nazari-Shafti, Zhiyi Xu, Andreas Matthäus Bader, Georg Henke, Kristin Klose, Volkmar Falk, Christof Stamm
Despite regulatory issues surrounding the use of animal-derived cell culture supplements, most clinical cardiac cell therapy trials using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) still rely on fetal bovine serum (FBS) for cell expansion before transplantation. We sought to investigate the effect of human serum from heart failure patients (HFS) on cord blood MSCs (CB-MSCs) during short-term culture under regular conditions and during simulated acute and chronic stress. Cell survival, proliferation, metabolic activity, and apoptosis were quantified, and gene expression profiles of selected apoptosis and cell cycle regulators were determined...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760141/efficacy-of-daptomycin-monotherapy-and-in-combination-with-%C3%AE-lactams-for-daptomycin-susceptible-enterococcus-faecium-harboring-liasr-substitutions-influence-of-the-inoculum-effect
#12
Razieh Kebriaei, Seth A Rice, Kavindra V Singh, Kyle C Stamper, An Q Dinh, Rafael Rios, Lorena Diaz, Barbara E Murray, Jose M Munita, Truc T Tran, Cesar A Arias, Michael J Rybak
Enterococcus faecium that harbor LiaFSR substitutions but are phenotypically susceptible to daptomycin (DAP) by current breakpoints are problematic since predisposition to resistance may lead to therapeutic failure. Using a simulated endocardial vegetation (SEV) PK/PD model, we investigated DAP regimens (6, 8 and 10 mg/kg/day) as monotherapy and in combination with ampicillin (AMP), ceftaroline (CPT) or ertapenem (ERT) against E. faecium HOU503, a DAP-susceptible strain that harbors common LiaS and LiaR substitutions found in clinical isolates (T120S and W73C, respectively)...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757875/surgery-and-platinum-etoposide-based-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-epithelioid-trophoblastic-tumor
#13
Janelle Sobecki-Rausch, Abigail Winder, Kruti P Maniar, Anna V Hoekstra, Emily Berry, Karen Novak, John R Lurain
OBJECTIVE: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that develops from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast, simulates carcinoma, presents years after a pregnancy event, is associated with low or normal human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. Our aim was to identify the role of surgery in combination with platinum/etoposide-based chemotherapy in the management of both localized and metastatic ETT...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752375/functional-invalidation-of-putative-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-associated-variants-in-the-kcnh2-encoded-kv11-1-channel
#14
Jennifer L Smith, David J Tester, Allison R Hall, Don E Burgess, Chun-Chun Hsu, Samy Claude Elayi, Corey L Anderson, Craig T January, Jonathan Z Luo, Dustin N Hartzel, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, Michael F Murray, Tooraj Mirshahi, Michael J Ackerman, Brian P Delisle
BACKGROUND: Heterologous functional validation studies of putative long-QT syndrome subtype 2-associated variants clarify their pathological potential and identify disease mechanism(s) for most variants studied. The purpose of this study is to clarify the pathological potential for rare nonsynonymous KCNH2 variants seemingly associated with sudden infant death syndrome. METHODS: Genetic testing of 292 sudden infant death syndrome cases identified 9 KCNH2 variants: E90K, R181Q, A190T, G294V, R791W, P967L, R1005W, R1047L, and Q1068R...
May 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749882/low-cost-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-simulator-with-mimetic-endoscope
#15
Richard Justin Garling, Xin Jin, Jianzhong Yang, Ahmad H Khasawneh, Carolyn Anne Harris
OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus affects approximately 1 in 500 people in the US, yet ventricular shunting, the gold standard of treatment, has a nearly 85% failure rate. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an alternative surgical approach for a specific subset of hydrocephalic patients, but can be limited by the inability of neurosurgical residents to practice prior to patient contact. The goal of this study was to create an affordable ETV model and endoscope for resident training. METHODS Open-source software was used to isolate the skull and brain from the CT and MR images of a 2-year-old boy with hydrocephalus...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746613/aging-effects-on-alveolar-sacs-under-mechanical-ventilation
#16
Parya Aghasafari, Rebeca L Heise, Angela Reynolds, Ramana Pidaparti
Alveolar sacs are primarily responsible for gas exchange in the human respiratory system and lose their functionality with aging. Three-dimensional (3D) models of young and old human alveolar sacs were constructed and fluid-solid interaction (FSI) was employed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to decline in alveolar sacs function under mechanical ventilation (MV). Simulations results illustrated that compliance and pressure reduced in the alveolar sacs of the elderly, and they have to work harder to breathe...
May 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745853/a-new-method-to-measure-the-semantic-similarity-from-query-phenotypic-abnormalities-to-diseases-based-on-the-human-phenotype-ontology
#17
Xiaofeng Gong, Jianping Jiang, Zhongqu Duan, Hui Lu
BACKGROUND: Although rapid developed sequencing technologies make it possible for genotype data to be used in clinical diagnosis, it is still challenging for clinicians to understand the results of sequencing and make correct judgement based on them. Before this, diagnosis based on clinical features held a leading position. With the establishment of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the enrichment of phenotype-disease annotations, there throws much more attention to the improvement of phenotype-based diagnosis...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745594/-human-robot-global-simulink-modeling-and-analysis-for-an-end-effector-upper-limb-rehabilitation-robot
#18
Yali Liu, Linhong Ji
Robot rehabilitation has been a primary therapy method for the urgent rehabilitation demands of paralyzed patients after a stroke. The parameters in rehabilitation training such as the range of the training, which should be adjustable according to each participant's functional ability, are the key factors influencing the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy. Therapists design rehabilitation projects based on the semiquantitative functional assessment scales and their experience. But these therapies based on therapists' experience cannot be implemented in robot rehabilitation therapy...
February 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743354/inhibitory-effects-of-hiv-2-vpx-on-replication-of-hiv-1
#19
Mohamed Mahdi, Zsófia Szojka, János András Mótyán, József Tőzsér
The human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 share a striking genomic resemblance, however, variability in the genetic sequence accounts for the presence of unique accessory genes; such as viral protein x ( vpx ) in HIV-2. Dual infection with both viruses has long been described in the literature, yet the molecular mechanism of how dually infected patients tend to do better than those who are mono-infected with HIV-1 has not yet been explored. We hypothesized that in addition to extracellular mechanisms, an HIV-2 accessory gene is the culprit, and interference at viral accessory/regulatory protein level is perhaps responsible for the attenuated pathogenicity of HIV-1 observed in dually infected patients...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743176/warfarin-and-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-a-molecular-accounting-for-observed-inhibition
#20
Sangwook Wu, Xuejie Chen, Da-Yun Jin, Darrel W Stafford, Lee G Pedersen, Jian-Ke Tie
Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein, is the key enzyme for vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, a post-translational modification that is essential for the biological functions of coagulation factors. VKOR is the target of the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant warfarin. However, the topological structure of VKOR and the mechanism of warfarin's inhibition of VKOR remain elusive. Additionally, it is not clear why warfarin-resistant VKOR mutations identified in patients significantly decrease warfarin's binding affinity, but have only a minor effect on vitamin K binding...
May 9, 2018: Blood
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