Read by QxMD icon Read

Human patient simulators

Alessandro Mauro, Nicola Massarotti, Mohamed Salahudeen, Mario R Romano, Vito Romano, Perumal Nithiarasu
The present work describes the application of the generalised porous medium model to study heat and fluid flow in healthy and glaucomatous eyes of different subject specimens, considering the presence of ocular cavities and porous tissues. The 2D computational model, implemented into the open-source software OpenFOAM, has been verified against benchmark data for mixed convection in domains partially filled with a porous medium. The verified model has been employed to simulate the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in the anterior section of four patient-specific human eyes, considering the presence of anterior chamber (AC), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and collector channels (CC)...
March 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Alain Lescoat, Alice Ballerie, Yu Augagneur, Claudie Morzadec, Laurent Vernhet, Olivier Fardel, Patrick Jégo, Stéphane Jouneau, Valérie Lecureur
Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mary Lavelle, Jennifer Abthorpe, Thomas Simpson, Gabriel Reedy, Fiona Little, Anita Banerjee
The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions, known as 'indirect deaths'. The MBRRACE report identified serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, including communication, leadership and teamwork, which contributed to maternal death. In response, we developed the first multi-disciplinary simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Employing a mixed methods design, this study evaluated the educational impact of this training programme on the healthcare staff (n = 140), including the medical doctors (n = 91) and the midwives (n = 49)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Andrea Fabianova, Monika Barathova, Lucia Csaderova, Veronika Simko, Miriam Zatovicova, Martina Labudova, Jaromir Pastorek
Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancer diseases with high resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Mutation of VHL gene is frequent in these tumors leading to simulation of hypoxic conditions. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, belonging to RNA viruses, is a neglected human pathogen and teratogen. We have found that infection of renal cell carcinoma cells by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain MX causes a decrease of carbonic anhydrase IX protein and RNA level. Lower expression of carbonic anhydrase IX on the cell surface provides less target for carbonic anhydrase IX-targeted immunotherapy...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Sylvain Chateau, Umberto D'Ortona, Sébastien Poncet, Julien Favier
The fluid transport and mixing induced by beating cilia, present in the bronchial airways, are studied using a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Immersed Boundary solver. This solver allows the simulation of both single and multi-component fluid flows around moving solid boundaries. The cilia are modeled by a set of Lagrangian points, and Immersed Boundary forces are computed onto these points in order to ensure the no-slip velocity conditions between the cilia and the fluids. The cilia are immersed in a two-layer environment: the periciliary layer (PCL) and the mucus above it...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ummi Ammarah, Amit Kumar, Rajesh Pal, Naresh C Bal, Gauri Misra
Microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase (MASTL) is an important Ser/Thr kinase belonging to the family of AGC kinases. It is the human orthologue of Greatwall kinase (Gwl) that plays a significant role in mitotic progression and cell cycle regulation. Upregulation of MASTL in various cancers and its association with poor patient survival establishes it as an important drug target in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, the target remains unexplored with the paucity of studies focused on identification of inhibitors against MASTL, which emphasizes the relevance of our present study...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ji-Bin Zhang, Li-Rong Zhao, Tian-Xiang Cui, Xie-Wan Chen, Qiao Yang, Yi-Bing Zhou, Zheng-Tang Chen, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Jian-Guo Sun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimal strategy and dosimetric measurement of thoracic radiotherapy based on three-dimensional (3D) modeling of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs). A 3D model of MLNs was constructed from a Chinese Visible Human female dataset. Image registration and fusion between reconstructed MLNs and original chest computed tomography (CT) images was conducted in the Eclipse™ treatment planning system (TPS). There were three plans, including 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), which were designed based on 10 cases of simulated lung lesions (SLLs) and MLNs...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Diego F Munoz, Cong Xu, Sylvia K Plevritis
We present a Monte Carlo simulation model that reproduces US invasive breast cancer incidence and mortality trends from 1975 to 2010 as a function of screening and adjuvant treatment. This model was developed for multiple purposes, including to quantify the impact of screening and adjuvant therapy on past and current trends, predict future trends, and evaluate potential outcomes under hypothetical screening and treatment interventions. The model first generates the life histories of individual breast cancer patients by determining the patient's age, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status, SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) historic stage, detection mode at time of detection, preclinical tumor course, and death age and cause of death (breast cancer v...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Chen Sun, Jianxia Li
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of microRNA (miRNA-137) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its effects on activity, invasion and proliferation of OSCC human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines 2 (HSC-2 cell line). METHODS: 158 cases of pathologically-confirmed OSCC tissues and corresponding para-cancerous tissues were collected. The tissue mRNA was extracted and miRNA-137 expression in tissues was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Qiaomu Tian, Jose Antonio Mendez, Laura Rivera-Castaneda, Omar Mahmood, Adam Showalter, Elizabeth Ang, Sarah Kazmi, Huinan Liu
Medical implants play a key role in treating bone fractures. Permanent implants are currently used for immobilization of fractures and bearing physiological loads during bone healing. After bone has healed, these implants, if not removed, often cause complications in the long run; and secondary surgeries for removing them pose additional discomfort and expenses for patients. Magnesium (Mg)-based bioresorbable implants, can potentially eliminate the need for additional surgeries by degrading safely over time in the human body...
April 15, 2018: Materials Letters
Micha Pfeiffer, Hannes Kenngott, Anas Preukschas, Matthias Huber, Lisa Bettscheider, Beat Müller-Stich, Stefanie Speidel
PURPOSE: The data which is available to surgeons before, during and after surgery is steadily increasing in quantity as well as diversity. When planning a patient's treatment, this large amount of information can be difficult to interpret. To aid in processing the information, new methods need to be found to present multimodal patient data, ideally combining textual, imagery, temporal and 3D data in a holistic and context-aware system. METHODS: We present an open-source framework which allows handling of patient data in a virtual reality (VR) environment...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Wen-Tso Huang, Ping-Shun Chen, John J Liu, Yi-Ru Chen, Yen-Hsin Chen
Scheduling approaches for conventional surgery operating rooms in a hospital treat surgeons as bottleneck resources directly, but do not deal with stochastic medical resources, leading to an uneven human resource distribution in optimizing medical resource scheduling. Thus, this research focuses on the dynamic configuration scheduling problem for stochastic medical resources. In this paper, the surgical operating room is limited, and the arriving calls (i.e., number of patients) are dynamic. When a patient arrives, the nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist are limited, but the medical service duration per patient is random...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Elizabeth G Mosher, John A Butman, Les R Folio, Nadia M Biassou, Choonsik Lee
OBJECTIVE: Radiation exposure of the lens during neck CT may increase a patient's risk of developing cataracts. Radiologists at the National Institutes of Health worked with technicians to modify the neck CT scanning procedure to include a reduction in the scanning range, a reduction in the tube potential (kilovoltage), and a change in neck positioning using a head tilt. We objectively quantified the organ dose changes after this procedure modification using a computer simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed CT images of 40 patients (20 men and 20 women) scanned before and after the procedure change...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Barbara Wiśniowska, Sebastian Polak
The current study is an example of drug-disease interaction modeling where a drug induces a condition which can affect the pharmacodynamics of other concomitantly taken drugs. The electrophysiological effects of hypokaliemia and heart rate changes induced by the antiasthmatic drugs were simulated with the use of the cardiac safety simulator. Biophysically detailed model of the human cardiac physiology-ten Tusscher ventricular cardiomyocyte cell model-was employed to generate pseudo-ECG signals and QTc intervals for 44 patients from four clinical studies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
P Stefan, M Pfandler, P Wucherer, S Habert, J Fürmetz, S Weidert, E Euler, U Eck, M Lazarovici, M Weigl, N Navab
Surgical simulators are being increasingly used as an attractive alternative to clinical training in addition to conventional animal models and human specimens. Typically, surgical simulation technology is designed for the purpose of teaching technical surgical skills (so-called task trainers). Simulator training in surgery is therefore in general limited to the individual training of the surgeon and disregards the participation of the rest of the surgical team. The objective of the project Assessment and Training of Medical Experts based on Objective Standards (ATMEOS) is to develop an immersive simulated operating room environment that enables the training and assessment of multidisciplinary surgical teams under various conditions...
March 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
James R Thunes, Julie A Phillippi, Thomas G Gleason, David A Vorp, Spandan Maiti
High lethality of aortic dissection necessitates accurate predictive metrics for dissection risk assessment. The not infrequent incidence of dissection at aortic diameters <5.5 cm, the current threshold guideline for surgical intervention (Nishimura et al., 2014), indicates an unmet need for improved evidence-based risk stratification metrics. Meeting this need requires a fundamental understanding of the structural mechanisms responsible for dissection evolution within the vessel wall. We present a structural model of the repeating lamellar structure of the aortic media comprised of elastic lamellae and collagen fiber networks, the primary load-bearing components of the vessel wall...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati, Lawrence N Diebel
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a common problem affecting critically ill patients, whether due to underlying pathology or the subsequent result of hypertonic fluid resuscitation. Numerous studies have been published suggesting that hypernatremia may adversely affect the vascular endothelial glycocalyx. Our study aimed to evaluate if high sodium concentration would impair the endothelial and glycocalyx barrier function and if stress conditions that simulate the shock microenvironment would exacerbate any observed adverse effects of hypernatremia...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Steven R Dolly, Yang Lou, Mark A Anastasio, Hua Li
It is widely known that the optimization of imaging systems based on objective, task-based measures of image quality via computer-simulation requires the use of a stochastic object model (SOM). However, the development of computationally tractable SOMs that can accurately model the statistical variations in human anatomy within a specified ensemble of patients remains a challenging task. Previously reported numerical anatomic models lack the ability to accurately model inter-patient and inter-organ variations in human anatomy among a broad patient population, mainly because they are established on image data corresponding to a few of patients and individual anatomic organs...
March 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Patrick T Reeves, Matthew A Borgman, Nicole W Caldwell, Leela Patel, James Aden, John P Duggan, Maria L Serio-Melvin, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: The Advanced Burn Life Support (ABLS) program is a burn-education curriculum nearly 30 years in the making, focusing on the unique challenges of the first 24h of care after burn injury. Our team applied high fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) to the established ABLS curriculum. Our hypothesis was that HFHPS would be a feasible, easily replicable, and valuable adjunct to the current curriculum that would enhance learner experience. METHODS: This prospective, evidenced-based practice project was conducted in a single simulation center employing the American Burn Association's ABLS curriculum using HFHPS...
March 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"