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Human patient simulators

Kihong Son, Jin Sung Kim, Hoyeon Lee, Seungryong Cho
This study investigates dose distribution due to kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the patients undergoing CBCT-based image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The kV-CBCT provides an efficient image-guidance tool for acquiring the latest volumetric image of a patient's anatomy, and has been being routinely used in clinics for an accurate treatment setup. Imaging radiation doses resulting from six different acquisition protocols of the on-board imager (OBI) were calculated using a Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, and the absorbed doses by various organs were analyzed for the adult and pediatric numerical XCAT phantoms in this study...
October 20, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Raffick A R Bowen, Dorothy Adcock
Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Marek Sramko, Dan Wichterle, Josef Kautzner
This study evaluated hemodynamic feasibility and reproducibility of a new method for in vivo simulation of human atrial fibrillation (AF). The method was tested during sinus rhythm in 10 patients undergoing catheter ablation for AF. A simple electronic device was assembled that allowed triggering a cardiac stimulator by predefined series of RR intervals. Irregular RR interval sequences with a mean heart rate of 90/min and 130/min were obtained from ECG recordings of another patients with AF. Simultaneous atrioventricular pacing was delivered by catheters placed inside the coronary sinus and at the His bundle region...
2016: PloS One
Tianyi Cao, Han Zhang, Leilei Zhou, Yufeng Wang, Guanhuan Du, Hui Yao, Yanni Wang, Qingqiong Luo, Fuxiang Chen, Wanchun Wang, Guoyao Tang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to optimize the culture system of keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and verify whether this model could simulate the local inflammatory environment of OLP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Keratinocytes were isolated from 48 OLP patients and cultured in vitro. The ultrastructure of OLP keratinocytes was observed via electron microscopy. The expression of pancytokeratin and vimentin was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the proliferation of OLP keratinocytes was measured by CCK-8 assay...
October 20, 2016: Oral Diseases
David P Seamans, Boshra F Louka, F David Fortuin, Bhavesh M Patel, John P Sweeney, Louis A Lanza, Patrick A DeValeria, Kim M Ezrre, Harish Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Qin Qiao, Ruxi Qi, Guanghong Wei, Xuhui Huang
Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) are identified in 95% of type II diabetes patients. The oligomers during the early stage of hIAPP aggregation are believed to be more cytotoxic than the mature fibrils. However, the structural details during the initial stage of hIAPP aggregation are still under debate experimentally. To understand its initial nucleation mechanism, we investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of hIAPP(11-25) dimerization, which is the first manifestation of the interplay between intra- and inter-molecular interactions, via the construction of Markov state models from extensive molecular dynamics simulations...
October 19, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhongmin Wang, Yuhao Liu, Yu Xu, Chuanyu Gao, Yan Chen, Hongxing Luo
BACKGROUND: WE AIMED TO PROSPECTIVELY EVALUATE THE: use of 3-dimensional printing (3DP) for the percutaneous transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) with rim deficiency less than 5 mm. METHODS: Patients with ASD were scanned using multi-slice computed tomography to acquire raw data for virtual 3DP reconstruction models. Different ASD occluders were tried on the 3DP models to select the optimal size for intraoperative use. The patients were followed up 1 month postoperatively, and 3DP models were again manufactured to observe the operative effects...
October 17, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Ranjeet Kumar, Candan Ariöz, Yaozong Li, Niklas Bosaeus, Sandra Rocha, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede
After cellular uptake, Copper (Cu) ions are transferred from the chaperone Atox1 to the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) for incorporation into Cu-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway. Human ATP7B is a large multi-domain membrane-spanning protein which, in contrast to homologues in other organisms, has six similar cytoplasmic metal-binding domains (MBDs). The reason for multiple MBDs is proposed to be indirect modulation of enzymatic activity and it is thus intriguing that point mutations in MBDs can promote Wilson disease...
October 15, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Brett K Beaulieu-Jones, Casey S Greene
Patient interactions with health care providers result in entries to electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs were built for clinical and billing purposes but contain many data points about an individual. Mining these records provides opportunities to extract electronic phenotypes, which can be paired with genetic data to identify genes underlying common human diseases. This task remains challenging: high quality phenotyping is costly and requires physician review; many fields in the records are sparsely filled; and our definitions of diseases are continuing to improve over time...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Yanan Shi, Keke Li, Baocheng Tian, Maolei Xu, Qingzhi Lv, Juanjuan Zhao, Jingtian Han, Dongxiao Feng
Daily subcutaneous injection of human growth hormone has been used for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency and growth failure but has led to poor patient compliance and renal toxicity. Thus, it is crucial to develop favorable growth hormone delivery systems to improve patient compliance. In the present study, to increase the oral bioavailability of growth hormone and improve patient compliance, enteric-coated capsules filled with monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared to facilitate oral growth hormone delivery...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Stefania Pagani, Veronica Borsari, Francesca Veronesi, Andrea Ferrari, Simona Cepollaro, Paola Torricelli, Giuseppe Filardo, Milena Fini
OBJECTIVES: Primarily, to compare the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (hBMSCs) and adipose tissue (hADSCs) in an osteoarthritic (OA) microenvironment; secondly, to investigate the reaction of these cell types in two alternative in vitro culture systems, obtained by using TNFα and/or IL1β as inflammation mediators, or by using synovial fluid harvested by OA patients (OSF) to simulate the complex inflamed knee microenvironment. METHODS: 3D micromass cultures of hBMSCs or hADSCs were grown in chondrogenic medium (CTR), in the presence of TNFα and/or IL1β, or synovial fluid from OA patients...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Stefan Candefjord, Johan Winges, Ahzaz Ahmad Malik, Yinan Yu, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Andreas Fhager, Mikael Elam, Mikael Persson
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and severe disability for young people and a major public health problem for elderly. Many patients with intracranial bleeding are treated too late, because they initially show no symptoms of severe injury and are not transported to a trauma center. There is a need for a method to detect intracranial bleedings in the prehospital setting. In this study, we investigate whether broadband microwave technology (MWT) in conjunction with a diagnostic algorithm can detect subdural hematoma (SDH)...
October 13, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Tommaso Gili, Valentina Fiori, Giada De Pasquale, Umberto Sabatini, Carlo Caltagirone, Paola Marangolo
Recent studies have shown that the systematic and repetitive observation of actions belonging to the experiential human motor repertoire without verbal facilitation enhances the recovery of verbs in non fluent aphasia. However, it is still an open question whether this approach extends its efficacy also on discourse productivity by improving the retrieval of other linguistic units (i.e. nouns, sentences, content words). Moreover, nothing is known regarding the neural substrates which support the language recovery process due to action observation treatment...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Andrew Abboud, Qi Mi, Ava Puccio, David Okonkwo, Marius Buliga, Gregory Constantine, Yoram Vodovotz
Inflammation induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex mediator of morbidity and mortality. We have previously demonstrated the utility of both data-driven and mechanistic models in settings of traumatic injury. We hypothesized that differential dynamic inflammation programs characterize TBI survivors vs. non-survivors, and sought to leverage computational modeling to derive novel insights into this life/death bifurcation. Thirteen inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined using Luminex™ in serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 31 TBI patients over 5 days...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
A L P Nunes, A Maciel, L T Cavazzola, M Walter
While improved visual realism is known to enhance training effectiveness in virtual surgery simulators, the advances on realistic rendering for these simulators is slower than similar simulations for man-made scenes. One of the main reasons for this is that in vivo data is hard to gather and process. In this paper, we propose the analysis of videolaparoscopy data to compute the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of living organs as an input to physically based rendering algorithms. From the interplay between light and organic matter recorded in video images, we propose the definition of a process capable of establishing the BRDF for inside-the-body organic surfaces...
September 29, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Laurent Koessler, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Thierry Cecchin, Janis Hofmanis, Jacek P Dmochowski, Anthony M Norcia, Louis G Maillard
In-vivo measurements of human brain tissue conductivity at body temperature were conducted using focal electrical currents injected through intracerebral multicontact electrodes. A total of 1,421 measurements in 15 epileptic patients (age: 28 ± 10) using a radiofrequency generator (50 kHz current injection) were analyzed. Each contact pair was classified as being from healthy (gray matter, n = 696; white matter, n = 530) or pathological (epileptogenic zone, n = 195) tissue using neuroimaging analysis of the local tissue environment and intracerebral EEG recordings...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Xingli Liu, Weiwei Yan, Yang Liu, Yat Sze Choy, Yikun Wei
The flow characteristics in the realistic human upper airway (HUA) with obstruction that resulted from pharyngeal collapse were numerically investigated. The 3D anatomically accurate HUA model was reconstructed from CT-scan images of a Chinese male patient (38 years, BMI 25.7). The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the large eddy simulation (LES) method was applied to simulate the airflow dynamics within the HUA model in both inspiration and expiration processes. The laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique was simultaneously adopted to measure the airflow fields in the HUA model for the purpose of testifying the reliability of LES approach...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Catarina Guise, Margarida M Fernandes, Sudhir Pathak, Walter Schneider, Raul Fangueiro
Current brain imaging methods largely fail to provide detailed information about the location and severity of axonal injuries, and do not anticipate recovery of the patients with traumatic brain injury. High-Definition Fiber Tractography appears as a novel imaging modality based on water motion in the brain that allows for direct visualization and quantification of the degree of axons damage, thus predicting the functional deficits due to traumatic axonal injury and loss of cortical projections. This neuroimaging modality still faces major challenges because it lacks a "gold standard" for the technique validation and respective quality control...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christopher K Arnatt, Bethany A Falls, Yunyun Yuan, Thomas J Raborg, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Nazira El-Hage, Dana E Selley, Anthony V Nicola, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser, Yan Zhang
Modern antiretroviral therapies have provided HIV-1 infected patients longer lifespans and better quality of life. However, several neurological complications are now being seen in these patients due to HIV-1 associated injury of neurons by infected microglia and astrocytes. In addition, these effects can be further exacerbated with opiate use and abuse. One possible mechanism for such potentiation effects of opiates is the interaction of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) with the chemokine receptor CCR5 (CCR5), a known HIV-1 co-receptor, to form MOR-CCR5 heterodimer...
September 26, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Zidan Yu, Xuegang Xin, Christopher M Collins
PURPOSE: To illustrate the potential for high permittivity materials to be used in decreasing peak local SAR associated with implants when the imaging region is far from the implant. METHODS: We performed numerical simulations of a human subject with a pacemaker in a body-sized birdcage coil driven at 128 MHz with and without a thin (5 mm) shell of material of high electric permittivity around the head. RESULTS: For a shell with relative permittivity of 600, the maximum specific energy absorption rate averaged over any 1 g of tissue near the pacemaker was reduced by 73...
October 7, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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