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Kaori Iida, Robert N Proctor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how and why Japan Tobacco, Inc. (JT) in 1986 established the Smoking Research Foundation (SRF), a research-funding institution, and to explore the extent to which SRF has influenced science and health policy in Japan. METHODS: We analysed documents in the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents archive, along with recent Japanese litigation documents and published documents. RESULTS: JT's effort to combat effective tobacco control was strengthened in the mid-1980s, following privatisation of the company...
February 4, 2018: Tobacco Control
Sven Ove Hansson
Science denialism poses a serious threat to human health and the long-term sustainability of human civilization. Although it has recently been rather extensively discussed, this discussion has rarely been connected to the extensive literature on pseudoscience and the science-pseudoscience demarcation. This contribution argues that science denialism should be seen as one of the two major forms of pseudoscience, alongside of pseudotheory promotion. A detailed comparison is made between three prominent forms of science denialism, namely relativity theory denialism, evolution denialism, and climate science denialism...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Roger Collier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Nono Simelela, W D Francois Venter, Yogan Pillay, Peter Barron
For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al...
June 2015: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Treena Orchard, Kate Salters, Alexis Palmer, Warren Michelow, Katherine J Lepik, Robert Hogg
For many people living with HIV/AIDS taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is difficult due to various individual and social factors, including the side effects of these medications, HIV/AIDS stigma and poor patient-provider relationships. Most studies that examine barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HAART have been conducted with people on these medications, which is critical to improving adherence among various HIV-affected groups. Less attention has been paid to the experiences of HIV care providers, which is an important gap in the literature considering the key role they play in the delivery of HAART and the management of patient treatment plans...
2015: AIDS Care
Ross S Federman
Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact...
December 2014: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Peter Meylakhs, Yuri Rykov, Olessia Koltsova, Sergey Koltsov
BACKGROUND: The rise of social media proved to be a fertile ground for the expansion of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-denialist movement (in the form of online communities). While there is substantial literature devoted to disproving AIDS-denialist views, there is a lack of studies exploring AIDS-denialists online communities that interact with an external environment. OBJECTIVE: We explored three research areas: (1) reasons for newcomers to come to an AIDS-denialist community, (2) the patterns of interactions of the community with the newcomers, and (3) rhetorical strategies that denialists use for persuasion in the veracity of their views...
2014: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Robert N Proctor
Lung cancer was once a very rare disease, so rare that doctors took special notice when confronted with a case, thinking it a once-in-a-lifetime oddity. Mechanisation and mass marketing towards the end of the 19th century popularised the cigarette habit, however, causing a global lung cancer epidemic. Cigarettes were recognised as the cause of the epidemic in the 1940s and 1950s, with the confluence of studies from epidemiology, animal experiments, cellular pathology and chemical analytics. Cigarette manufacturers disputed this evidence, as part of an orchestrated conspiracy to salvage cigarette sales...
March 2012: Tobacco Control
Eduard Grebe, Nicoli Nattrass
This paper uses multivariate logistic regressions to explore: (1) potential socio-economic, cultural, psychological and political determinants of AIDS conspiracy beliefs among young adults in Cape Town; and (2) whether these beliefs matter for unsafe sex. Membership of a religious organisation reduced the odds of believing AIDS origin conspiracy theories by more than a third, whereas serious psychological distress more than doubled it and belief in witchcraft tripled the odds among Africans. Political factors mattered, but in ways that differed by gender...
April 2012: AIDS and Behavior
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton, Chauncey Cherry
AIDS denialists offer false hope to people living with HIV/AIDS by claiming that HIV is harmless and that AIDS can be cured with natural remedies. The current study examined the prevalence of AIDS denialism beliefs and their association to health-related outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS. Confidential surveys and unannounced pill counts were collected from a convenience sample of 266 men and 77 women living with HIV/AIDS that was predominantly middle-aged and African American. One in five participants stated that there is no proof that HIV causes AIDS and that HIV treatments do more harm than good...
December 2010: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Pride Chigwedere, M Essex
In this paper, we respond to AIDS denialist arguments that HIV does not cause AIDS, that antiretroviral drugs are not useful, and that there is no evidence of large-scale deaths from AIDS, and discuss the key implications of the relationship between AIDS denialism and public health practice. We provide a brief history of how the cause of AIDS was investigated, of how HIV fulfills Koch's postulates and Sir Bradford Hil's criteria for causation, and of the inconsistencies in alternatives offered by denialists...
April 2010: AIDS and Behavior
David Gisselquist
Some denialists, widely reviled, contend that HIV does not cause AIDS. Other denialists, widely respected, contend that HIV transmits so poorly through trace blood exposures that iatrogenic infections are rare. This second group of denialists has had a corrosive effect on public health and HIV programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Guided by this second group of denialists, no African government has investigated unexplained HIV infections. Denialists have withheld and ignored research findings showing that non-sexual risks account for substantial proportions of HIV infections in Africa...
October 2008: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Virginia Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2007: Nature Medicine
Jon Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2007: Science
Michael Specter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2007: New Yorker
James Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2006: Nature Medicine
Paroma Basu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2005: Nature Medicine
J S James
Theories like the belief that HIV is a harmless virus or does not exist (making precautions unnecessary), that AIDS is caused by the drugs used to treat it, or that the whole epidemic is a scam to sell pills and collect research grants, need better response from the medical, scientific, service, and activist communities. We are finding that persons influenced have often been unable to find anyone willing to defend any other view.
May 5, 2000: AIDS Treatment News
B Mirken
Organizations which say that HIV does not cause AIDS, or urge people with HIV or AIDS to reject standard medical care, often argue that T-cell and viral load tests for patients are useless. This article addresses their arguments about these tests, in the larger context of the existing medical and scientific evidence.
April 21, 2000: AIDS Treatment News
B Mirken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2000: AIDS Treatment News
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