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Matthew D Sacchet, M Catalina Camacho, Emily E Livermore, Ewart A C Thomas, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by accelerated biological aging, including greater age-related changes in physiological functioning. The disorder is also associated with abnormal neural reward circuitry, particularly in the basal ganglia (BG). Here we assessed age-related changes in BG volume in both patients with MDD and healthy control participants. METHODS: We obtained whole-brain T1-weighted images from patients with MDD and healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Miguel Pinto, Vítor Borges, Minia Antelo, Miguel Pinheiro, Alexandra Nunes, Jacinta Azevedo, Maria José Borrego, Joana Mendonça, Dina Carpinteiro, Luís Vieira, João Paulo Gomes
Insights into the genomic adaptive traits of Treponema pallidum, the causative bacterium of syphilis, have long been hampered due to the absence of in vitro culture models and the constraints associated with its propagation in rabbits. Here, we have bypassed the culture bottleneck by means of a targeted strategy never applied to uncultivable bacterial human pathogens to directly capture whole-genome T. pallidum data in the context of human infection. This strategy has unveiled a scenario of discreet T. pallidum interstrain single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based microevolution, contrasting with a rampant within-patient genetic heterogeneity mainly targeting multiple phase-variable loci and a major antigen-coding gene (tprK)...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ying-Wei Qiu, Xiao-Fei Lv, Gui-Hua Jiang, Huan-Huan Su, Xiao-Fen Ma, Jun-Zhang Tian, Fu-Zhen Zhuo
Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Yoshiro Tomimatsu, Diana Cash, Motohisa Suzuki, Kazunori Suzuki, Michel Bernanos, Camilla Simmons, Steven C R Williams, Haruhide Kimura
TAK-063 is a selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor that produces potent antipsychotic-like and pro-cognitive effects at 0.3mg/kg (26% PDE10A occupancy in rats) or higher in rodents through the balanced activation of the direct and indirect pathways of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this study, we evaluated the specific binding of TAK-063 using in vitro autoradiography (ARG) and the modulation of brain activity using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 8, 2016: Neuroscience
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
October 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Anna Castrioto, Odeya Marmor, Marc Deffains, Dafna Willner, Eduard Linetsky, Hagai Bergman, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan, David Arkadir
Classical rate models of basal ganglia circuitry associate discharge rate of the globus pallidus external and internal segments (GPe, GPi respectively) solely with dopaminergic state and predict an inverse ratio between the discharge rates of the two pallidal segments. In contrast, the effects of other rate modulators such as general anesthesia (GA) on this ratio have been ignored. To respond to this need, we recorded the neuronal activity in the GPe and GPi in awake and anesthetized human patients with dystonia (57 and 53 trajectories respectively) and in awake patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, 16 trajectories) undergoing deep brain stimulation procedures...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T...
October 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Morgan H James, Gary Aston-Jones
In this issue of Neuron, Creed et al. (2016) describe how cocaine produces divergent forms of plasticity at synapses between specific neurons in nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum, and how these changes are associated with positive and negative reward behaviors.
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Zhou Jun, Chen Zhen, Zhang QuiuLi, An YuanQi, Verónica Vocero Casado, Yuan Fan
Currently, conventional enzyme immunoassays which use manual gold, and colloidal tests (GICT) are used as a screening tool to detect Treponema pallidum (syphilis), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV 1/2) in patients undergoing surgery. The present observational, cross-sectional study compared the sensitivity, specificity and workflow characteristics of the conventional algorithm using manual GICT with a newly proposed algorithm that uses automated BIO-FLASH® technology as a screening tool in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Stefanie Horndasch, Sophie O'Keefe, Anneka Lamond, Katie Brown, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown increased anticipatory and consummatory neural responses to rewarding and aversive food stimuli in women recovered from anorexia nervosa (AN). AIMS: To determine whether these differences are trait markers for AN, we examined the neural response in those with a familial history but no personal history of AN. METHOD: Thirty-six volunteers were recruited: 15 who had a sister with anorexia nervosa (family history) and 21 control participants...
July 2016: BJPsych Open
Chao Li, Xiangshi Li, Lijun You, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides were fractioned using a DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column and four polysaccharide fractions (SP-P1, SP-P2, PV-P3 and SP-P4) were obtained. Structural analyses indicated that SP-P2 and SP-P4 had higher molecular weights than SP-P1 and SP-P3. SP-P2, SP-P3 and SP-P4 comprised of fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose in a similar molar ratio, while SP-P1 did not contain arabinose. SP-P2 and SP-P4 had a similar number of (1→6) or (1→) glycosidic linkages (1→2) or (1→4) glycosidic linkages and (1→3) glycosidic linkages, while SP-P1 and SP-P3 contained a small number of (1→3) glycosidic linkages...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, we report a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Fan Wu, Jing-Ping Zhang, Qian-Qiu Wang
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), the pathogen of syphilis, can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a series of severe diseases collectively termed neurosyphilis (NS).(1) Recently, there are increasing reports of NS cases, especially in HIV-infected syphilis patients.(2,3) Meanwhile, the misdiagnosis rate of NS is high, that of neurosyphilitic ischemic stroke was up to 80.95%.(4) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Michelle L Parker, Simon Houston, Helena Pětrošová, Karen V Lithgow, Rebecca Hof, Charmaine Wetherell, Wei-Chien Kao, Yi-Pin Lin, Tara J Moriarty, Rhodaba Ebady, Caroline E Cameron, Martin J Boulanger
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michael R Miller, Kelly A Miller, Jiang Bian, Milinda E James, Sheng Zhang, Michael J Lynch, Patrick S Callery, Justin M Hettick, Andrew Cockburn, Jun Liu, Chunhao Li, Brian R Crane, Nyles W Charon
Spirochaetes are bacteria responsible for several serious diseases, including Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans), and contribute to periodontal diseases (Treponema denticola)(1). These spirochaetes employ an unusual form of flagella-based motility necessary for pathogenicity; indeed, spirochaete flagella (periplasmic flagella) reside and rotate within the periplasmic space(2-11). The universal joint or hook that links the rotary motor to the filament is composed of ∼120-130 FlgE proteins, which in spirochaetes form an unusually stable, high-molecular-weight complex(9,12-17)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Meaghan Creed, Niels R Ntamati, Ramesh Chandra, Mary Kay Lobo, Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disorder of behavioral symptoms including enhanced incentive salience of drug-associated cues, but also a negative affective state. Cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the reward system, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc), drives drug-adaptive behavior. However, how information is integrated downstream of the NAc remains unclear. Here, we identify the ventral pallidum (VP) as a site of convergence of medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine (DA) receptor type 1 (D1-MSNs) and type 2 (D2-MSNs) of the NAc...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Lucija Abramovic, Marco P M Boks, Annabel Vreeker, Diandra C Bouter, Caitlyn Kruiper, Sanne Verkooijen, Annet H van Bergen, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Neeltje E M van Haren
There is evidence that brain structure is abnormal in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium intake appears to ׳normalise׳ global and local brain volumes, but effects of antipsychotic medication on brain volume or cortical thickness are less clear. Here, we aim to disentangle disease-specific brain deviations from those induced by antipsychotic medication and lithium intake using a large homogeneous sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 266 patients and 171 control subjects...
September 21, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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