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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#1
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775498/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-in-syphilis-could-molecular-typing-help-to-understand-it-better
#2
M Arando, C Fernandez, M Mota-Foix, A Alvarez, P Armegol, M J Barberá, J Esperalba, M Vall-Mayans
OBJECTIVES: The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a febrile inflammatory reaction that may occur in patients after treatment of syphilis. The overall rate is estimated to be 10-25% with broad variations over time. It appears to be related to factors like stage of the disease or reagin titres. In this study we aimed to describe the incidence of and risk factors including strain typing for JHR among patients with syphilis. METHODS: From January through October 2015, 224 consecutive patients (82 of them with HIV) who were diagnosed with early syphilis were enrolled in this prospective observational study in a referral STI clinic in Barcelona...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774840/widespread-treponema-pallidum-infection-in-nonhuman-primates-tanzania
#3
Idrissa S Chuma, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, D Anthony Collins, Robert D Fyumagwa, Luisa K Hallmaier-Wacker, Rudovick R Kazwala, Julius D Keyyu, Inyasi A Lejora, Iddi F Lipende, Simone Lüert, Filipa M D Paciência, Alexander Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos, Sascha Knauf
We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys)...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#4
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770281/intestinal-spirochetosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#5
Patricia Guzman Rojas, Jelena Catania, Jignesh Parikh, Tran C Phung, Glenn Speth
Intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is an infestation defined by the presence of spirochetes on the surface of the colonic mucosa. The implicated organisms can be Brachyspira aalborgi or Brachyspira pilosicoli . We present the case of a 66-year-old man with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, morbid obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux. The patient was sent to the gastroenterology clinic for a screening colonoscopy due to a prior history of colonic polyps. The patient was completely asymptomatic as he denies any abdominal pain, diarrhea, melena, or hematochezia...
March 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769048/functional-insights-from-proteome-wide-structural-modeling-of-treponema-pallidum-subspecies-pallidum-the-causative-agent-of-syphilis
#6
Simon Houston, Karen Vivien Lithgow, Kara Krista Osbak, Chris Richard Kenyon, Caroline E Cameron
BACKGROUND: Syphilis continues to be a major global health threat with 11 million new infections each year, and a global burden of 36 million cases. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, is a highly virulent bacterium, however the molecular mechanisms underlying T. pallidum pathogenesis remain to be definitively identified. This is due to the fact that T. pallidum is currently uncultivatable, inherently fragile and thus difficult to work with, and phylogenetically distinct with no conventional virulence factor homologs found in other pathogens...
May 16, 2018: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767349/-primary-ophthalmological-diagnosis-of-treponema-pallidum-infection-a-case-series
#7
D Grassl, V Brandi Falcone, K Gorte, G Sauder
This report is on five patients (four men and one woman) between the age of 24 and 66 years old who presented with unclear visual impairment in our clinic between 2009 and 2016 for co-evaluation. The clinical picture included intermediate uveitis, chorioretinitis, panuveitis and bilateral spontaneous cystoid macular edema. None of the patients reported systemic or dermatological symptoms. In all five patients, serological testing revealed a Treponema pallidum infection as the reason for ocular inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765114/evaluation-of-the-utility-of-a-rapid-test-for-syphilis-at-a-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinic-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#8
Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Nicolás Morando, Ricardo Casco, Asunta Melgar, Silvia Nacher, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, María A Pando
Even though syphilis can be easily diagnosed by simple and low-cost laboratory methods, it continues to be an important health problem. Rapid tests (RT) for the detection of treponemal antibodies can facilitate earlier diagnosis, access to treatment and linkage to care. The aim of this study was to analyse the usefulness of the incorporation of a RT in the detection of patients infected with T. pallidum in a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Between March and December 2015, a syphilis RT was offered to patients who spontaneously attended the clinic...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761120/an-image-based-model-of-brain-volume-biomarker-changes-in-huntington-s-disease
#9
Peter A Wijeratne, Alexandra L Young, Neil P Oxtoby, Razvan V Marinescu, Nicholas C Firth, Eileanoir B Johnson, Amrita Mohan, Cristina Sampaio, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Daniel C Alexander
Objective: Determining the sequence in which Huntington's disease biomarkers become abnormal can provide important insights into the disease progression and a quantitative tool for patient stratification. Here, we construct and present a uniquely fine-grained model of temporal progression of Huntington's disease from premanifest through to manifest stages. Methods: We employ a probabilistic event-based model to determine the sequence of appearance of atrophy in brain volumes, learned from structural MRI in the Track-HD study, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in the ordering...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760875/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-promotes-multicellular-development-over-unicellular-encystation-in-encysting-dictyostelia
#10
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takahiro Morio, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Pauline Schaap
Background: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulates many cell fate decisions in animal development. In multicellular structures of the group 4 dictyostelid Dictyostelium discoideum , GSK3 promotes spore over stalk-like differentiation. We investigated whether, similar to other sporulation-inducing genes such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this role of GSK3 is derived from an ancestral role in encystation of unicellular amoebas. Results: We deleted GSK3 in Polysphondylium pallidum , a group 2 dictyostelid which has retained encystation as an alternative survival strategy...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758067/correction-identification-of-functional-candidates-amongst-hypothetical-proteins-of-treponema-pallidum-ssp-pallidum
#11
Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi, Mohd Shahbaaz, Faizan Ahmad, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124177.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752216/primary-and-secondary-variants-of-psychopathy-in-a-volunteer-sample-are-associated-with-different-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#12
Arjun Sethi, Eamon McCrory, Vanessa Puetz, Ferdinand Hoffmann, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates...
April 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741648/progression-of-regional-grey-matter-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Arman Eshaghi, Razvan V Marinescu, Alexandra L Young, Nicholas C Firth, Ferran Prados, M Jorge Cardoso, Carmen Tur, Floriana De Angelis, Niamh Cawley, Wallace J Brownlee, Nicola De Stefano, M Laura Stromillo, Marco Battaglini, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Jeroen J G Geurts, Hugo Vrenken, Viktor Wottschel, Cyra E Leurs, Bernard Uitdehaag, Lukas Pirpamer, Christian Enzinger, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Declan Chard, Alan J Thompson, Frederik Barkhof, Daniel C Alexander, Olga Ciccarelli
Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres...
May 8, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740595/dynamic-encoding-of-incentive-salience-in-the-ventral-pallidum-dependence-on-the-form-of-the-reward-cue
#14
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739928/sensitive-detection-of-treponema-pallidum-dna-from-the-whole-blood-of-patients-with-syphilis-by-the-nested-pcr-assay
#15
Cuini Wang, Yuanyuan Cheng, Biao Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Weiming Gong, Yihong Qian, Zhifang Guan, Haikong Lu, Xin Gu, Mei Shi, Pingyu Zhou
The aim of this work was to investigate the application of the nested PCR assay for the detection of Treponema pallidum (TP) DNA from the blood of patients with different stages of syphilis. In this study, a nested PCR method targeting the Tpp47 and polA genes (Tpp47-Tp-PCR and polA-Tp-PCR) was developed to detect TP-DNA in whole blood samples collected from 262 patients with different stages of syphilis (84 primary syphilis, 97 secondary syphilis, and 81 latent syphilis patients). The PCR assay detected T...
May 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737273/treatment-outcomes-of-brazilian-inmates-with-treponema-pallidum-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Graciela Mendonça Dos Santos Bet, Gleyce Hellen de Almeida de Souza, Júlio Croda, Maísa Estopa Correa, Romário Oliveira de Sales, Ruthe Aline da Silva Santos, Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi, Renata Terumi Shiguematsu Yassuda, Ana Rita Castro Mota Coimbra, Maurício Antônio Pompílio, Simone Simionatto
A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and treatment outcomes of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in inmates from Central Brazil. In 2013, 3,363 inmates from 12 prisons in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were recruited, and 1,614 remained incarcerated after 1 year. The inmates were interviewed, and blood samples were collected for serological testing for Treponema pallidum and HIV infections. Inmates infected with T. pallidum or HIV within the first year were assessed for treatment using prison medical record data, based on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test results, HIV-1 viral load, and CD4 counts...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737186/asymptomatic-hiv-vertical-transmitted-adolescents-brain-functional-changes-based-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#17
Panying Wang, Jielan Li, Xiangyu Wang, Guang-Yao Wu, Deepa Thapa
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents survive longer with the use of readily found combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), however, they still have the risk of developing cognitive deficits. The paper aims to explore the brain functional changes in asymptomatic PHIV+ adolescents with cART based on the resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI was performed on 20 PHIV+ adolescents and 28 PHIV- controls to evaluate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) in different brain regions by calculating the Kendall harmonious coefficient(KCC)...
May 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736078/deep-brain-stimulation-of-anteromedial-globus-pallidus-internus-for-severe-tourette-syndrome
#18
Paresh K Doshi, Raghvendra Ramdasi, Smita Thorve
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by tics and is associated with behavioral problems. Although its intensity decreases in adolescence and adult life, in some cases it continues to remain severe and refractory to medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation has been offered as a treatment option in such cases. We report two cases of TS treated with of anteromedial globus pallidum internus. Both the cases had good postoperative control of tics and associated obsessive-compulsive behavior...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730886/primary-syphilis-occurring-as-extensive-ulceration-on-the-palatal-gingival-mucosa-diagnosed-by-immunohistochemical-stain
#19
Norberto Sugaya, Paulo H Braz-Silva, Mariana L Bergamini, Dante Migliari
Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete microorganism that is pathogenic only to humans. Its transmission occurs predominantly by sexual contact. Clinically, it has four stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. In most instances, the diagnosis is made during the secondary stage, on which lesions are more numerous, symptomatic, and may affect skin and mucosa areas simultaneously. On the other hand, the primary stage manifests by single, usually painless, ulceration that goes into spontaneously healing between 2 to 4 weeks after its appearance...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721241/syphilis-infection-in-an-hiv-patient-presenting-with-leukemoid-reaction-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Athina Lioni, Markela-Pagonitsa Zorzou, Christina Kollia, Dimitrios Loulakis, Fotini Ntziora, Fotini Stergiou, Maria Boboli, Maria Chini
Leukemoid reaction (LR) is an uncommon though dreadful sign for the treating physician, as it is related to increased mortality. In the few series that have addressed its incidence and clinical significance, infectious causes count for about half of the cases of LR, the rest accounting for cancer, drugs or rarer causes. In the HIV setting, it represents an even rarer event, owing probably to the impaired granulocytic response of AIDS patients to bacterial agents. However no report exists as to the incidence of LR to the immune-restored HIV patients adequately treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
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