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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#1
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341135/phenolic-fractions-from-nine-trifolium-species-modulate-the-coagulant-properties-of-blood-plasma-in-vitro-without-cytotoxicity-towards-blood-cells
#2
Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Malgorzata Sieradzka, Barbara Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Pawel Nowak, Wiesław Oleszek, Anna Stochmal
OBJECTIVE: The study covers an evaluation of the influence of extracts (1-50 μg/ml), isolated from aerial parts of nine Trifolium L. species (i.e. T. alexandrinum, T. fragiferum, T. hybridum, T. incarnatum, T. pallidum, T. pratense, T. resupinatum var. majus, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum and T. scabrum) on haemostatic properties of blood plasma. METHODS: The clot formation and fibrinolysis assay (CFF), blood clotting times, the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathway-dependent polymerization of plasma fibrin were measured...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325576/reanalysis-of-chinese-treponema-pallidum-samples-all-chinese-samples-cluster-with-ss14-like-group-of-syphilis-causing-treponemes
#3
Michal Strouhal, Jan Oppelt, Lenka Mikalová, Natasha Arora, Kay Nieselt, Fernando González-Candelas, David Šmajs
OBJECTIVE: Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of syphilis. Genetic analyses of TPA reference strains and human clinical isolates have revealed two genetically distinct groups of syphilis-causing treponemes, called Nichols-like and SS14-like groups. So far, no genetic intermediates, i.e. strains containing a mixed pattern of Nichols-like and SS14-like genomic sequences, have been identified. Recently, Sun et al. (Oncotarget 2016. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget...
January 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322596/subclinical-depressive-symptoms-during-late-midlife-and-structural-brain-alterations-a-longitudinal-study-of-danish-men-born-in-1953
#4
Merete Osler, Lauge Sørensen, Maarten Rozing, Oriol Puig Calvo, Mads Nielsen, Egill Rostrup
We explored whether depressive symptoms measured three times during midlife were associated with structural brain alterations quantified using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of volume, cortical thickness, and intensity texture. In 192 men born in 1953 with depressive symptoms measured at age 51, 56, and 59 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed at age 59. All data processing was performed using the Freesurfer software package except for the texture-scores that were computed using in-house software...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#5
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318719/crystal-structures-of-mglb-2-tp0684-a-topologically-variant-d-glucose-binding-protein-from-treponema-pallidum-reveal-a-ligand-induced-conformational-change
#7
Chad A Brautigam, Ranjit K Deka, Wei Z Liu, Michael V Norgard
Previously, we determined the crystal structure of apo-TpMglB-2, a D-glucose-binding component of a putative ABC transporter from the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum. The protein had an unusual topology for this class of proteins, raising the question of whether the D-glucose-binding mode would be different in TpMglB-2. Here, we present the crystal structures of a variant of TpMglB-2 with and without D-glucose bound. The structures demonstrate that, despite its aberrant topology, the protein undergoes conformational changes and binds D-glucose similarly to other Mgl-type proteins, likely facilitating D-glucose uptake in T...
January 10, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313468/molecular-epidemiology-of-an-orientia-tsutsugamushi-gene-encoding-a-56-kda-type-specific-antigen-in-chiggers-small-mammals-and-patients-from-the-southwest-region-of-korea
#8
Jung Wook Park, Sun Hee Kim, Duck Woong Park, So Hyang Jung, Hye Jung Park, Mi Hee Seo, Hyeon Je Song, Jung Yoon Lee, Dong Min Kim, Choon Mi Kim, Byong Chul Gill, Hang Jin Jeong, Jeong Min Lee, Dong Ryong Ha, Eun Sun Kim, Jae Keun Chung
A phylogenetic analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi was performed to elucidate its antigenic diversity in chiggers, small mammals, and patients. Between September 2014 and December 2016, a total of 3,816 chiggers were identified within nine species of four genera in the southwest region of Korea: Leptotrombidium scutellare (49.9%; 1,907/3,816), Leptotrombidium orientale (21.1%; 804/3,816), Leptotrombidium pallidum (12.4%; 474/3,816), Euchoengastia koreaensis (7.2%; 273/3,816), Leptotrombidium palpale (6.7%; 256/3,816), Neotrombicular gardellai (1...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309799/circuit-based-frameworks-of-depressive-behaviors-the-role-of-reward-circuitry-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Knowland, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious neuropsychiatric affliction that comprises a diverse set of symptoms such as the inability to feel pleasure, lack of motivation, changes in appetite, and cognitive difficulties. Given the patient to patient symptomatic variability in MDD and differing severities of individual symptoms, it is likely that maladaptive changes in distinct brain areas may mediate discrete symptoms in MDD. The advent and recent surge of studies using viral-genetic approaches have allowed for circuit-specific dissection of networks underlying motivational behavior...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309603/a-non-human-primate-model-for-rectally-transmitted-syphilis
#10
Cassandra Tansey, Chunxia Zhao, Andre Hopkins, Jana M Ritter, Yetunde F Fakile, Allan Pillay, Samantha S Katz, Lara Pereira, James Mitchell, Frank Deyounks, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl, Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan
Men, diagnosed with syphilis or other rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), who have sex with men (MSM) are at a higher risk for HIV acquisition, which is concerning given the large increase in recently reported syphilis cases in the United States. We have developed the first non-human primate model for rectally transmitted syphilis by exposing SHIV-infected and naïve rhesus macaques to Treponema pallidum in the rectum. All animals showed mucosal lesions, systemic dissemination, and seroconversion (treponemal antibodies)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305936/modeling-cocaine-relapse-in-rodents-behavioral-considerations-and-circuit-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Mitchell R Farrell, Hannah Schoch, Stephen V Mahler
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder, in that most addicted individuals who choose to quit taking drugs fail to maintain abstinence in the long-term. Relapse is especially likely when recovering addicts encounter risk factors like small "priming" doses of drug, stress, or drug-associated cues and locations. In rodents, these same factors reinstate cocaine seeking after a period of abstinence, and extensive preclinical work has used priming, stress, or cue reinstatement models to uncover brain circuits underlying cocaine reinstatement...
January 3, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304083/combined-evaluation-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-and-infant-hiv-transmission
#12
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Nava Yeganeh, Margaret Camarca, Mariza G Morgado, D Heather Watts, Lynne M Mofenson, Valdilea G Veloso, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Mariana Ceriotto, Daisy Maria Machado, Yvonne J Bryson, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Jack Moye, Jeffrey D Klausner, Claire C Bristow, Ruth Dickover, Mark Mirochnick, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. METHODOLOGY: Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281641/development-of-a-multilocus-sequence-typing-mlst-scheme-for-treponema-pallidum-subsp-pertenue-application-to-yaws-in-lihir-island-papua-new-guinea
#13
Charmie Godornes, Lorenzo Giacani, Alyssa E Barry, Oriol Mitja, Sheila A Lukehart
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue. The disease causes chronic lesions, primarily in young children living in remote villages in tropical climates. As part of a global yaws eradication campaign initiated by the World Health Organization, we sought to develop and evaluate a molecular typing method to distinguish different strains of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue for disease control and epidemiological purposes. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published genome sequences of strains of T...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277436/-the-key-role-of-the-pathologist-in-the-diagnosis-of-syphilis-a-case-report
#14
Cécile Picard, Juliette Fontaine, Brigitte Chouvet, Brigitte Balme, Alexandra Traverse-Glehen
Syphilis is a resurging sexually transmitted infection linked to Treponema Pallidum. Syphilitic lymphadenitis can be present during the 3 stages of the disease. Its histological diagnosis remains challenging for the pathologist given its possible misleading aspect and its ability to mimic as well as reactional as tumoral conditions. We report the case of an HIV-infected young patient referred for suspicion of an aggressive lymphoma. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of cervical lymphadenopathy revealed secondary syphilis...
December 22, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274878/immunochemical-analysis-of-the-expression-of-sv2c-in-mouse-macaque-and-human-brain
#15
Amy R Dunn, Carlie A Hoffman, Kristen A Stout, Minagi Ozawa, Rohan K Dhamsania, Gary W Miller
The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) is an undercharacterized protein with enriched expression in phylogenetically old brain regions. Its precise role within the brain is unclear, though various lines of evidence suggest that SV2C is involved in the function of synaptic vesicles through the regulation of vesicular trafficking, calcium-induced exocytosis, or synaptotagmin function. SV2C has been linked to multiple neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and psychiatric conditions. SV2C is expressed in various cell types-primarily dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic cells...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273524/physicochemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-hypoglycemic-activities-of-polysaccharides-from-sargassum-pallidum-by-microwave-assisted-aqueous-two-phase-extraction
#16
Changliang Cao, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang, Chao Li, Xiong Fu
Microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MAATPE) was applied for simultaneous extraction and separation of polysaccharides from Sargassum pallidum (SPPs). The optimal extraction parameters, physicochemical properties, and hypoglycemic activities in vitro of SPPs were investigated. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: 21.0% ethanol (w/w) and 22.0% ammonium sulfate (w/w) for ATPS, ratio of material to liquid 1:60 (g/mL), extraction time 15 min, microwave power 830 W, and extraction temperature 95 °C...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240636/the-etiology-of-genital-ulcer-disease-and-coinfections-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-zimbabwe-results-from-the-zimbabwe-sti-etiology-study
#17
More Mungati, Anna Machiha, Owen Mugurungi, Mufuta Tshimanga, Peter H Kilmarx, Justice Nyakura, Gerald Shambira, Vitalis Kupara, David A Lewis, Elizabeth Gonese, Beth A Tippett Barr, H Hunter Handsfield, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
BACKGROUND: In many countries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are treated syndromically. Thus, patients diagnosed as having genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Zimbabwe receive a combination of antimicrobials to treat syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and genital herpes. Periodic studies are necessary to assess the current etiology of GUD and assure the appropriateness of current treatment guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 6 geographically diverse clinics in Zimbabwe serving high numbers of STI cases to enroll men and women with STI syndromes, including GUD...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237282/modulation-of-salience-network-intranetwork-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#18
X Michelle Androulakis, Chris Rorden, B Lee Peterlin, Kaitlin Krebs
Objective To investigate the intranetwork resting state fMRI connectivity within the Salience Network of chronic migraine with and without medication overuse headache. Methods We compared 351 pairs of intranetwork connectivity in chronic migraine (n = 13) and chronic migraine with medication overuse headache (n = 16) compared to matched controls, and between each chronic migraine subgroup. Results Compared to controls, 17 pairs of intranetwork connections in chronic migraine and 27 pairs in chronic migraine with medication overuse headache were decreased...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236656/secondary-syphilis-associated-with-membranous-nephropathy-and-acute-hepatitis-in-a-patient-with-hiv-a-case-report
#19
Zhou Zhang, Aviv Hever, Nitin Bhasin, Dean A Kujubu
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of membranous nephropathy associated with a secondary syphilis infection in a patient with HIV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old white man with HIV who was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy presented to the Emergency Department with 6 weeks of rectal pain. He had a CD3-CD4 count of 656 cells/mm3 and an undetectable viral load. On admission, he was found to have an anal ulcer, a serum creatinine of 1.4 mg/dL (baseline 0...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230633/alteration-of-the-pac1-receptor-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-mptp-induced-parkinsonian-macaque-monkeys
#20
M Feher, B Gaszner, A Tamas, A L Gil-Martinez, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero, D Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-known neuropeptide with strong neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. PACAP exerts its protective actions via three G protein-coupled receptors: the specific Pac1 receptor (Pac1R) and the Vpac1/Vpac2 receptors, the neuroprotective effects being mainly mediated by the Pac1R. The protective role of PACAP in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is now well-established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. PACAP and its receptors occur in the mammalian brain, including regions associated with Parkinson's disease...
December 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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