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Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Caroline E Cameron
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a prevalent disease in low- and middle-income countries, and has re-emerged in key populations, including men who have sex with men, in high-income nations. The rising number of cases shows syphilis elimination will require augmentation of public health screening and treatment campaigns with syphilis vaccine development and implementation initiatives. Optimal vaccine candidates, deciphered from careful consideration of the pathogenic mechanisms employed by T...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede, Demissie Assegu
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment and the implementation of focused antenatal care (ANC), still the prevalence of syphilis persists in Ethiopia. Yet, data is not found in southern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associated factors of syphilis among pregnant women in Yiregalem Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from October 2015 to August 2016...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lisa Becherer, Mohammed Bakheit, Sieghard Frischmann, Silvina Stinco, Nadine Borst, Roland Zengerle, Felix von Stetten
A variety of real-time detection techniques for LAMP based on the change in fluorescence intensity during DNA amplification enable simultaneous detection of multiple targets. However these techniques depend on fluorogenic probes containing target-specific sequences. That complicates the adaption to different targets leading to time-consuming assay optimization. Here, we present the first universal real-time detection technique for multiplex LAMP. The novel approach allows simple assay design and is easy to implement for various targets...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Margarita N German, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Robert J Hoffman, Parul D Agarwal
While the incidence of syphilis has been persistently on the rise in the United States, hepatitis as a complication of early syphilis is relatively uncommon. We present a case of a 51-year-old homosexual, HIV-positive male who presented with acute cholestatic hepatitis with a predominantly elevated alkaline phosphatase. After lab studies and imaging were unrevealing, a liver biopsy was performed that showed expanded portal tracts with a predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and prominent bile ductular proliferation with periductal neutrophils...
March 2, 2018: Human Pathology
Jee-Young Lee, Nicholas P Lao-Kaim, Jacopo Pasquini, Günther Deuschl, Nicola Pavese, Paola Piccini
BACKGROUND: s: Over recent years there have been some conflicting reports upon the role of pallidal dopaminergic denervation in rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: To clarify this issue we analyzed the clinical and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT data of a large cohort of early Parkinson's disease patients enrolled in the PPMI study. METHODS: Pallidal and striatal dopamine transporter uptake ratios were calculated in 382 patients (120 no-tremor, 60 tremor-dominant, and 202 indeterminate) and 150 controls...
February 24, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yukiko Komeno, Yasunori Ota, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Yoichi Imai, Kuniko Iihara, Tomiko Ryu
BACKGROUND Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the pathogen Treponema pallidum. Prevalence continues to rise, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). Due to changes in patterns of sexual activity, manifestations of the disease are highly variable. CASE REPORT A 27-year-old male visited the hospital for a low-grade fever and tender 5-cm mass in the right side of his neck. His right tonsil was swollen and covered with a white coating. Levofloxacin was prescribed, but ineffective. The patient's levels of liver function enzymes increased gradually...
March 4, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Lucy V Hiscox, Curtis L Johnson, Matthew D J McGarry, Michael Perrins, Aimee Littlejohn, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts, John M Starr
Volumetric structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to determine the extent of neuronal loss in aging, indicated by cerebral atrophy. The brain, however, exhibits other biophysical characteristics such as mechanical properties, which can be quantified with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). MRE is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique for measuring viscoelastic tissue properties, proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity, as described by shear stiffness, μ and damping ratio, and ξ parameters...
February 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Li-Rong Lin, Yao Xiao, Wei Liu, Yu-Yan Chen, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Wen-Dong Li, Xian-Ming Liang, Yong Lin, Li-Li Liu, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The inflammasome responses in Treponema pallidum infection have been poorly understood to date. This study aimed to investigate the expression of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of tissue inflammation in rabbits infected with T. pallidum. METHODS: Forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to a blank group or an infection group, and the latter was divided into no benzathine penicillin G (BPG) and BPG treatment subgroups...
March 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhenyan Wang, Li Liu, Yin-Zhong Shen, Ren-Fang Zhang, Tang-Kai Qi, Yang Tang, Wei Song, Jun Chen, Hongzhou Lu
Neurosyphilis (NS) is an important component of central nervous system diseases among HIV-infected patients. However, its characteristics are not very clear. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was performed in 92 NS patients with HIV infection from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. The patients had a median age of 38 years and a median CD4 count of 198 cells/μL. In all, 44.6% (41/92) were diagnosed as asymptomatic NS (ANS), 23.9% (22/92) as syphilitic meningitis, 17.4% (16/92) as cerebrovascular NS, and 14...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Celia Bórquez, Ismelda Lobato, Paola Gazmuri, Romina Hurtado, Valerie Llanqui, Mauricio Vivanco, Teresa Reyes, Hilda Villanueva, Katherine Salgado, M Angélica Martínez, Juan Vega
BACKGROUND: The risk groups for sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) are sex workers, drug addicts, young people in early sexual initiation, and population in prison. AIM: To determine the prevalence of HIV, Treponema pallidum and hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in male inmates at the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) of Arica. METHODS: The study was conducted in 140 inmates, with informed consent. Epidemiological survey and blood sampling was conducted...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Rozina Ambachew Geremew, Beyene Moges Agizie, Abate Assefa Bashaw, Mengistu Endris Seid, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Background: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a major global cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death, with serious medical and psychological consequences to millions of men, women and infants. Moreover, in Ethiopia, epidemiological studies on STI among STI clinic clients are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted between April and August 2014 among STI clinic clients in Gondar Town hospitals and health centers...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Lauren Faget, Vivien Zell, Elizabeth Souter, Adam McPherson, Reed Ressler, Navarre Gutierrez-Reed, Ji Hoon Yoo, Davide Dulcis, Thomas S Hnasko
The ventral pallidum (VP) lies at the interface between sensory, motor, and cognitive processing-with a particular role in mounting behavioral responses to rewards. Though the VP is predominantly GABAergic, glutamate neurons were recently identified, though their relative abundances and respective roles are unknown. Here, we show that VP glutamate neurons are concentrated in the rostral ventromedial VP and project to qualitatively similar targets as do VP GABA neurons. At the functional level, we used optogenetics to show that activity in VP GABA neurons can drive positive reinforcement, particularly through projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Rabia Ghafoor, Muhammad Irfan Anwar
Syphilis is a venereal disease caused by treponema pallidum, historically known as "great mimicker" because of its variable presentations. Secondary syphilis usually presents with maculopapular or papulosquamous rash. Rare manifestations include papulonodular, annular and lichenoid lesions. Nodules are usually found in benign tertiary syphilis. We present a case of a young boy who presented with five months' history of nodular skin lesions and hoarseness of voice. Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) was initially negative owing to prozone phenomenon...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Ming-Liang Wang, Xiao-Er Wei, Jian-Liang Fu, Wei Li, Meng-Meng Yu, Peng-Yang Li, Wen-Bin Li
Background Previous studies revealed that subcortical nuclei were harmed in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose To investigate the volumetric and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameter changes of subcortical nuclei in AD and their relationship with cognitive function. Materials and Methods A total of 17 mild AD patients, 15 moderate to severe AD patients, and 16 controls underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Volume, mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and amygdala...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Darko Breitenfeld, Davor Kust, Tomislav Breitenfeld, Marin Prpić, Marko Lucijanić, Davor Zibar, Vedran Hostić, Maja Franceschi, Ante Bolanča
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. The most common mechanism of transmission is sexual intercourse. Although there are several hypotheses, the exact origin of the disease remains unknown. Newly published evidence suggests that the hypothesis supporting the theory of the American origin of the disease is the valid one. Among 1500 analyzed pathographies of composers and musicians, data on ten Anglo-American composers and jazz musicians having suffered from neurosyphilis (tertiary stage of the disease) were extracted for this report...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
R-S de Andrade, E-M de Freitas, B-A Rocha, E-S Gusmão, M-R-M Filho, H-M Júnior
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. However, there are of hematogenic and vertical transmission. All health care professionals must be aware of the manifestations of this condition, such as oral lesions. OBJECTIVES: This study to analyze and compare four clinical cases of syphilis that were diagnosed based on lesions in the oral cavity with published literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four patients with a confirmed sorologic and clinical diagnosis of syphilis were examined, confirmated from manifestation of oral lesions together with analysis of serological laboratory tests and histopathological analyses...
February 24, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Lorenzo Giacani, Giulia Ciccarese, Christian Puga-Salazar, Ivano Dal Conte, Laura Colli, Marco Cusini, Stefano Ramoni, Sergio Delmonte, Antonietta D'Antuono, Valeria Gaspari, Francesco Drago
BACKGROUND: Although syphilis rates have been relatively high in Italy for over 15 years, no data on the molecular types of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) circulating in this country are yet available. Likewise, no data exist on how widespread is resistance to macrolide or tetracycline antibiotics in these strains. Such data would however promote comprehensive studies on the molecular epidemiology of syphilis infections in Italy and inform future interventions aiming at syphilis control in this and other European countries...
October 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Michelle Shuel, Kristy Hayden, Kamran Kadkhoda, Raymond Sw Tsang
BACKGROUND: The province of Manitoba, Canada, population of about 1.3 million, has been experiencing increased incidence of syphilis cases since 2015. In this study we examined the detection of T. pallidum DNA in 354 clinical samples from 2012 to 2016; and determined molecular types and mutations conferring resistance to azithromycin in the PCR-positive samples. METHODS: T. pallidum DNA detection was done by PCR amplification of tpp47, bmp, and polA genes. Syphilis serology results were reviewed for the PCR-positive cases...
October 5, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Hope H Biswas, Rilene A Chew Ng, Erin L Murray, Joan M Chow, Juliet E Stoltey, James P Watt, Heidi M Bauer
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS), the transmission of Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus during pregnancy, can cause adverse birth outcomes. During 2012-2014, the CS rate in California increased >200% from 6.6 to 20.3 cases per 100,000 live births. Our objectives were to identify characteristics associated with delivering an infant with CS and missed opportunities for prevention among syphilis-infected pregnant women in California. METHODS: We linked California Department of Public Health syphilis surveillance records from women aged 15-45 years - diagnosed during March 13, 2012-December 31, 2014 - to birth records...
January 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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