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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727773/the-tradition-algorithm-approach-underestimates-the-prevalence-of-serodiagnosis-of-syphilis-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Bin Chen, Xiuming Peng, Tiansheng Xie, Changzhong Jin, Fumin Liu, Nanping Wu
Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714113/secondary-syphilis-primarily-presenting-with-multiple-nodules-on-the-scalp-case-report-and-published-work-review
#2
Fan Li, Tingting Wang, Lin Wang
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, manifests with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations that usually involves skin. Nodular secondary syphilis occurs rarely, and mostly manifests as disseminated papulonodules or plaques over the trunk and limbs. We report an extremely rare case of nodular secondary syphilis that primarily presented with multiple nodules on the scalp, resembling Rosai-Dorfman disease or cutaneous malignant metastasis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed T...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713435/comparative-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-different-species-of-sargassum-in-haizao-yuhu-decoction-in-ptu-induced-goiter-rats
#3
Linlin Xiu, Gansheng Zhong, Dianna Liu, Shaohong Chen, Haiyan Liu, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Haizao Yuhu Decoction has been widely used to treat thyroid-related diseases especially goiter with few side effects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including herb pair Sargassum (HZ) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GC), as one of "eighteen antagonistic medicaments." The two different species of Sargassum, Sargassum fusiforme (Sf) and Sargassum pallidum (Sp), are not clearly differentiated in clinical use, so that herb pair Sf-GC and Sp-GC could show different effect and toxicity...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712508/health-care-importance-of-treponema-pallidum-chagas-disease-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-among-amerindians-of-argentina-an-observational-study
#4
María E Eirin, Cecilia M Delfino, Williams R Pedrozo, Richard Malan, Alberto Puca, Ana M De Rissio, Rogelio D Espejo, María L Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Mirna M Biglione, Carolina A Berini
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Treponema pallidum, Trypanosoma cruzi and Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in five Amerindian populations of Argentina. A retrospective study was conducted among 857 Amerindian populations (112 Kollas, 298 Mbyá-guaraníes, 79 Sagua Huarpes, 368 Wichis) from 2007 to 2010. Screening and confirmation of T. pallidum, T. cruzi and HIV-1 were performed. T. pallidum and T. cruzi infections were detected in all communities with an overall prevalence rate of 4...
July 13, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711813/multi-site-exploration-of-sex-differences-in-brain-reactivity-to-smoking-cues-consensus-across-sites-and-methodologies
#5
Kelly M Dumais, Teresa R Franklin, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Michael Gawrysiak, Jennifer Betts, Stacey Farmer, Emily Guthier, Heather Pater, Amy C Janes, Reagan R Wetherill
BACKGROUND: Biological sex influences cigarette smoking behavior. More men than women smoke, but women have a harder time quitting. Sex differences in smoking cue (SC) reactivity may underlie such behavioral differences. However, the influence of sex on brain reactivity to SCs has yielded inconsistent findings suggesting the need for continued study. Here, we investigated the effect of sex on SC reactivity across two sites using different imaging modalities and SC stimulus types. METHODS: Pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain responses to SC versus non-SC videos in 40 smokers (23 females) at the University of Pennsylvania...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700568/neonatal-basal-ganglia-and-thalamic-volumes-very-preterm-birth-and-7-year-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#6
Wai Yen Loh, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle, Jian Chen, Katherine J Lee, Charlotte Molesworth, Terrie E Inder, A Connelly, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson
BACKGROUND: This study aims to (1) compare volumes of individual basal ganglia nuclei (caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen) and the thalamus between very preterm (VP) and term-born infants at term-equivalent age; (2) explore neonatal basal ganglia and thalamic volume relationships with 7-year neurodevelopmental outcomes, and whether these relationships differed between VP and term-born children. METHODS: 210 VP (<30 weeks' gestational age) and 39 term-born (≥37 weeks' gestational age) infants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age, and deep grey matter volumes of interest were automatically generated...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699182/amygdala-and-hippocampus-volumes-are-differently-affected-by-childhood-trauma-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-and-healthy-controls
#7
Delfina Janiri, Gabriele Sani, Pietro De Rossi, Fabrizio Piras, Mariangela Iorio, Nerisa Banaj, Giulia Giuseppin, Edoardo Spinazzola, Matteo Maggiora, Elisa Ambrosi, Alessio Simonetti, Gianfranco Spalletta
OBJECTIVES: Volumetric studies on deep gray matter structures in bipolar disorder (BP) have reported contrasting results. Childhood trauma, a relevant environmental stressor for BP, could account for the variability of the results, modulating differences in the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BP compared with healthy controls (HC). Our study aimed to test this hypothesis. METHODS: We assessed 105 outpatients, diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) or bipolar disorder type II (BP-II) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, and 113 HC subjects...
July 12, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689640/distinct-ventral-pallidal-neural-populations-mediate-separate-symptoms-of-depression
#8
Daniel Knowland, Varoth Lilascharoen, Christopher Pham Pacia, Sora Shin, Eric Hou-Jen Wang, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression...
July 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676738/the-multiple-correspondence-analysis-method-and-brain-functional-connectivity-its-application-to-the-study-of-the-non-linear-relationships-of-motor-cortex-and-basal-ganglia
#9
Clara Rodriguez-Sabate, Ingrid Morales, Alberto Sanchez, Manuel Rodriguez
The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668606/a-preliminary-study-on-the-proinflammatory-mechanisms-of-treponema-pallidum-outer-membrane-protein-tp92-in-human-macrophages-and-hmec-1-cells
#10
Xi Luo, Xiaohong Zhang, Tie Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Wen Liu, Meixia Deng, Feijun Zhao
AIMS: To determine proinflammatory mechanisms of Treponema pallidum outer membrane protein Tp92 in the early syphilis infection in human macrophages and HMEC-1 cells. METHODS: Recombinant Tp92 protein was used to stimulate target human macrophages and HMEC-1 cells. PDTC (Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid), SB202190 and Z-YVAD-FMK were used to block the MyD88/NF-κB, MAPKs/p38 and NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway, respectively. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8,NLRP3, casepase-1 were detected by ELISA or Western blot...
June 29, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667890/subcortical-structural-volumes-in-recently-remitted-first-episode-mania
#11
Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Ivan J Torres, Donna J Lang, Wayne Su, Raymond W Lam, William G Honer, Lakshmi N Yatham
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to subcortical volumetric abnormalities in patients with bipolar I disorder. Duration of illness and long term medication intake could have confounded the findings. METHOD: Volumes of nine subcortical structures were compared between 63 patients who recently remitted from their first manic episode and 77 healthy volunteers. The volumetric segmentation was performed with the automated segmentation algorithm Freesurfer version 5...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667376/sexually-divergent-effect-of-comt-val-met-genotype-on-subcortical-volumes-in-schizophrenia
#12
Irene Bollettini, Marco Spangaro, Sara Poletti, Cristina Lorenzi, Adele Pirovano, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Roberto Cavallaro, Francesco Benedetti
Structural and functional alterations of subcortical areas have been observed in schizophrenia. COMT Val108/158Met has been associated with schizophrenia and implicated in different cognitive and neurofunctional alterations. Recent studies suggested that COMT genotype influences neuronal growth. Genetic variations in COMT were associated with sexually dimorphic effects on enzymatic activity, brain anatomy and behavior suggesting that gender might be crucial in interpreting COMT-dependent effects. Based on these data, we investigated possible effects of the interaction between COMT Val108/158Met genotype and gender on subcortical volumes among 79 patients with schizophrenia...
June 30, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665173/serial-assessment-of-gray-matter-abnormalities-following-sport-related-concussion
#13
Lezlie Espana, Ryan Lee, Josef Ling, Andreas Jeromin, Andrew Mayer, Timothy Meier
There is an urgent need to characterize the acute physiological effects of sport-related concussion (SRC). We investigated the effects of SRC on gray matter structure and diffusion metrics in collegiate athletes at 1.64 days (T1; n=33), 8.33 days (T2; n=30), and 32.15 days (T3; n=36) post-concussion, with healthy collegiate contact-sport athletes serving as controls (HA; n=46). Plasma levels of GFAP were assessed in a subset of athletes. We hypothesized that acute SRC would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA), decreased mean diffusivity (MD), and increased GFAP relative to non-injured HA, without acute differences in gray matter volume or cortical thickness...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661234/an-evaluation-of-the-sd-bioline-hiv-syphilis-duo-test
#14
Jeffrey Holden, Joshua Goheen, Mary Jett-Goheen, Mathilda Barnes, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Charlotte A Gaydos
Many health agencies now recommend routine HIV and syphilis testing for pregnant women and most-at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men. With the increased availability of highly sensitive, low cost rapid point-of-care tests, the ability to meet those recommendations has increased, granting wider access to quick and accurate diagnoses. Using blood specimens collected from a Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) sexually transmitted infection clinic, we evaluated the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo, a rapid test that simultaneously detects antibodies to HIV and syphilis and has the potential to further benefit clinics and patients by reducing costs, testing complexity, and patient wait times...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661232/pulmonary-involvement-of-secondary-syphilis
#15
Yoshihiko Ogawa, Yuichiro Imai, Shingo Yoshihara, Hiroyuki Fujikura, Nobuyasu Hirai, Masatoshi Sato, Taku Ogawa, Kenji Uno, Kei Kasahara, Hisakazu Yano, Keiichi Mikasa
Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660379/hiv-incidence-and-care-linkage-among-msm-first-time-testers-in-shenyang-china-2012-2014
#16
Jing Zhang, Jun-Jie Xu, Wei Song, Shi Pan, Zhen-Xing Chu, Qing-Hai Hu, Huan Yu, Xiang Mao, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang, Ning Wang
HIV testing is the first step to the fulfillment of Treat as Prevention (TasP) and reaching the 90-90-90 goal in HIV control. However, there are still a large number of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have never been tested for HIV before, and little is known about the HIV incidence and care linkage among this population. A Mixed method was used to recruit MSM who had never tested for HIV before from January 2012 to December 2014 in Shenyang, China. Potential MSM participants were invited to attend the enrollment for HIV and syphilis testing at a general hospital-based voluntary counseling and test (VCT)...
June 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659792/the-serotonin-receptor-6-antagonist-idalopirdine-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-have-synergistic-effects-on-brain-activity-a-functional-mri-study-in-the-awake-rat
#17
Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, Mark Nedelman, Inge E M de Jong
The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the awake rat...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659421/slowing-gait-and-risk-for-cognitive-impairment-the-hippocampus-as-a-shared-neural-substrate
#18
Andrea L Rosso, Joe Verghese, Andrea L Metti, Robert M Boudreau, Howard J Aizenstein, Stephen Kritchevsky, Tamara Harris, Kristine Yaffe, Suzanne Satterfield, Stephanie Studenski, Caterina Rosano
OBJECTIVE: To identify the shared neuroimaging signature of gait slowing and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We assessed a cohort of older adults (n = 175, mean age 73 years, 57% female, 65% white) with repeated measures of gait speed over 14 years, MRI for gray matter volume (GMV) at year 10 or 11, and adjudicated cognitive status at year 14. Gait slowing was calculated by bayesian slopes corrected for intercepts, with higher values indicating faster decline. GMV was normalized to intracranial volume, with lower values indicating greater atrophy for 10 regions of interest (hippocampus, anterior and posterior cingulate, primary and supplementary motor cortices, posterior parietal lobe, middle frontal lobe, caudate, putamen, pallidum)...
June 28, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653418/syphilis-testing-practices-in-the-americas
#19
Thuy T Trinh, Mary L Kamb, Minh Luu, D Cal Ham, Freddy Perez
OBJECTIVE: To present the findings of the Pan American Health Organization's 2014 survey on syphilis testing policies and practices in the Americas. METHODS: Representatives of national/regional reference and large, lower-level laboratories from 35 member-states were invited to participate. A semi-structured, electronically administered questionnaire collected data on syphilis tests, algorithms, equipment/commodities, challenges faced, and basic quality assurance (QA) strategies employed (i...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650401/progressive-brain-atrophy-despite-persistent-viral-suppression-in-hiv-over-age-60
#20
Katherine M Clifford, Vishal Samboju, Yann Cobigo, Benedetta Milanini, Gabriel A Marx, Joanna M Hellmuth, Howard J Rosen, Joel H Kramer, Isabel E Allen, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND: Current HIV treatments are successful at suppressing plasma HIV RNA to undetectable levels for most adherent patients. Yet, emerging evidence suggests viral suppression will inadequately control inflammation and mitigate risk for progressive brain injury. We sought to quantify differences in longitudinal brain atrophy rates among older virally suppressed HIV-infected participants compared to that of healthy aging. METHODS: We examined longitudinal structural brain MRI atrophy rates employing region of interest assessments and voxel-wise tensor-based morphometry in HIV-infected participants over age 60 years (n=38) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected healthy and cognitively normal controls (n=24)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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