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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642681/%C3%AE-1-containing-gaba-a-receptors-cluster-at-synapses-where-they-mediate-slower-synaptic-currents-than-%C3%AE-2-containing-gaba-a-receptors
#1
Christine L Dixon, Pankaj Sah, Angelo Keramidas, Joseph W Lynch, Nela Durisic
GABA-A receptors (GABAARs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that are assembled mainly from α (α1-6), β (β1-3) and γ (γ1-3) subunits. Although GABAARs containing γ2L subunits mediate most of the inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, significant expression of γ1 subunits is seen in the amygdala, pallidum and substantia nigra. However, the location and function of γ1-containing GABAARs in these regions remains unclear. In "artificial" synapses, where the subunit composition of postsynaptic receptors is specifically controlled, γ1 incorporation slows the synaptic current decay rate without affecting channel deactivation, suggesting that γ1-containing receptors are not clustered and therefore activated by diffuse neurotransmitter...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614239/the-analyzation-and-clinical-evaluation-of-eclia-and-cmia-in-the-detection-of-treponema-pallidum
#2
Jiansuo Zhou, Yongming Liang, Jie Zhang, Liyan Cui
To evaluate the clinical application value of electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (ECLIA) and chemiluminescent magnetic microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) in the detection of Treponema pallidum (TP).A total of 1225 patients in Peking University Third Hospital was enrolled from June 2014 to October 2014. ECLIA and CMIA were applied to detect the serum anti-TP. The positive rate was analyzed. RIBA was taken as a golden standard to evaluate the sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value, and the accuracy of ECLIA and CMIA...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614210/congenital-syphilis-of-bone-a-potential-mimicker-of-childhood-histiocytoses
#3
Youran Zou, Matthew A Marcus, C Guy Castles, Scott E Kilpatrick
Involvement of the skeletal system by congenital syphilis is well documented in the literature, chiefly in the form of radiologic studies, including periostitis, osteitis, and osteochondritis. Because congenital syphilis is generally recognized clinically, tissue biopsy is virtually never performed. Therefore, the histopathologic findings are less well documented and mostly exist in the older literature. We report herein the clinicoradiologic and pathologic features of a 2-month-old infant who initially presented with absence of left arm movement...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606185/non-malarial-infectious-diseases-of-antenatal-care-in-pregnant-women-in-franceville-gabon
#4
Irene Pegha Moukandja, Edgard Brice Ngoungou, Guy Joseph Lemamy, Ulrick Bisvigou, Antoine Gessain, Fousseyni S Toure Ndouo, Mirdad Kazanji, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
BACKGROUND: In sub-tropical countries, infectious diseases remain one of the main causes of mortality. Because of their lack of active immunity, pregnant women and their unborn children represent the most susceptible people. In Gabon, data on infectious diseases of pregnant women such as syphilis and rubella are either scarce or very old. Few studies have assessed T. gondii infection during pregnancy in the country. Here, we evaluate seroprevalence of HIV, HTVL-1, syphilis and T. gondii and rubella infection during antenatal care among women living in Franceville, Gabon...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604483/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-smartphone-based-electronic-reader-of-rapid-dual-point-of-care-tests-for-antibodies-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-treponema-pallidum-infections
#5
Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Claire C Bristow, Romney Humphries, Silver Keith Vargas, Kelika A Konda, Carlos F Caceres, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Dual point-of-care tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum allow for same-day testing and treatment and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in preventing the adverse outcomes of HIV infection and syphilis. By recording and transmitting data as they are collected, electronic readers address challenges related to the decentralization of point-of-care testing. METHODS: We evaluated a smartphone-based electronic reader using 201 sera tested with 2 dual rapid tests for detection of antibodies to HIV and T...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597560/l-dopa-responsiveness-is-associated-with-distinctive-connectivity-patterns-in-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Harith Akram, Chengyuan Wu, Jonathan Hyam, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Enrico De Vita, Tarek Yousry, Marjan Jahanshahi, Marwan Hariz, Timothy Behrens, John Ashburner, Ludvic Zrinzo
BACKGROUND: Neuronal loss and dopamine depletion alter motor signal processing between cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, and the thalamus, resulting in the motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Dopamine replacement therapy can reverse these manifestations with varying degrees of improvement. METHODS: To evaluate functional connectivity in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and changes in functional connectivity in relation to the degree of response to l-dopa, 19 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the on-medication state...
June 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595893/altered-morphology-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#7
Nicole E Neef, Christoph Bütfering, Tibor Auer, F Luise Metzger, Harald A Euler, Jens Frahm, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
PURPOSE: Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591814/abnormal-gray-matter-shape-thickness-and-volume-in-the-motor-cortico-subcortical-loop-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-association-with-clinical-and-motor-features
#8
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Christophe Bedetti, Simona Brambati, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Malo Gaubert, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590521/seventy-years-with-the-globus-pallidus-pallidal-surgery-for-movement-disorders-between-1947-and-2017
#9
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Marwan Hariz
The year 2017 marks the 70th anniversary of the birth of human stereotactic neurosurgery. The first procedure was a pallidotomy for Huntington's disease. However, it was for Parkinson's disease that pallidotomy was soon adopted worldwide. Pallidotomy was abandoned in the late 1950s in favor of thalamotomy because of the latter's more striking effect on tremor. The advent of levodopa put a halt to all surgery for PD. In the mid-1980s, Laitinen reintroduced the posteroventral pallidotomy of Leksell, and this procedure spread worldwide thanks to its efficacy on most parkinsonian symptoms including levodopa-induced dyskinesias and thanks to basic scientific work confirming the role of the globus pallidus internus in the pathophysiology of PD...
June 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590237/evaluation-of-self-collected-rectal-swabs-for-the-detection-of-bacteria-responsible-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-1-infected-patients
#10
Sophie Edouard, Catherine Tamalet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Philippe Colson, Amélie Ménard, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Christelle Tomei, Andreas Stein, Didier Raoult
PURPOSE: The standard approach to screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has often been restricted to urogenital specimens. Most current guidelines, however, also recommend testing extra-genital sites, including rectal locations, because asymptomatic rectal carriage of pathogens has often been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate self-collected rectal swabs to screen bacterial STIs in HIV-infected patients in Marseille, France. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2014 and December 2015, 118 HIV-infected patients (93 males and 25 females) agreed to self-sample anal swabs for detection of bacterial STI...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586013/immunogenicity-and-immunoreactivity-of-tp0821-recombinant-protein-from-treponema%C3%A2-pallidum
#11
Ning Wu, Ni Li, Liping Hu, Jun He, Junhong Li, Feijun Zhao, Yimou Wu
Treponema pallidum (Tp) is responsible for invading reproductive organs and the skin in early stages, and involves almost all organs/systems at advanced stages. In the present study, screening of the dominant epitope fragment of the Tp outer membrane protein, Tp0821, was performed and the prokaryotic expression vector pQE32/Tp0821 was constructed. The denaturation and dialysis of rTp0821 were achieved through ultrasound, inclusion body washing and dissolution. Experiments in purified rTp0821‑immune New Zealand rabbits indicated that the recombinant proteins were of high immunogenicity, and the irritation led a marked humoral immune response in the New Zealand rabbits...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580832/syphilis-gastritis-a-case-report
#12
Kuan Lai, Nicolas Pinto-Sander, Daniel Richardson, Shanshan Wei, Kang Zeng
Awareness of the spectrum of clinical manifestations of syphilis, especially uncommon changes, is essential for diagnosis and effective management of patients. A 48-year-old Han businessman presented to the ear, nose and throat surgeons with an eight-week history of epigastric pain, a four-week history of a widespread non-itchy rash including the scrotal skin and a one-week history of tinnitus and dizziness. On examination, he was afebrile with widespread lymphadenopathy and a maculopapular rash affecting his trunk and scrotum...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580697/genetic-influences-on-individual-differences-in-longitudinal-changes-in-global-and-subcortical-brain-volumes-results-of-the-enigma-plasticity-working-group
#13
Rachel M Brouwer, Matthew S Panizzon, David C Glahn, Derrek P Hibar, Xue Hua, Neda Jahanshad, Lucija Abramovic, Greig I de Zubicaray, Carol E Franz, Narelle K Hansell, Ian B Hickie, Marinka M G Koenis, Nicholas G Martin, Karen A Mather, Katie L McMahon, Hugo G Schnack, Lachlan T Strike, Suzanne C Swagerman, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Wei Wen, John H Gilmore, Nitin Gogtay, René S Kahn, Perminder S Sachdev, Margaret J Wright, Dorret I Boomsma, William S Kremen, Paul M Thompson, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h(2) ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861)...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567314/subacute-hypophysitis-with-panhypopituitarism-as-first-presentation-of-hiv-and-syphilis-coinfection
#14
Rute Alves, Margarida França
Infection by Treponema pallidum still represents a clinical challenge due to its various forms of presentation. HIV coinfection added diversity and changed the natural history of syphilis as a systemic infection. We present a rare case of subacute hypophysitis and panhypopituitarism due to an early active neurosyphilis in a previously unknown HIV coinfected patient.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567010/the-what-the-when-and-the-whether-of-intentional-action-in-the-brain-a-meta-analytical-review
#15
Laura Zapparoli, Silvia Seghezzi, Eraldo Paulesu
In their attempt to define discrete subcomponents of intentionality, Brass and Haggard (2008) proposed their What, When, and Whether model (www-model) which postulates that the content, the timing and the possibility of generating an action can be partially independent both at the cognitive level and at the level of their neural implementation. The original proposal was based on a limited number of studies, which were reviewed with a discursive approach. To assess whether the model stands in front of the more recently published data, we performed a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analytic method based on a hierarchical clustering (HC) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559923/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-sexually-transmitted-infections-stis-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-swaziland
#16
Themba G Ginindza, Cristina D Stefan, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni, Xolisile Dlamini, Pauline E Jolly, Elisabete Weiderpass, Nathalie Broutet, Benn Sartorius
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain an important public health problem with approximately half a billion new cases annually among persons aged 15-49 years. Epidemiological data on STIs among women of reproductive age in Swaziland are limited. The availability of epidemiological data on STIs and associated risk factors in this population is essential for the development of successful prevention, diagnosis and management strategies in the country. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with STIs...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558364/structural-and-functional-correlates-of-serum-soluble-il-6-receptor-level-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#17
Pei-Chi Tu, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Mu-Hong Chen, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is reported to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). Higher serum levels of soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which forms a ligand-receptor complex with the potent proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, have been consistently observed in patients with BD. However, the effect of sIL-6R on neural structure and function remains unclear. This study investigated the association between serum sIL-6R levels and the structural and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain in patients with BD...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553882/functional-brain-connectivity-of-remembered-fatigue-or-happiness-in-healthy-adults-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling
#18
Jeff Boissoneault, Landrew Sevel, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
INTRODUCTION: Chronic fatiguing illnesses like cancer, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, or depression are frequently associated with comorbidities including depression, pain, and insomnia, making the study of their neural correlates challenging. To study fatigue without such comorbidities, functional connectivity (FC) analyses were used in healthy individuals to study brain activity during recall of a fatiguing event inside the MRI scanner. A positive mood induction served as control condition...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550642/post-heroin-dose-tissue-distribution-of-6-monoacetylmorphine-6-mam-with-maldi-imaging
#19
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Nirmala D Gopal, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Heroin is an illicit opioid drug which is commonly abused and leads to dependence and addiction. Heroin is considered a pro-drug and is rapidly converted to its major active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which mediates euphoria and reward through the stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and localization of 6-MAM in the healthy Sprague Dawley rat brain following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of heroin (10 mg/kg), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549951/disappearance-of-globus-pallidum-lesions-in-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-after-ligation-of-congenital-portosystemic-venous-shunt
#20
Ryuichi Takemoto, Kenichiro Yamamura, Hazumu Nagata, Naoki Kawaguchi, Yasunari Sakai, Toshiharu Matsuura, Tomoaki Taguchi, Shouichi Ohga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
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