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A A Noda, L Grillová, R Lienhard, O Blanco, I Rodríguez, D Šmajs
OBJECTIVES: Bejel, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN), was until now considered as a non-venereal disease endemic in areas with hot and dry climates. This study has identified TEN in clinical samples from Cuban patients previously diagnosed with syphilis. METHODS: We performed sequencing-based molecular typing on 92 samples from Cuban individuals diagnosed with syphilis. Moreover, to differentiate T. pallidum subspecies, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) was designed and was applied to suspicious samples...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Thomas M Donnelly, David Vella
The first part of this review focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the rabbit mouth. Practical understanding is critical to comprehend the dynamic pathologic changes of dental disease, which is one of the most common presenting problems in rabbits. The major theories of the etiopathogenesis of dental disease are presented. The second part focuses on non-dental oral disorders, which encompass only a small incidence of stomatognathic diseases when compared with dental disease. These diseases are primarily composed of infections (treponematosis, oral papillomatosis), neoplasia (frequently involving calcified tissue proliferation), and congenital abnormalities (mandibular prognathism, absent peg teeth, supernumerary peg teeth)...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Jai P Narain, S K Jain, D Bora, S Venkatesh
Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 states of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Don Walker, Natasha Powers, Brian Connell, Rebecca Redfern
Treponematosis is a syndrome of chronic infectious diseases. There has been much debate on its origins and spread, particularly with regard to venereal syphilis, an unsightly and debilitating disease in preantibiotic populations. The osteological analysis of 5,387 individuals excavated by Museum of London Archaeology from the medieval burial ground of St. Mary Spital in London (dated c 1120-1539) provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the nature and prevalence of disease over a period of time...
January 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ivana Anteric, Zeljana Basic, Katarina Vilovic, Kresimir Kolic, Simun Andjelinovic
INTRODUCTION: There are four theories about the origin of syphilis, of which the mostly represented one is the Columbian theory. This theory suggests that syphilis was brought into Europe in 1493 ad by the ship from Caribbean islands. AIM: The aim of this study is to test all theories on a sample of 403 skeletons: 135 from prehistory, 134 from antique, and 134 from medieval period and new age from the Dalmatia (Croatia). METHODS: All skeletons were examined using standard anthropological methods...
December 2014: Journal of Sexual Medicine
C A Roberts, A R Millard, G M Nowell, D R Gröcke, C G Macpherson, D G Pearson, D H Evans
Treponematosis has been one of the most studied and debated infectious diseases in paleopathology, particularly from the standpoint of its origin, evolution, and transmission. This study links evidence for treponematosis in skeletons from the 14th-16th century AD cemetery of the Augustinian friary of Hull Magistrates Court, England, with data from stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis that the people with treponemal disease buried at this site were not locally born and raised. The objective is to explore the potential of using stable isotope data to track the place of origin and extent of mobility of individuals with an infectious disease...
February 2013: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Erico Silva Muniz
The article analyzes the Program to Eradicate Yaws, enforced in Brazil from 1956 through 1961. Following World War II, when antibiotics first came into use, it seemed there might be a method for eradicating treponematosis in a short time: a single-dose injection of penicillin. At a moment when priority was being placed on fighting rural endemic disease in Brazil, it became possible to organize a campaign against yaws. The article explores the initiatives undertaken by the National Department of Rural Endemic Diseases that revealed a malnourished, starving population, and called into question the very intentions behind the campaign and the day's concepts of health and development...
March 2012: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Virendra N Sehgal, Prashant Verma, Kingshuk Chatterjee, Anita Chaudhuri, Gautam Chatterjee, Farhan Rasool
The venereal form of treponematosis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, plagued every major city in the preantibiotic era. "Civilization means syphilization," was an idea touted by Richard von Krafft-Ebing in the late 19th, and early 20th centuries that the effects of modern life make men more susceptible to syphilis and other diseases. Christopher Columbus was thought of as an importer of syphilis to Europe. Because his serendipitous voyages to the New World initiated the process of Spanish colonization, which foreshadowed general European colonization of the New World, it is difficult to rule out the cultural and political animosity created by Columbus and his men...
January 2012: Skinmed
Oriol Mitjà, Russell Hays, Anthony Ipai, Moses Penias, Raymond Paru, David Fagaho, Elisa de Lazzari, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Yaws--an endemic treponematosis and, as such, a neglected tropical disease--is re-emerging in children in rural, tropical areas. Oral azithromycin is effective for syphilis. We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin compared with intramuscular long-acting penicillin to treat patients with yaws. METHODS: We did an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial at Lihir Medical Centre, Papua New Guinea, between Sept 1, 2010, and Feb 1, 2011. Children aged 6 months to 15 years with a serologically confirmed diagnosis of yaws were randomly allocated, by a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to receive either one 30 mg/kg oral dose of azithromycin or an intramuscular injection of 50,000 units per kg benzathine benzylpenicillin...
January 28, 2012: Lancet
H Hamlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1939: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Carlina de la Cova
This study analyzed skeletal health disparities among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 skeletons from the Cobb, Hamann-Todd, and Terry anatomical collections were macroscopically examined for skeletal pathologies related to dietary deficiencies and disease. Individuals were separated into age, ancestry, birth (Antebellum, Civil War, Pre-Reconstruction, and Reconstruction), combined ancestry/birth, enslaved versus liberated, and collection cohorts...
April 2011: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1946: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Blanka Pospísilová, Olga Procházková, Khalid Serbouti
Syphilis is a treponematosis clinically characterized by a primary lesion, a secondary rash affecting the skin and the mucous membranes and late lesions affecting cardiovascular and central nervous systems, viscera and bones. Off all the skeletal lesions, the most characteristic are those of the skull, most commonly affecting frontal and parietal bones and nasal and palatal region. The collection of 647 adult skulls of both sexes and 98 child and adolescent skulls from the "Broumov Ossuary" (13th - 18th century) was examined for the presence of the bone syphilis lesions...
2003: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové). Supplementum
Robert Pichler, Stefan Doppler, Elisabeth Szalay, Christine Hertl, Ulrich Knell, Johanna Winkler
Syphilis is a recurrent treponematosis of acute and chronic evolution. In general it is either sexually or congenitally transmitted. Primary syphilis appears as a single and painless lesion. Secondary syphilis may manifest years later, the secondary bacteremic stage is accompanied by generalized mucocutaneous lesions. Tertiary disease can be disseminated to bones and virtually any organ, involving principally the ascending aorta and the central nervous system. Nuclear medicine provides diagnostic methods in case of skeletal manifestations by bone scan - identifying periostitis and osteomyelitis...
2008: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
J J Morand
The foot is particularly exposed to injury and infection in the tropical areas. This article provides a review of the main diseases affecting the foot in the tropics including leprosy, ainhum, ulceration due to Mycobacterium ulcerans, mycetoma, chromomycosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, elephantiasis, podoconiasis, dracunculosis, tungiasis, syphilis and endemic treponematosis, larva migrans, scytalidiosis, and envenomation. Prevention is essential.
April 2008: Médecine Tropicale: Revue du Corps de Santé Colonial
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1948: East African Medical Journal
Yasmina Dada, François Milord, Eric Frost, Jean-Pierre Manshande, Aloys Kamuragiye, Jean Youssouf, Mejdi Khelifa, Jacques Pépin
The combination of high sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and low HIV prevalence has been described as the Indian Ocean paradox. To investigate current epidemiology of HIV and STI in the Comoros, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of a representative sample of the adult population, and convenience samples of female sex workers and male STI patients. Only one (0.025%) of 3990 community participants was HIV-infected, while 142 (3.6%) had treponemal antibodies. Treponemal antibodies were not associated with past genital ulcers, number of sexual partners or adverse outcomes of pregnancies; their prevalence did not increase with age and there was no concordance within couples...
September 2007: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Jean-François Molez
A historical and comparative study of the origins and emergence of syphilis and AIDS show that both result from human intrusions. Treponema probably existed in primates before human infection, and nonvenereal treponemal infection existed in prehistoric tropical Africa. When humans began wearing clothes, the disappearance of endemic infection ended immunity and led to receptivity to venereal infection. It was long thought that syphilis was first introduced in Europe by the conquistadors, but lesions typical of treponematosis dating from before the Common Era have been found in Europe...
October 2006: Santé: Cahiers D'étude et de Recherches Francophones
Florence Levréro, Sylvain Gatti, Annie Gautier-Hion, Nelly Ménard
We evaluated the prevalence of skin lesions in a gorilla population in the Republic of Congo. The observed lesions were typical of yaws, a treponematosis described in gorillas and humans living in tropical regions. Among the 377 gorillas identified, 17% presented skin lesions, mainly on their faces. The worst cases presented physical handicaps because of the deep lesions. As in humans, lesions break out when individuals are young. Lesions were more prevalent among males than females above 8 years old. This sex-bias prevalence could result from the behavioral characteristics of males through a greater exposure to wounds...
April 2007: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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