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Reid A Adams, Gregory E Gilbert, Lisa A Buckley, Rodolfo Nino Fong, I Carmen Fuentealba, Erika L Little
INTRODUCTION: During simulation-based education, simulators are subjected to procedures composed of a variety of tasks and processes. Simulators should functionally represent a patient in response to the physical action of these tasks. The aim of this work was to describe a method for determining whether a simulator does or does not have sufficient functional task alignment (FTA) to be used in a simulation. METHODS: Potential performance checklist items were gathered from published arthrocentesis guidelines and aggregated into a performance checklist using Lawshe's method...
May 16, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
V A Brugman, M Kristan, M P Gibbins, F Angrisano, K A Sala, J T Dessens, A M Blagborough, T Walker
Malaria is a severe disease of global importance transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The ability to rapidly detect the presence of infectious mosquitoes able to transmit malaria is of vital importance for surveillance, control and elimination efforts. Current methods principally rely on large-scale mosquito collections followed by labour-intensive salivary gland dissections or enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) methods to detect sporozoites. Using forced salivation, we demonstrate here that Anopheles mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium expel sporozoites during sugar feeding...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Basim Manswr, Christopher Ball, Anne Forrester, Julian Chantrey, Kannan Ganapathy
Sequence variability in the S1 gene determines the genotype of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains. A single RT-PCR assay was developed to amplify and sequence the full S1 gene for six classical and variant IBVs (M41, D274, 793B, IS/885/00, IS/1494/06 and Q1) enriched in allantoic fluid (AF) or the same AF but inoculated onto Flinders Technology Association (FTA) cards. Representative strains from each genotype were grown in SPF eggs and RNA was extracted from AF. Full S1 gene amplification was achieved using primer A and primer 22...
May 1, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Johan Owe Paulsson, Ninni Mu, Ivan Shabo, Na Wang, Jan Zedenius, Catharina Larsson, C Christofer Juhlin
TERT promoter mutations have been linked to adverse clinical parameters in thyroid cancer, but TERT expressing tumours are not always mutated. Little is known regarding other TERT -related genetic aberrations. To delineate the role of TERT gene aberrancies in follicular thyroid tumours, 95 follicular carcinomas (FTC), 43 follicular adenomas (FTA) and 33 follicular tumours of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) were collected. The tumours were assayed for TERT expression, TERT promoter mutations, TERT promoter hypermethylation and TERT gene copy number alterations, and the results were compared to clinical parameters...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau, Sonia Luque, Maria-Pilar Castillo-Mafla, Alejandro Suárez-de-la-Rica, Ana Montero-Feijoo, Patricia Salgado, Maria-Jose Gimenez, Carlos A García-Bernedo, Fernando Gilsanz, Jason A Roberts
BACKGROUND: Dosing in obese critically ill patients is challenging due to pathophysiological changes derived from obesity and/or critical illness, and it remains fully unexplored. This study estimated the micafungin probability of reaching adequate 24-h area under the curve (AUC0-24h )/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Candida spp. for an obese/nonobese, critically ill/noncritically ill, large population. METHODS: Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were collected from 10 critically ill nonobese patients, 10 noncritically ill obese patients, and 11 critically ill morbidly obese patients under empirical/directed micafungin treatment...
April 15, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Muhammad Adeel Hassan, Junlong Liu, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Muhammad Rashid, Altaf Mahmood, Qamar Abbas, Guiquan Guan, Hong Yin, Jianxun Luo
Theileriosis is a disease of domesticated animals in tropical and subtropical countries and causes significant reductions in livestock productivity. The arid region of Punjab in Pakistan is notorious for the presence of the vector tick (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases, such as theileriosis and babesiosis. The distribution of Theileria annulata and T. orientalis in the Chakwal district of Punjab was determined by developing a multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay as a scientific basis for formulating control strategies for bovine theileriosis...
March 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Laxmi Narayan Sarangi, Naveena Thodangala, Samir Kumar Rana, Kota Sri Naga Leela Surendra, Rachamreddy Venkata Chandrasekhar Reddy, Bajibabu Putla, Ponnanna Nadikerianda Muthappa, Girish Kumar Sharma, Villuppanoor Srinivasan
The extended frozen semen (EFS) batches produced from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) sero-positive cattle and buffalo bulls housed in various semen stations in India are transported to the testing laboratory in liquid nitrogen (LN2) for screening bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1). This procedure is laborious and poses LN2 related hazards. An alternative logistics for transportation of samples was investigated. Use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA® ) elute card was evaluated for transportation of extended bovine semen to screen BoHV-1 DNA by real-time PCR targeting gB gene and the method was compared with the OIE approved Chelex resin based method...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
G da Cunha Santos, M A Saieg, G Troncone, P Zeppa
Minimally invasive procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) must yield not only good quality and quantity of material for morphological assessment, but also an adequate sample for analysis of molecular markers to guide patients to appropriate targeted therapies. In this context, cytopathologists worldwide should be familiar with minimum requirements for refereeing cytological samples for testing. The present manuscript is a review with comprehensive description of the content of the workshop entitled Cytological preparations for molecular analysis: pre-analytical issues for EBUS TBNA, presented at the 40th European Congress of Cytopathology in Liverpool, UK...
April 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Olga Serra, Raffaele Frazzi, Alessio Perotti, Lorenzo Barusi, Annamaria Buschini
FTA® technologies provide the most reliable method for DNA extraction. Although FTA technologies have been widely used for genetic analysis, there is no literature on their use for epigenetic analysis yet. We present for the first time, a simple method for quantitative methylation assessment based on sperm cells stored on Whatman FTA classic cards. Specifically, elution of seminal DNA from FTA classic cards was successfully tested with an elution buffer and an incubation step in a thermocycler. The eluted DNA was bisulfite converted, amplified by PCR, and a region of interest was pyrosequenced...
February 1, 2018: BioTechniques
Aaron C Brault, Bradley J Blitvich
The expanded use of next generation sequencing tools has led to an explosion in the rate of discovery of novel viral agents and has had a measured effect on the capacity to genetically identify the presence of previously described viruses in new geographic environments and within different hosts and vectors. For example, more than 30 flaviviruses ( Flavivirus ; Flaviviridae ) with the capacity to infect only mosquitoes have been described in the last 10 years. By contrast, only two such viruses had been described in the previous 33 years...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mohammad Yazdi, Orhan Korhan, Sahand Daneshvar
This study aimed at establishing fault tree analysis (FTA) using expert opinion to compute the probability of an event. Thus, in order to find the probability of the top event (TE), all probabilities of the basic events (BEs) should be available when FTA is drawn for an event. In this case, employing expert judgment can be used as an alternative to failure data in an awkward situation. The fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) as a standard technique is used to give a specific weight to each expert, and fuzzy set theory is engaged for aggregating expert opinion...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Sathish Kumar T, Navaneeth Krishnan A, Joseph Sahaya Rajan J, Makesh M, Jithendran K P, Alavandi S V, Vijayan K K
The emerging microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the causative agent of hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, has been widely reported in shrimp-farming countries. EHP infection can be detected by light microscopy observation of spores (1.7 × 1 μm) in stained hepatopancreas (HP) tissue smears, HP tissue sections, and fecal samples. EHP can also be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or the spore wall protein gene (SWP)...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Laurent Dortet, Sandrine Bernabeu, Camille Gonzalez, Thierry Naas
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the Carbapenemase Detection Set™ (CDS; Mast Diagnostics) in association with i) the EUCAST meropenem screening cut-off and ii) the faropenem-temocillin algorithm (FTa) for the screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). A total of 200 well-characterized enterobacterial isolates with reduced susceptibility to at least one carbapenem including 63 non-CPEs and 137 CPEs belonging to different Ambler classes were initially screened for CPEs using i) the EUCAST meropenem cut-off (diameter <25 mm) and ii) the FTa...
February 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Thitaporn Phetkaew, Marissak Kalpravidh, Rampaipat Penchome, Chalika Wangdee
OBJECTIVE:  This article aimed to determine and compare the angular values of the pelvic limb in normal and medial patellar luxation (MPL) stifles in Chihuahuas using radiography and computed tomographic (CT) scan, to identify the relationship between pelvic limb angles and severity of MPL. In addition, radiographic and CT images were compared to determine the more suitable method of limb deformity assessment. METHODS:  Sixty hindlimbs of Chihuahuas were divided into normal and grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 MPL groups...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Fabia Wyss, Martin Schneiter, Udo Hetzel, Fta Pathologie, Saskia Keller, Martin Frenz, Jaroslav Rička, Jean-Michel Hatt
Pneumonia is a common complication of boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) in snakes. The tracheal mucociliary apparatus of eight boas ( Boa constrictor) and two pythons ( Python regius, Morelia viridis) was examined to assess whether absent or reduced mucociliary clearance could be a predisposing factor. Nine of the examined snakes were positive for BIBD by detection of inclusion bodies and three had lung pathologies other than the formation of inclusion bodies. A considerable individual variation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF, 3...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, A Brandao, M C Cergole Novella, A G C Bombonatte, B Imperiale, N Rakotosamimanana, N Morcillo, V Rasolofo, J C Palomino, A Martin
Background: In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter study...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Xiao-Tian Zhang, Yue Ding, Ping Kang, Xin-Yu Zhang, Tong Zhang
Acute inflammation is a protective response of the host to physical injury and invading infection. Timely treatment of acute inflammatory reactions is essential to prevent damage to organisms that can eventually lead to chronic inflammation. Forsythoside A (FTA), an active constituent of Forsythia suspensa , has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. Despite increasing knowledge of its anti-inflammatory effects, the mechanism and the effects on acute inflammation are poorly understood...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lan Yao, Zhen Xu, Hemiao Zhao, Zheng Tu, Zhifang Liu, Wanshui Li, Lan Hu, Lihua Wan
In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) of six samples from three forensic cases was sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The analyzed samples from forensic cases included bloodstains from several materials, such as gauze, Flinder's Technology Associates (FTA) cards and swabs. The age of the samples ranged from two months to twelve years. The complete mtGenomes were amplified using the tiling sequencing strategy which divided the whole mtGenome into 162 amplicons...
February 27, 2018: Legal Medicine
Gilda da Cunha Santos
CONTEXT: - Traditional methods for storing histologic and cytologic specimens for future use in molecular assays have consisted of either snap-freezing with cryopreservation or formalin-fixing, paraffin-embedding the samples. Although snap-freezing with cryopreservation is recommended for better preservation of nucleic acids, the infrastructure and space required for archiving impose challenges for high-volume pathology laboratories. Cost-effective, long-term storage at room temperature; relatively easy shipment; and standardized handling can be achieved with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, but formalin fixation induces fragmentation and chemical modification of nucleic acids...
March 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
U B Inchara, R P Sathish, K M Shankar, P B Abhiman, P Prakash
A panel of four monoclonal antibodies (C-05, C-14, C-38 and C-56) specific to VP28 of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were evaluated individually and in cocktail to increase sensitivity of the Flow Through Assay (FTA) for detection of the virus. Recombinant VP28 and semi purified WSSV was used as antigen for evaluation. Out of the total 11 cocktails and four individual of MAbs, 2 MAb cocktails C-05 + C-56 and C-14 + C-56 exhibited highest sensitivity in the FTA. The two MAb cocktail were 100 times more sensitive than 1-step PCR and nearly equivalent to 2-step PCR for the detection of WSSV...
May 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
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