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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450854/imaging-of-the-scrotum-beyond-sonography
#1
REVIEW
Gian Carlo Parenti, Francesco Feletti, Aldo Carnevale, Licia Uccelli, Melchiore Giganti
The aim of this article is to describe the role of second-level imaging techniques after an initial ultrasonography evaluation in the assessment of scrotal diseases. While ultrasonography remains central as the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of pathologic conditions of the scrotum, the role of magnetic resonance imaging continues to evolve: it can actually be valuable as a problem-solving tool when sonographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive. Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum may provide accurate detection and characterization of scrotal diseases, well depicting the precise location of scrotal masses (intratesticular or extratesticular) and reliably characterizing benign conditions simulating neoplastic processes, thus preventing unnecessary radical surgery...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450259/hand-assisted-laparoscopic-partial-nephrectomy-for-large-renal-carcinoma-with-succinate-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#2
Ann Buhl Bersang, Sarah Bube, Mikkel Fode, Nessn H Azawi
Background: Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are associated with multifocal cancers: pituitary gland tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and renal-cell carcinomas (RCCs). SDH-deficient renal-cell carcinoma (SDH-RCC) was first identified in 2004 as an inherited kidney cancer with mutations in the SDH gene. SDH consists of A, B, C, and D units. Mutation in the SDHB gene is the most common mutation in SDH-deficient RCCs. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 51-year-old healthy man diagnosed with SDHB germline mutation and RCCs...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#3
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449446/improving-accuracy-of-simultaneously-reconstructed-activity-and-attenuation-maps-using-deep-learning
#4
Donghwi Hwang, Kyeong Yun Kim, Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Jin Chul Paeng, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight (TOF) information is a promising method for positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET data set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449445/evaluation-of-penalized-likelihood-estimation-reconstruction-on-a-digital-time-of-flight-pet-ct-scanner-for-18-f-fdg-whole-body-examinations
#5
Elin Lindström, Anders Sundin, Carlos Trampal, Lars Lindsjö, Ezgi Ilan, Torsten Danfors, Gunnar Antoni, Jens Sörensen, Mark Lubberink
Resolution and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) are highly influenced by the reconstruction method. Penalized likelihood estimation algorithms allow for fully convergent iterative reconstruction, generating a higher image contrast while limiting noise compared to ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM). In this study, block-sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) was compared to time-of-flight OSEM (TOF-OSEM). Various strengths of noise penalization factor β were tested along with scan durations and transaxial field of views (FOVs) with the aim to evaluate the performance and clinical use of BSREM for 18 F-FDG-PET-computed tomography (CT), both in quantitative terms and in a qualitative visual evaluation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448120/imaging-features-of-malignant-abdominal-neuroendocrine-tumors-with-rare-presentation
#6
Giuseppe Corrias, Serena Monti, Natally Horvat, Laura Tang, Olca Basturk, Luca Saba, Lorenzo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare entities arising from neuroendocrine cells in the gastroenteric tract and pancreas. The purpose of this article is to present four cases of gastroenteropancreatic NETs that featured a challenging diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case series of four NETs, each with different features. All NETs were suspected based on clinical and biochemical data. The workup of the abnormalities was performed with CT, PET or MRI...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447210/functional-imaging-of-the-interaction-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-human-host-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-study-evaluating-novel-use-for-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#7
Ben Boursi, Thomas J Werner, Saeid Gholami, Sina Houshmand, Ronac Mamtani, James D Lewis, Gary D Wu, Abass Alavi, Yu-Xiao Yang
Recent data comparing germ-free to conventionally-raised mice demonstrated that energy homeostasis of colonocytes is dependent on gut microbiota through regulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and glucose utilization. We sought to evaluate 18F-FDG PET-CT as a novel technique for functional imaging of alterations in glucose metabolism as a result of the interaction between the gut microbiota and the human host. We conducted a prospective study in healthy humans that underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and sampling of the gut microbiota before and after orally administered broad-spectrum antibiotics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447047/prospective-comparative-study-of-18-f-sodium-fluoride-pet-ct-and-planar-bone-scintigraphy-for-treatment-response-assessment-of-bone-metastases-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#8
Randi Fuglsang Fonager, Helle Damgaard Zacho, Niels Christian Langkilde, Joan Fledelius, June Anita Ejlersen, Helle Westergreen Hendel, Christian Haarmark, Mette Moe, Jesper Carl Mortensen, Mads Ryø Jochumsen, Lars Jelstrup Petersen
AIM: To compare 18 F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (NaF PET/CT) and 99m Tc-labelled diphosphonate bone scan (BS) for the monitoring of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer undergoing anti-cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 64 patients with prostate cancer were included. The patients received androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), next-generation hormonal therapy (NGH) or chemotherapy. The patients had a baseline scan and 1-3 subsequent scans during six months of treatment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446832/an-assessment-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-thoracic-screening-and-risk-stratification-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1
#9
Alvin So, Owen Pointon, Richard Hodgson, John Burgess
CONTEXT: Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (bpNETs) and thymic carcinoid (ThC) are features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN 1) and surveillance guidelines recommend periodic thoracic imaging. The optimal thoracic imaging modality and screening frequency remains uncertain as does the prognosis of small lung nodules when identified. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) for identification and prognostic assessment of thoracic lesions in MEN 1...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445878/feasibility-of-intraoperative-detection-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-with-89-zirconium-labelled-nanocolloidal-albumin-pet-ct-and-a-handheld-high-energy-gamma-probe
#10
Derrek A Heuveling, K Hakki Karagozoglu, Arthur Van Lingen, Otto S Hoekstra, Guus A M S Van Dongen, Remco De Bree
BACKGROUND: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy using 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin has the potential to improve the preoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), especially if located in the near proximity of the primary tumour. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy followed by intraoperative detection of 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin containing SLNs with the use of a handheld high-energy gamma probe. METHODS: PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy was performed after peritumoural injection of 89 Zr-nanocolloidal albumin in five patients with oral cavity carcinoma planned for surgical resection...
February 14, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445601/predictors-of-unexpected-nodal-upstaging-in-patients-with-ct1-3n0-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-submitted-to-thoracoscopic-lobectomy
#11
Giuseppe Marulli, Enrico Verderi, Giovanni M Comacchio, Nicola Monaci, Giuseppe Natale, Samuele Nicotra, Federico Rea
Background: In the last decades, the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for the treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer is continuously growing. This is mainly due to the development of more advanced surgical devices, to the rising incidence of peripheral lung tumors and is also favored by the increased reliability of preoperative staging techniques. Despite this progress, postoperative unexpected nodal upstaging is still a relevant issue. Aim of this study is to identify possible predictors of unexpected nodal upstaging in patients affected by cT1-3N0 NSCLC submitted to VATS lobectomy...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445071/a-case-report-of-thyroid-metastasis-from-p16-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Masao Takenobu, Sueyoshi Moritani, Kana Yoshioka, Tsuyoshi Morisaki, Hiroya Kitano
Thyroid metastasis from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a very rare form of rarely observed metastatic thyroid tumor. We herein report a case of thyroid metastasis from oropharyngeal SCC (OSCC). The patient was a 68-year-old male diagnosed with p16-positive tonsillar OSCC on the right side with multiple lymph node metastases and a thyroid mass, which was determined as metastatic p16-positive OSCC by immunohistochemistry of specimens collected by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). He received one cycle of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
February 15, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444756/local-recurrence-on-pet-ct-with-11-c-choline-following-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer-tracer-uptake-pattern
#13
J R Garcia, P Bassa, M Soler, F J Alvarez Moro, T Blanch, E Riera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444586/sex-differences-in-pericardial-adipose-tissue-assessed-by-pet-ct-and-association-with-cardiometabolic-risk
#14
Corey M Gill, Debora C Azevedo, Adriana L Oliveira, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Miriam A Bredella
Background Recent studies suggest that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is associated with whole body adiposity and insulin resistance. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) differs between men and women. Although CVD is more prevalent in men, women suffering from CVD have a higher mortality compared to men. Differences in PAT may account for some of the observed sex differences in manifestations of CVD. Purpose To assess pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) as a biomarker for cardiometabolic risk and to assess potential sex differences...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444315/measurement-of-internal-radiation-dose-distribution-in-ct-examinations-using-polyethylene-terephthalate-resin
#15
C Yamauchi-Kawaura, S Yamamoto, K Fujii, M Komori, M Yamauchi, N Ohzawa, M Kozuka, N Suga, N Ito, A Fukuyama
This study proposes a new dosimetry method for the estimation of the internal radiation dose distribution of a subject undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations. In this novel method, dose distribution of a subject by CT scans was estimated based on radiophotoluminance distribution with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin which was cut to the average head size of a Japanese 1-year-old child. The difference in dose distribution depending on the type of bowtie filter was visualized by imaging luminance distribution with the PET phantom using a charge-coupled device camera...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444120/computer-tomography-based-body-surface-area-evaluation-for-drug-dosage-quantitative-radiology-versus-anthropomorphic-evaluation
#16
Antoine Iannessi, Hubert Beaumont, Christophe Hebert, Claire Dittlot, Marie Noëlle Falewee
OBJECTIVE: The measure of body surface area (BSA) is a standard for planning optimal dosing in oncology. This index is derived from a model having questionable performances. In this study, we proposed measurement of BSA from whole body CT images (iBSA). We tested the reliability of iBSA assessments and simulated the impact of our approach on patient chemotherapy dosage planning. METHODS: We first evaluated accuracy and precision of iBSA in measuring 14 phantom and 11 CT test-retest images...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443753/intense-18f-fdg-activity-in-aortoiliac-bypass-graft-mimicking-infection-a-case-report
#17
Minkyung Lee, Jeong Seon Ryu, Chang Hae Suh, In Young Hyun
RATIONALE: F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has the potential to become an important imaging tool for the diagnosis of suspected aortoiliac bypass graft infection (AGI). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 76-year-old man presented with incidental findings of intense F-FDG activity in previous operation site of aortobiiliac bypass graft in the initial staging of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). DIAGNOSES: Based on F-FDG PET/CT examination, preliminary differential diagnosis was AGI...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443749/usefulness-of-the-maximum-standardized-uptake-value-for-the-diagnosis-and-staging-of-patients-with-cervical-cancer-undergoing-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#18
Hiroaki Takagi, Jinichi Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Osaka, Takeo Shibata, Satoko Fujita, Toshiyuki Sasagawa
Cervical cancer recently has become more common among younger women in Japan. Diagnosing early-stage cancer is straightforward using cervical cytodiagnosis and histological diagnosis. However, postmenopausal endophytic cervical cancer and skip lesions in cervical adenocarcinoma are difficult to detect. We compared the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for primary staging of cervical cancer and evaluated the relationship of the imaging findings to prognosis...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443079/gene-regulation-and-targeted-therapy-in-gastric-cancer-peritoneal-metastasis-radiological-findings-from-dual-energy-ct-and-pet-ct
#19
Bowen Shi, Huimin Lin, Miao Zhang, Wei Lu, Ying Qu, Huan Zhang
Gastric cancer remains fourth in cancer incidence worldwide with a five-year survival of only 20%-30%. Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of metastasis that accompanies unresectable gastric cancer and is a definitive determinant of prognosis. Preventing and controlling the development of peritoneal metastasis could play a role in helping to prolong the survival of gastric cancer patients. A non-invasive and efficient imaging technique will help us to identify the invasion and metastasis process of peritoneal metastasis and to monitor the changes in tumor nodules in response to treatments...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442350/occult-phosphaturic-mesenchymal-tumor-of-femur-cortex-causing-oncogenic-osteomalacia-diagnostic-challenges-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
Deep Dutta, Raghuvansh Kumar Pandey, Rakhee Gogoi, Nagender Solanki, Renu Madan, Anupam Mondal, Shruti Dogra, Pradeep Thapa
BACKGROUND: Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) are extremely rare paraneoplastic syndrome with less than 300 reported cases. This report highlights the pitfalls and challenges in diagnosing and localizing TIO in patients with refractory and resistant osteomalacia. PATIENT AND METHODS: 41- year gentleman with 4-year history of musculoskeletal weakness and pathologic fractures presented in wheelchair bound incapacitated state of 1-year duration. Investigations were significant for severe hypophosphatemia, severe phosphaturia, normal serum calcium, reduced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin-D, elevated ALP, elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and pseudo-fractures involving pelvis and bilateral femur...
February 14, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
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