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Retinoblastoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646513/long-term-outcomes-of-group-d-retinoblastoma-eyes-during-the-intravitreal-melphalan-era
#1
Jesse L Berry, Sona Shah, Mercy Bechtold, Emily Zolfaghari, Rima Jubran, Jonathan W Kim
BACKGROUND: To evaluate outcomes of Group D retinoblastoma (Rb) eyes during the intravitreal melphalan era. PROCEDURE: Retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with Group D Rb from 2011 to 2016 was done. Overall, 76 Group D eyes of 68 patients were included; salvage therapy included systemic chemoreduction with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin with local consolidation, followed by intravitreal injection of melphalan for recurrent or persistent seeding...
June 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643706/orbital-retinoblastoma-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Santosh G Honavar, Fairooz P Manjandavida, Vijay Anand P Reddy
Orbital extension is a major cause of death in children with retinoblastoma in the developing countries. Delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcome. Conventional treatment including primary orbital exenteration or chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone result in mortality as high as 70%. The recent understanding on the role of sequential multimodal therapy with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy, followed by appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy has helped dramatically improve life salvage...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636942/extensive-proliferation-of-human-cancer-cells-with-ever-shorter-telomeres
#3
Rebecca A Dagg, Hilda A Pickett, Axel A Neumann, Christine E Napier, Jeremy D Henson, Erdahl T Teber, Jonathan W Arthur, C Patrick Reynolds, Jayne Murray, Michelle Haber, Alexander P Sobinoff, Loretta M S Lau, Roger R Reddel
Acquisition of replicative immortality is currently regarded as essential for malignant transformation. This is achieved by activating a telomere lengthening mechanism (TLM), either telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres, to counter normal telomere attrition. However, a substantial proportion of some cancer types, including glioblastomas, liposarcomas, retinoblastomas, and osteosarcomas, are reportedly TLM-negative. As serial samples of human tumors cannot usually be obtained to monitor telomere length changes, it has previously been impossible to determine whether tumors are truly TLM-deficient, there is a previously unrecognized TLM, or the assay results are false-negative...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633655/inhibition-of-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-decreases-cellular-migration-and-angiogenesis-in-in-vitro-models-of-retinoblastoma
#4
Anderson H Webb, Bradley T Gao, Zachary K Goldsmith, Andrew S Irvine, Nabil Saleh, Ryan P Lee, Justin B Lendermon, Rajini Bheemreddy, Qiuhua Zhang, Rachel C Brennan, Dianna Johnson, Jena J Steinle, Matthew W Wilson, Vanessa M Morales-Tirado
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in children. Local treatment of the intraocular disease is usually effective if diagnosed early; however advanced Rb can metastasize through routes that involve invasion of the choroid, sclera and optic nerve or more broadly via the ocular vasculature. Metastatic Rb patients have very high mortality rates. While current therapy for Rb is directed toward blocking tumor cell division and tumor growth, there are no specific treatments targeted to block Rb metastasis...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630028/the-effect-of-enucleation-on-orbital-growth-in-patients-with-retinoblastoma
#5
Julius T Oatts, Julie A Robbins, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes
PURPOSE: To measure orbital volume using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to determine the effect of enucleation on orbital growth over time. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent unilateral enucleation for retinoblastoma with a minimum of 2 MRIs were retrospectively reviewed. Orbital asymmetry was calculated using MRI measurements. Nonlinear and linear mixed effect regression models were used to predict the effect of age at time of enucleation on degree of orbital asymmetry...
June 16, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628830/breviscapine-bvp-inhibits-prostate-cancer-progression-through-damaging-dna-by-minichromosome-maintenance-protein-7-mcm-7-modulation
#6
Yang-Bo Guan, Dong-Rong Yang, Shao-Jun Nong, Jian Ni, Chun-Hui Hu, Jian Li, Jin Zhu, Yu-Xi Shan
Naturally occurring compounds are reported as effective candidates for prevention and treatment of various cancers. Breviscapine (BVP) is a mixture of flavonoid glycosides, derived from the Chinese herbs. Previous researches have indicated that BVP has comprehensive pharmacological functions. However, little is known about whether BVP has preventive effects on human prostate cancer. Here, we attempted to explore if BVP inhibits human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo in a comprehensive manner. We found that BVP triggered cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell lines dose-dependently...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627594/microrna-320-inhibits-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-retinoblastoma-by-targeting-specificity-protein-1
#7
Yuehua Zhao, Shilian Zhang, Yongfeng Zhang
Research into the expression and function of microRNAs (miRNAs/miR) in human cancer has provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in retinoblastoma (RB) and several other types of human cancer. The present study demonstrated that miR‑320 is significantly downregulated in RB tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑320 was demonstrated to inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion of RB cells...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622397/looking-for-the-most-suitable-orthotopic-retinoblastoma-mouse-model-in-order-to-characterize-the-tumoral-development
#8
Stéphanie Lemaitre, Florent Poyer, Sergio Marco, Paul Fréneaux, François Doz, Isabelle Aerts, Laurence Desjardins, Nathalie Cassoux, Carole D Thomas
Purpose: Because retinoblastoma therapies have many adverse effects, new approaches must be developed and evaluated on animal models. We describe orthotopic xenograft models of retinoblastoma using different strains of mice, suitable for this purpose. Methods: Human retinoblastoma tumors were established on immunodeficient mice by subcutaneous engraftment of tumors from enucleated eyes. The orthotopic model was obtained by subretinal injections of suspension cells into the right eye of immunodeficient (Swiss-nude, severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]) and immunocompetent mice (C57BL/6N, B6Albino)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620731/retinoblastoma
#9
Raksha Rao, Santosh G Honavar
Retinoblastoma represents 3% of all childhood cancers, and is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. It is fatal, if untreated. White eye reflex, also known as leukocoria, is the commonest sign, followed by strabismus. The pediatricians have a very important role to play in the diagnosis of this relatively rare, but easily detectable tumor. Early diagnosis yields better results. The management of retinoblastoma has gradually evolved over the past few decades, with an aim to not only preserve life and eye, but also optimize residual vision...
June 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614707/linker-histone-h1-2-directs-genome-wide-chromatin-association-of-the-retinoblastoma-tumor-suppressor-protein-and-facilitates-its-function
#10
Shonagh Munro, Edward S Hookway, Melanie Floderer, Simon M Carr, Rebecca Konietzny, Benedikt M Kessler, Udo Oppermann, Nicholas B La Thangue
The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is a master regulator of cellular proliferation, principally through interaction with E2F and regulation of E2F target genes. Here, we describe the H1.2 linker histone as a major pRb interaction partner. We establish that H1.2 and pRb are found in a chromatin-bound complex on diverse E2F target genes. Interrogating the global influence of H1.2 on the genome-wide distribution of pRb indicated that the E2F target genes affected by H1.2 are functionally linked to cell-cycle control, consistent with the ability of H1...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611330/mini-review-multifaceted-role-played-by-cyclin-d1-in-tumor-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Reena Rachel John, N Malathi, C Ravindran, Soumya Anandan
The objective of this paper is to discuss and put forward the various diversified roles of cyclin D1 in cancer. Neoplasia is defined by abnormal regulation of the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 could be a protein derived from the PRAD1, CCND1, or bcl-1 sequence on body 11q13 that is concerned in each traditional regulation of the cell cycle and pathologic process. Within the G1 (resting) part of the cell cycle, cyclin D1 in conjunction with its cyclin-dependent enzyme (cyclin-dependent kinase) partner is accountable for transition to the S (DNA synthesis) part by phosphorylating the merchandise of the metastatic tumor sequence (protein retinoblastoma) that then releases transcription factors vital within the initiation of DNA replication...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611142/bilateral-persistent-fetal-vasculature-mimicker-of-retinoblastoma
#12
Jogender Kumar, Arushi Yadav
We describe a case of bilateral persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) in a 3-month-old boy who presented with bilateral white pupillary reflex and a possible diagnosis of retinoblastoma. On ultrasonography, there was an echogenic band in the posterior segment of both eyes which connected the posterior surface of the lens capsule to the optic disc. Colour Doppler revealed the presence of vascularity in the band along its entire length. No calcification or mass lesion was seen. These findings are diagnostic of PFV...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608043/a-mathematical-model-of-cell-cycle-dysregulation-due-to-human-papillomavirus-infection
#13
Anna K Miller, Karl Munger, Frederick R Adler
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect mucosal epithelium can be classified as high risk or low risk based on their propensity to cause lesions that can undergo malignant progression. HPVs produce the E7 protein that binds to cell cycle regulatory proteins including the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) to modulate cell cycle control. Generally, high-risk HPV E7 proteins bind to RB with a higher affinity than low-risk HPV E7s, but both are able to deactivate RB and trigger S phase progression...
June 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607957/analysis-of-patient-outcomes-following-proton-radiation-therapy-for-retinoblastoma
#14
Kent W Mouw, Beow Y Yeap, Paul Caruso, Aaron Fay, Madhusmita Misra, Roshan V Sethi, Shannon M MacDonald, Yen-Lin Chen, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock, Suzanne K Freitag, John E Munzenrider, Eric Grabowski, Michelle Katz, Karen Kuhlthau, Dawn DeCastro, Gena Heidary, Jessica Ciralsky, Shizuo Mukai, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: Proton radiotherapy (PRT) is used in the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB) and has the potential to minimize exposure of normal tissue to radiation and thus decrease risk of toxicity and second malignancies. However, comprehensive analyses of long-term patient outcomes are not available. METHODS: RB patients treated with PRT at our institution between 1986 and 2012 were invited to return for participation in a study designed to assess long-term outcomes...
January 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606997/hpv-e7-induces-chemotherapy-mediated-tumor-suppression-by-ceramide-dependent-mitophagy
#15
Raquela J Thomas, Natalia Oleinik, Shanmugam Panneer Selvam, Silvia G Vaena, Mohammed Dany, Rose N Nganga, Ryan Depalma, Kyla D Baron, Jisun Kim, Zdzislaw M Szulc, Besim Ogretmen
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked to improved survival in response to chemo-radiotherapy for patients with oropharynx head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, mechanisms involved in increased HNSCC cell death by HPV signaling in response to therapy are largely unknown. Here, using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic tools, we show that HPV early protein 7 (E7) enhances ceramide-mediated lethal mitophagy in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular stress in HPV-positive HNSCC cells by selectively targeting retinoblastoma protein (RB)...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606269/-application-of-gene-capture-technology-on-mutation-screening-of-rb1-gene-in-retinoblastoma-patients
#16
Q Y Meng, L Z Huang, B Wang, X X Li, J H Liang
Objectives: To analyze RB1 gene mutation in retinoblastoma (RB) patients using gene capture technology. Methods: Experimental research. The clinical data of 17 RB patients were collected at Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People's Hospital from June 2010 to Jun 2014. Peripheral blood samples of seventeen RB patients and their parents were collected and genomic DNA were extracted. DNA library from RB patients was mixed with designed gene capture probe of RB1 exons and its flanking sequences. The data were analyzed using bioinformatics software...
June 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600304/second-primary-malignancies-in-retinoblastoma-patients-treated-with-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-the-first-10-years
#17
Larissa A Habib, Jasmine H Francis, Armida Wm Fabius, Pierre Y Gobin, Ira J Dunkel, David H Abramson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Survivors of retinoblastoma carry a lifetime risk of secondary malignancies. It is well established that external beam radiation increases this risk; however, the risk with ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) remains unknown. We report on 10 years of experience with OAC and the rate of second primary malignancy (SPM) development. METHODS: This is a single-centre retrospective review approved by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Institutional Review Board of all patients who received OAC over a 10-year period, from May 2006 to November 2016...
June 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596499/retrospective-investigation-of-retinoblastoma-in-chinese-patients
#18
Liwen Jin, Wei Zhang, Hong Pan, Tengyan Li, Beihong Liu, Junyang Zhao, Binbin Wang
This is a retrospective investigation of patients with Retinoblastoma (RB) conducted from 2013 to 2016 at the Quanzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China). Demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and risk factors were studied.In total, 436 patients were included in the study. Most of the findings obtained in this study are consistent with other previous reports. The male: female ratio was 1.41:1, and the unilateral: bilateral ratio was 1.51:1. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (79...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595801/deregulation-of-hsa-mir-20b-expression-in-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-premature-senescence-of-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#19
Pooi-Fong Wong, Juliana Jamal, Kind-Leng Tong, Eng-Soon Khor, Chia-Earn Yeap, Hui-Lan Jong, Sui-Ting Lee, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Sazaly Abubakar
miRNAs are important regulators of cellular senescence yet the extent of their involvement remains to be investigated. We sought to identify miRNAs that are involved in cytokine-induced premature senescence (CIPS) in endothelial cells. CIPS was established in young human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls) following treatment with a sublethal dose (20ng/ml) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) for 15days. In parallel, HMVEC-Ls were grown and routinely passaged until the onset of replicative senescence (RS)...
June 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592291/tightly-controlled-mrtf-a-activity-regulates-epithelial-differentiation-during-formation-of-mammary-acini
#20
Anja Seifert, Guido Posern
BACKGROUND: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF) A and B link actin dynamics and mechanotransduction to gene expression. In mice, MRTF-A is involved in mammary gland differentiation, but its role in human mammary epithelial cells remains unclear. METHODS: Three-dimensional cultures of human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells were used to model acinar morphogenesis. Stable MRTF-A knockdown, MRTF-A/B rescue and MRTF-A/B overexpression was established to characterize the functional role during morphogenesis using confocal microscopy and expression analysis...
June 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
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