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Sarah E Kohe, Christopher D Bennett, Simrandip K Gill, Martin Wilson, Carmel McConville, Andrew C Peet
The rare pediatric embryonal tumors retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma derive from neuroectodermal tissue and share similar histopathological features despite different anatomical locations and diverse clinical outcomes. As metabolism can reflect genetic and histological features, we investigated whether the metabolism of embryonal tumors reflects their similar histology, shared developmental and neural origins, or tumor location. We undertook metabolic profiling on 50 retinoblastoma, 39 medulloblastoma and 70 neuroblastoma using high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS)...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Antoneicka L Harris, Samantha E Lee, Louis K Dawson, Laura A Marlow, Brandy H Edenfield, William F Durham, Thomas J Flotte, Michael Thompson, Daniel L Small, Aidan J Synnott, Svetomir N Markovic, John A Copland
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse models were used to discover new therapies for naïve and drug resistant BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma. Tumor histology, oncogenic protein expression, and antitumor activity were comparable between patient and PDTX-matched models thereby validating PDTXs as predictive preclinical models of therapeutic response in patients. PDTX models responsive and non-responsive to BRAF/MEK standard of care (SOC) therapy were used to identify efficacious combination therapies. One such combination includes a CDK4/6 inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhaoyun Liu, Hui Liu, Xin Yuan, Yihao Wang, Lijuan Li, Guojin Wang, Jia Song, Zonghong Shao, Rong Fu
Pim-2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly expressed in various types of cancer, with essential roles in the regulation of signal transduction cascades, which promote cell survival and proliferation. The present study demonstrated that Pim-2 was expressed in cells lines derived from hematopoietic tumors and lung cancer. In vitro , downregulation of Pim-2 by short interfering RNA inhibited proliferation and delayed G0 /G1 cell cycle progression in K562 leukemia, RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and H1299 and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Mohammad Idrees Adhi, Sumbul Kashif, Kashif Muhammed, Nisar Siyal
OBJECTIVE: To document clinical pattern of retinoblastoma in Pakistani population. METHODS: This retrospective study, which was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, reviewed clinical records of patients with retinoblastoma from 1997 to 2012. Staging of disease was done by referring to retinal diagrams, RetCam images, and first magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmic notes, imaging reports and histopathology reports of enucleated eyes established optic nerve involvement...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Daphne L Mourits, Dyonne T Hartong, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Machteld I Bosscha, H Stevie Tan, Annette C Moll
PURPOSE: To report the cosmetic outcome and late effects of enucleation and/or irradiation for retinoblastoma and to evaluate the role of orbital implants. METHODS: Patients (age >4 years) enucleated and/or irradiated for retinoblastoma, visiting the hospital for routine follow-up (April 2013 to May 2015), were included in our cross-sectional study. Data were obtained via clinical records, questionnaires, physical measurements and standardized photographs. Two independent observers scored the cosmetic features: upper eyelid position, lower eyelid position, volume deficiency, and prosthesis motility and overall cosmetic appearance...
March 14, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Simona Ceccarelli, Cristina Nodale, Enrica Vescarelli, Paola Pontecorvi, Valeria Manganelli, Giovanni Casella, Maria Giuseppina Onesti, Maurizio Sorice, Ferdinando Romano, Antonio Angeloni, Cinzia Marchese
Adipogenesis is regulated by a complex network of molecules, including fibroblast growth factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been previously reported to promote proliferation on rat preadipocytes, although the expression of its specific receptor, FGFR2-IIIb/KGFR, is not actually detected in mesenchymal cells. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show increased expression of KGF during adipogenic differentiation, especially in the early steps. Moreover, KGF is able to induce transient activation of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways in these cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Shwetha V Kumar, Philip J Lupo, Lisa A Pompeii, Heather E Danysh
The environmental determinants of pediatric embryonal tumors remain unclear. Because of the growing concern over the impact of exposures to traffic-related air pollution on pediatric cancer, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the impact of maternal residential proximity to major roadways on the risk of pediatric embryonal tumors in offspring. We identified children diagnosed with neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, retinoblastoma, or hepatoblastoma at <5 years of age from the Texas Cancer Registry and selected unaffected controls from birth certificates...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lata Singh, Neeru Saini, Neelam Pushker, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Sen, Tapas C Nag, Seema Kashyap
Alteration in mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The Displacement Loop (D-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the regulatory region for its replication and transcription. Therefore, we aimed to characterize mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA along with the morphological changes and analyzed their impact on survival in retinoblastoma patients. mtDNA D-loop region was amplified by Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and mutations were analyzed in 60 tumor samples from retinoblastoma patients by DNA sequencing...
March 12, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Lili Zhang, Tao Gao, Yi Shen
OBJECTIVE: To study the quality of life of Chinese pediatric patients with retinoblastoma (RB) after enucleation and the influencing factors. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was performed on 71 cases of pediatric patients with RB after enucleation and 80 cases of healthy children, using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™ 4.0). RESULTS: The social dimension scores, school dimension scores, and total scores for the PedsQL™ 4...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Chi-Han Wu, Fon-Chang Liu, Chun-Hsu Pan, Ming-Tsung Lai, Shou-Jen Lan, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Ming-Jyh Sheu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activities of ethanolic extracts from Antrodia cinnamomea (EEAC) on lung cancer. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Wound-healing assay, Western blotting, and a murine tumor model were separately used to examine cell migration, protein expression, and tumor repression. Our results showed that EEAC induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase resulting decreased cell viability in A549 cells...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seda Çakmaklı, Tufan Çankaya, Semra Gürsoy, Altuğ Koç, Özgür Kırbıyık, Özge A Kılıçarslan, Erdener Özer, Derya Erçal, Özlem G Bozkaya
Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic condition with an incidence of 1/58,000 in live births. Major clinical features of patients with ring chromosome 13 include growth and developmental retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, ambiguous genitalia, anal atresia, eye malformations, retinoblastoma, and hand, foot, and toe abnormalities. The severity of the phenotype depends on the amount of genetic material lost during ring chromosome formation. Here, we report 2 cases with ring chromosome 13 at either end of the phenotypic spectrum...
March 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Xuemei Du, Fei Qi, Sheyu Lu, Yongchun Li, Wei Han
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke is by far the greatest risk factor for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nicotine, an active alkaloid in tobacco, is unable to initiate tumorigenesis in humans and rodents, but can promote the growth and metastasis of various tumors, including NSCLC, initiated by tobacco carcinogens. Recently, cigarette smoke is reported to downregulate 24 miRNAs more than 3-fold in the lungs of rats, and most of these downregulated miRNAs are associated with NSCLC initiation and development...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maayke M P Kuijten, Jelmer S Remmers, Daphne L Mourits, Annette C Moll, Dyonne T Hartong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shen Wu, Nanping Ai, Qian Liu, Jingxue Zhang
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy during infancy and childhood worldwide. Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to RB initiation and progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, further investigation concerning the expression, roles and associated mechanisms of RB‑related miRNAs may be beneficial to develop novel strategies for patients with this malignancy. Recently, miRNA‑448 (miR‑448) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed and to play an important role in several types of human cancer...
March 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jiang Hua, Shen Gang, Jiang Yizhou, Zhang Jing
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and complications of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for treating advanced refractory retinoblastoma (RB) in a large single-center cohort. Patients and Methods: Eighty-four eyes of 62 consecutive patients with advanced refractory RB who received IAC were included in the study during January 2013 and April 2015. These patients failed to respond adequately to a standard systemic chemotherapy (i.e., carboplatin, vincristine, and etoposide) with or without local therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
David H Abramson, Federica Catalanotti, Scott E Brodie, Michael G Kellick, Jasmine H Francis
BACKGROUND: There has been no effective method for treating newly visible ("new") subretinal seeding in retinoblastoma except enucleation. The objective of this report is to determine whether intravitreal chemotherapy combined with 810 nm indirect laser can successfully treat retinoblastoma eyes with "new" subretinal seeding which appeared after intra-arterial chemotherapy (ophthalmic arterial chemosurgery: OAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single center retrospective study from a tertiary cancer hospital of a case series of 14 eyes treated with combined intravitreal chemotherapy and laser from 2012 to 2017...
March 7, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
Chencheng Feng, Minghui Yang, Yang Zhang, Minghong Lan, Bo Huang, Huan Liu, Yue Zhou
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is a widely recognized contributor to low back pain. Mechanical stress is a crucial etiological factor of IDD. During the process of IDD, a vicious circle is formed between abnormal mechanical stress and the damage of disc structure and function. Notably, the pathological process of IDD is mediated by the phenotypic shift of IVD cells from an extracellular matrix anabolic phenotype to a catabolic and pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, the effects of mechanical stress on the initiation and progression of IDD depend on the mechanobiology of IVD cells...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yi Zhou, Ran Wei, Liu Zhang, Yongjiang Chen, Suying Lu, Chen Liang, Yujiao Wang, Lirong Xiao, Junjun Zhang, Rod Bremner, Danian Chen
Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) promotes cell cycle exit, survival, differentiation, and tumor suppression in the retina. Here, we show it is also essential for vascularization and lamination. Despite minimal effects on Hif1a target expression, intraretinal vascular plexi did not form in the Rb-/- murine retina. Deleting adenovirus E2 promoter binding factor 3 (E2f3), which rescues starburst amacrine cell differentiation, or E2f2, had no effect, but deleting E2f1, which promotes neuronal cell cycle exit and survival, restored retinal vasculature...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Norbert Bornfeld, Eva Biewald, Sebastian Bauer, Petra Temming, Dietmar Lohmann, Michael Zeschnigk
BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen major changes in the diagnosis and treatment of solid intraocular tumors, mainly owing to an improved molecular biological understanding of their pathogenesis, new therapeutic approaches for the local treatment of tumors in children, and long-term follow-up observations in clinical trials. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. RESULTS: Retinoblastoma is the most common type of primary intraocular tumor, with approximately 8000 new cases per year around the world, while malignant melanoma of the uvea is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, with approximately 7000 new cases per year around the world...
February 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Songlin Liu, Yunhong Tang, Xianrui Yuan, Dun Yuan, Junyu Liu, Buyan Li, Yifeng Li
Genomic studies have established a set of three core-signaling pathways, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathways, contributing glioblastoma (GBM) and revealed that dysregulation of at least two pathways is required for GBM progression. In the present study, we investigate efficacy of combination of palbociclib, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, and erlotinib, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor in GBM cell systems with different p53 status. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays showed that the combination treatment synergistically suppressed GBM cell proliferation...
March 6, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
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