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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231293/photoacoustic-imaging-features-of-intraocular-tumors-retinoblastoma-and-uveal-melanoma
#1
Guan Xu, Yafang Xue, Zeynep Gürsel Özkurt, Naziha Slimani, Zizhong Hu, Xueding Wang, Kewen Xia, Teng Ma, Qifa Zhou, Hakan Demirci
The purpose of this study is to examine the capability of photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) in assessing the unique molecular and architectural features in ocular tumors. A real-time PA and ultrasonography (US) parallel imaging system based on a research US platform was developed to examine retinoblastoma in mice in vivo and human retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma ex vivo. PA signals were generated by optical illumination at 720, 750, 800, 850, 900 and 950 nm delivered through a fiber optical bundle. The optical absorption spectra of the tumors were derived from the PA images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229975/diverse-roles-of-wdr5-rbbp5-ash2l-dpy30-wrad-complex-in-the-functions-of-the-set1-histone-methyltransferase-family
#2
Aamir Ali, Shweta Tyagi
WD repeat containing protein 5 (WDR5), Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 5 (RbBP5), Absent-Small-Homeotic-2- Like protein (ASH2L), and Dumpy-30 (Dpy30) have been reported to be the integral and shared components of all the SET1 family of histone 3 lysine 4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. Collectively called the WRAD complex, these proteins are pivotal to the HMT activity of the SET1 complexes. Recent reports highlight the novel non-canonical functions of WRAD in cellular processes other than its well-studied role in histone methylation and gene expression...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229086/rb-an-essential-player-in-adult-neurogenesis
#3
Bensun C Fong, Ruth S Slack
The fundamental mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis remain to be fully clarified. Members of the cell cycle machinery have demonstrated key roles in regulating adult neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence and the size of the adult-born neuronal population. The retinoblastoma protein, Rb, is known to possess CNS-specific requirements that are independent from its classical role as a tumor suppressor. The recent study by Vandenbosch et al. has clarified distinct requirements for Rb during adult neurogenesis, in the restriction of proliferation, as well as long-term adult-born neuronal survival...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228407/retrobulbar-ocular-blood-flow-changes-measured-by-colour-doppler-imaging-after-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma
#4
Kang Xue, Ailin Liu, Ren Hui, Jing Zhang, Jiang Qian
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of intra-arterial chemotherapy on retrobulbar blood flow parameters in patients with retinoblastoma. METHODS: This was a case-control study. 20 eyes of 10 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma that were treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy were evaluated using colour Doppler imaging. The peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries were determined. The pulsatility and resistance indices were calculated automatically...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228136/circulating-tumor-cells-capture-disease-evolution-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#5
Justin Lack, Marc Gillard, Maggie Cam, Gladell P Paner, David J VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of advanced cancer is limited by availability of representative tissue. Biopsies of prostate cancer metastasized to bone are invasive with low quantity of tumor tissue. The prostate cancer genome is dynamic, however, with temporal heterogeneity requiring repeated evaluation as the disease evolves. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an alternative, "liquid biopsy", though single CTC sequencing efforts are laborious with high failure rates. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing of matched treatment-naïve tumor tissue, castrate resistant tumor tissue, and pooled CTC samples, and compared mutations identified in each...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221729/risk-of-metastasis-and-orbital-recurrence-in-advanced-retinoblastoma-eyes-treated-with-systemic-chemoreduction-versus-primary-enucleation
#6
Jesse L Berry, Kaitlin Kogachi, Hassan A Aziz, Kathleen McGovern, Emily Zolfaghari, A Linn Murphree, Rima Jubran, Jonathan W Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of metastatic disease and orbital recurrence in advanced retinoblastoma treated with systemic chemoreduction versus primary enucleation. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with Group D/E retinoblastoma was conducted with data collection from 1995 to 2015. Overall, 345 eyes (294 patients) were included (165 Group D and 180 Group E). Primary outcome measures were orbital recurrence and metastatic disease...
April 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214635/secondary-craniofacial-sarcomas-following-retinoblastoma-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Ryuya Yamanaka, Azusa Hayano
OBJECTIVE: We conducted the largest systematic review of individual patient data to characterize secondary craniofacial sarcomas following retinoblastoma. METHODS: We conducted a systemic search of the PubMed databases, and compiled a comprehensive literature review. Student t-tests were used to evaluate differences between variables. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival. Statistical significance was assessed by using a log-rank test. RESULTS: We analyzed 220 cases of secondary craniofacial sarcomas, including 112 osteosarcomas...
February 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213351/mycn-drives-rb-null-retinoblastoma-initiation
#8
(no author information available yet)
Overexpression of MYCN overcomes a proliferative block to drive RB-deficient retinoblastoma.
February 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213288/inhibition-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-rhoa-p27-kip1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt4-signaling-pathway
#9
Qunyi Li, Lei Zhu, Liudi Zhang, Haifei Chen, Yingfeng Zhu, Yongli Du, Wanxian Zhong, Mingkang Zhong, Xiaojin Shi
RhoA/p27(Kip1) and β-Catenin/Wnt4 signaling processes play central roles in proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). ERRα, a member of orphan nuclear receptors, is a potent prognostic factor in breast, ovarian, colon and other types of tumors. However, biological significance of ERRα in VSMCs as well as the molecular mechanisms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether ERRα is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211617/phosphorylation-of-prb-mechanism-for-rb-pathway-inactivation-in-mycn-amplified-retinoblastoma
#10
Kathryn G Ewens, Tricia R Bhatti, Kimberly A Moran, Jennifer Richards-Yutz, Carol L Shields, Ralph C Eagle, Arupa Ganguly
A small, but unique subgroup of retinoblastoma has been identified with no detectable mutation in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) and with high levels of MYCN gene amplification. This manuscript investigated alternate pathways of inactivating pRb, the encoded protein in these tumors. We analyzed the mutation status of the RB1 gene and MYCN copy number in a series of 245 unilateral retinoblastomas, and the phosphorylation status of pRb in a subset of five tumors using immunohistochemistry. There were 203 tumors with two mutations in RB1 (RB1(-/-) , 83%), 29 with one (RB1(+/-) , 12%) and 13 with no detectable mutations (RB1(+/+) , 5%)...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210099/study-of-polymorphisms-in-the-tp53-and-rb1-genes-in-children-with-retinoblastoma-in-northern-mexico
#11
Edwin J Anaya-Pava, Jesús Nares-Cisneros, Rubén I Cárdenas-Hernández, Yolanda Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Graciela Zambrano-Galván
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and association of polymorphisms in the TP53 and RB1 genes with clinical characteristics in a group of children with retinoblastoma (RB) in northern Mexico. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study of 11 patients diagnosed with RB was conducted. Endpoint PCR and high-resolution real-time PCR were performed. Chi-square and Student t tests were used to evaluate associations between variables. Allelic frequencies, as well as genotypic and Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums, were evaluated using Guo and Thompson's method...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207189/effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-co-culture-on-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-normal-human-keratinocytes
#12
Shyam Kishor Sah, Hae Young Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Seong-Wook Lee, Hyung-Sik Kim, Yeon-Soo Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Tae-Yoon Kim
The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we co-cultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ) concentration. High Ca(2+) environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca(2+) environment in TGFβ1-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203301/progress-with-palbociclib-in-breast-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Rocca, Alessio Schirone, Roberta Maltoni, Sara Bravaccini, Lorenzo Cecconetto, Alberto Farolfi, Giuseppe Bronte, Daniele Andreis
Deregulation of the cell cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and research on cell cycle control has allowed identification of potential targets for anticancer treatment. Palbociclib is a selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), which are involved, with their coregulatory partners cyclin D, in the G1-S transition. Inhibition of this step halts cell cycle progression in cells in which the involved pathway, including the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the E2F family of transcription factors, is functioning, although having been deregulated...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197540/an-rb-insensitive-to-cdk-regulation
#14
Manel Joaquin, Eulàlia de Nadal, Francesc Posas
The N-term phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (RB) by the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) makes RB insensitive to cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-Cyclin inhibition, which enhances the transcriptional repression of E2F-driven promoters and delays tumor cell growth. This novel mechanism of RB regulation opens up a window for developing new cancer drug treatments for tumors harboring high CDK-Cyclin activity and a wild-type RB gene.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196267/detection-of-minimally-visible-recurrent-retinoblastoma-by-hand-held-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Maria E Gonzalez-Montpetit, Wasim A Samara, George N Magrath, Carol L Shields
A 2-month-old male infant with bilateral familial retinoblastoma was treated with intravenous chemotherapy and focal adjuvant therapy. At 5 months of follow-up, fundus examination and ultrasonography disclosed no recurrence; however, hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) demonstrated subclinical recurrence within a previous regression scar. Subsequent treatment led to flat scar. Hand-held SD-OCT can be a useful tool for detection of subclinical recurrent retinoblastoma. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195618/preclinical-acute-ocular-safety-study-of-combined-intravitreal-carboplatin-and-etoposide-phosphate-for-retinoblastoma
#16
Brian G Mohney, Victor M Elner, Andrew B Smith, J William Harbour, Brian D Smith, David C Musch, Stephen J Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular toxicity of intravitreal carboplatin and etoposide phosphate (VP16P) in Dutch-Belted rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two adult male Dutch-Belted rabbits (Cohort 1) each received a single, bilateral intravitreal injection (0.05 mL). For Cohort 1, safety was assessed via electroretinograms (ERGs) and ocular examination. Of nine total groups in Cohort 1, the first five received the following single agents: Group 1: normal saline; Group 2: VP16P 75 µg; Group 3: VP16P 100 µg; Group 4: carboplatin 4 µg; and Group 5: carboplatin 8 µg...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193182/de-novo-mutational-profile-in-rb1-clarified-using-a-mutation-rate-modeling-algorithm
#17
Varun Aggarwala, Arupa Ganguly, Benjamin F Voight
BACKGROUND: Studies of de novo mutations offer great promise to improve our understanding of human disease. After a causal gene has been identified, it is natural to hypothesize that disease relevant mutations accumulate within a sub-sequence of the gene - for example, an exon, a protein domain, or at CpG sites. These assessments are typically qualitative, because we lack methodology to assess the statistical significance of sub-gene mutational burden ultimately to infer disease-relevant biology...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191765/generation-of-osteosarcomas-from-a-combination-of-rb-silencing-and-c-myc-overexpression-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Jir-You Wang, Po-Kuei Wu, Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chia-Wen Lee, Wei-Ming Chen, Shih-Chieh Hung
Osteosarcoma (OS) was a malignant tumor occurring with unknown etiology that made prevention and early diagnosis difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were found in bone marrow, were claimed to be a possible origin of OS but with little direct evidence. We aimed to characterize OS cells transformed from human MSCs (hMSCs) and identify their association with human primary OS cells and patient survival. Genetic modification with p53 or retinoblastoma (Rb) knockdown and c-Myc or Ras overexpression was applied for hMSC transformation...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188219/distinct-effects-of-mir-210-reduction-on-neurogenesis-increased-neuronal-survival-of-inflammation-but-reduced-proliferation-associated-with-mitochondrial-enhancement
#19
Ludmila A Voloboueva, Xiaoyun Sun, Lijun Xu, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Rona G Giffard
Neurogenesis is essential to brain development, and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). However, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by post-injury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185804/7-cyclopentyl-5-4-phenoxyphenyl-7h-pyrrolo-2-3-d-pyrimidin-4-ylamine-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-suppressing-erk-and-akt-pathways
#20
Hyang-Hee Seo, Sang Woo Kim, Chang Youn Lee, Kyu Hee Lim, Jiyun Lee, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Ki-Chul Hwang
Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury significantly contributes to the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, inhibiting the proliferation and migration of VSMCs is a validated therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, we screened chemical compounds for their anti-proliferative effects on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as MTT assays, wound healing assays, and trans-well migration assays...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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