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Nuclear medicine

Michael B Wayson, Wesley E Bolch
Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10-year-old, and adult...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Michael B Wayson, Wesley E Bolch
Various computational tools are currently available that facilitate patient organ dosimetry in diagnostic nuclear medicine, yet they are typically restricted to reporting organ doses to ICRP-defined reference phantoms. The present study, while remaining computational phantom based, provides straightforward tools to adjust reference phantom organ dose for both internal photon and electron sources. A wide variety of monoenergetic specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed using radiation transport simulations for tissue spheres of varying size and separation distance...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hans J Biersack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
C M S Hassing, T F Tvedskov, N Kroman, T L Klausen, J B Drejøe, J F Tvedskov, T-L Lambine, H Kledal, G Lelkaitis, L Langhans
BACKGROUND: Radioactive seed localisation (RSL) is a preoperative localisation method using a small titanium seed containing iodine-125. The method is increasingly applied for localising non-palpable lesions in the treatment of breast cancer. We believe that RSL has the potential to be used in various surgical specialties. The aim of this feasibility study was to test RSL as a preoperative localisation of non-palpable lymph nodes. METHODS: Between November 24, 2015 and October 26, 2016, 15 patients with suspicious lymph nodes on imaging were included in the study...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Matheus Roque, Sandro C Esteves
Varicocele, the leading cause of male infertility, can impair sperm quality and fertility via various oxidative stress mechanisms. An imbalance between excessive reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant protection causes alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial sperm DNA, thus rendering a subset of varicocele men less fertile. In particular, sperm DNA fragmentation is usually elevated in men with clinical varicocele in both abnormal and normal semen parameters by the current World Health Organization criteria...
March 14, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
David L Chan, Lesley Moody, Eva Segelov, David Metz, Jonathan Strosberg, Nick Pavlakis, Simron Singh
<br>Objectives: There is no consensus regarding optimal follow-up in resected GEP-NETS. We aimed to perform a practice survey to ascertain follow-up patterns by health care practitioners and highlight areas of variation that may benefit from further quantitative research. METHODS: A web-based survey targeted at NET health care providers in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States was developed by a steering committee of medical oncologists and a research methodologist...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
C Boy, T Poeppel, J Kotzerke, B J Krause, H Amthauer, R P Baum, I Buchmann, S Ezziddin, D Führer, M Gabriel, T Kuwert, H Lahner, T Lauenstein, H R Maecke, J Nagarajah, F Rösch, K Scheidhauer, M Schmidt, M A Walter, A Bockisch
The present guideline is focused on quality assurance of somatostatin receptor PET/CT (SSTR-PET/CT) in oncology patients. The document has been developed by a multidisciplinary board of specialists providing consensus of definitions, prerequisites, methodology, operating procedures, assessment, and standardized reporting. In particular, imaging procedures for the two most commonly used radioligands of human SSTR, i. e. 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE are presented. Overall, SSTR-PET/CT requires close interdisciplinary communication and cooperation of referring and executing medical disciplines, taking into account existing guidelines and recommendations of the European and German medical societies, including the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), German Society for Endocrinology (DGE), German Society for Nuclear Medicine (DGN) and German Society for Radiology (DRG)...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Simona Adesso, Rosario Russo, Andrea Quaroni, Giuseppina Autore, Stefania Marzocco
Astragalus membranaceus , dried root extract, also known as Astragali radix , is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic remedy. Moreover, it has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus could attenuate intestinal inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated Astragalus membranaceus extract (5-100 µg/mL) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress for IECs. We showed that Astragalus membranaceus extract reduced the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide from E...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hongxiang Zhang, Fan Wu, Wenli Guo, Rong Bai, Zhuanzhuan Yan, Blaise Pascal Muvunyi, Qi Yan, Yufei Zhang, Xianfeng Yi, Jiyu Zhang
Melilotus is an important genus of legume plants and an herbage with excellent nitrogen fixation; it can tolerate extreme environmental conditions and possesses important medicinal value. However, there is limited genetic information about the genus; thus, we analysed four chloroplast loci (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS) to determine the genetic diversity of 199 accessions from 18 Melilotus species. The rbcL and matK sequences were highly conserved, whereas the trnL-F and ITS sequences contained variable and parsimony-informative sites...
2018: PloS One
Zhaomeng Wu, Qingyi Zhu, Yingying Yin, Dan Kang, Runyi Cao, Qian Tian, Yu Zhang, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a combined therapeutic result in cancer treatment by integrating holistic and local therapeutical effects, by which TCM can enhance the curative effect and reduce the side effect. In this study, we analyzed the effect of CFF-1 (alcohol extract from an anticancer compound Chinese medicine) on prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and studied in detail the mechanism of cell death induced by CFF-1 in vitro and in vivo. From our data, we found for the first time that CFF-1 obviously arrested cell cycle in G1 phase, decreased cell viability and then increased nuclear rupture in a dose-dependent manner and finally resulted in apoptosis in prostate cancer cells...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Seung-Heon Shin, Mi-Kyung Ye, Sung-Yong Choi, Kwan-Kyu Park
Bee venom (BV) has long been used as anti-inflammatory agent in traditional oriental medicine; however, the effect of BV on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is not commonly studied. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of BV on an allergic CRS mouse model. An allergic CRS mouse model was established following the administration of ovalbumin with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) into the nose. A total of 0.5 or 5 ng/ml of BV were intranasally applied 3 times a week for 8 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Weiqing Qian, Yan Su, Yajie Zhang, Nianwei Yao, Nin Gu, Xu Zhang, Hong Yin
Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem and icariin (ICA) is the active component of the Epimedium sagittatum, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of ICA as a potential therapy for osteoporosis. Calvaria osteoblasts were isolated from newborn rats and treated with ICA. Cell viability, apoptosis, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition were analyzed. Bioinformatics analyses were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in response to ICA treatment...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ji-Won Park, Han-Sol Lee, Yourim Lim, Jin-Hyub Paik, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Jung-Hee Kim, Imam Paryanto, Prasetyawan Yunianto, Sangho Choi, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Rhododendron album Blume (RA) has traditionally been used as an herbal medicine and is considered to have anti‑inflammatory properties. It is a well‑known medicine for treatment of allergic or atopic diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of an RA methanol extract (RAME) on inflammation were investigated in tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)/interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ)‑stimulated human keratinocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms by which RAME inhibited TNF‑α/IFN‑γ‑induced expression of chemokines [thymus‑ and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage‑derived chemokine (MDC)] and cytokines [interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑8] through the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway in human keratinocytes...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Hyung Won Ryu, Jin-Hyub Paik, Imam Paryanto, Prasetyawan Yuniato, Sangho Choi, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a perennial climber in general, is used for treating many ailments in conventional medicine. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extracts of P. foetida L. (PFME) and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling in the regulation of inflammation were investigated. PFME prevented the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage cells. Additionally, PFME reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Furkhan Ahmed Mohammed, Ayman I Elkady, Fareeduddin Quadri Syed, Muqtadir Baig Mirza, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Saleh Alkarim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal herb, Anethum graveolens L. (dill) is one of the potent culinary herbs used as an alternative form of medicine worldwide. The unguent topical Oil from the aerial parts of A. graveolens was found to be effective in the management of uterus cancer in ethnomedicine has been reported. BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rates of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are steadily rising worldwide, especially, in underdeveloped and developing countries...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Caroline C Swift, Meryle J Eklund, Jacqueline M Kraveka, Adina L Alazraki
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. It is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and accounts for up to 15% of all pediatric cancer fatalities. The manifestation of neuroblastoma is variable depending on the location of the tumor and on the presence or absence of paraneoplastic syndromes. The prognosis of neuroblastoma is also highly variable, ranging from spontaneous regression to widespread metastatic disease that is unresponsive to treatment. The age of the patient, stage of disease, histopathologic results, and multiple biologic factors contribute to the presurgical and pretreatment risk stratification of a patient with neuroblastoma...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Philip D Hopkins, Tara Mastren, Justyna Florek, Roy Copping, Mark Brugh, Kevin D John, Meiring F Nortier, Eva R Birnbaum, Freddy Kleitz, Michael E Fassbender
The separation of Th, Pa, and U is of high importance in many applications including nuclear power, nuclear waste, environmental and geochemistry, nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine. Diglycolamide (DGA)-based resins have shown the ability to separate many elements, however, these resins consist of non-covalent impregnation of the DGA molecules on the resin backbone resulting in co-elution of the extraction molecule during separation cycles, therefore limiting their long-term and repeated use. Covalently binding the DGA molecules onto silica is one way to overcome this issue...
March 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Vincenzo Mirabello, Fernando Cortezon-Tamarit, Sofia I Pascu
Hypoxia has been identified as one of the hallmarks of tumor environments and a prognosis factor in many cancers. The development of ideal chemical probes for imaging and sensing of hypoxia remains elusive. Crucial characteristics would include a measurable response to subtle variations of pO2 in living systems and an ability to accumulate only in the areas of interest (e.g., targeting hypoxia tissues) whilst exhibiting kinetic stabilities in vitro and in vivo . A sensitive probe would comprise platforms for applications in imaging and therapy for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) relying on sensitive detection of pO2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Mikako Ogawa, Hideo Takakura
In vivo molecular imaging is a powerful tool to analyze the human body. Precision medicine is receiving high attention these days, and molecular imaging plays an important role as companion diagnostics in precision medicine. Nuclear imaging with PET or SPECT and optical imaging technologies are used for in vivo molecular imaging. Nuclear imaging is superior for quantitative imaging, and whole-body analysis is possible even for humans. Optical imaging is superior due to its ease of use, and highly targeted specific imaging is possible with activatable agents...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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