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Infection control in ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793177/infants-with-prenatally-diagnosed-kidney-anomalies-have-an-increased-risk-of-urinary-tract-infections
#1
Maria Rasmussen, Lone Sunde, René Frydensbjerg Andersen, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Morten Smaerup Olsen
AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of fetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with fetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age...
August 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792500/malaria-malnutrition-and-birthweight-a-meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data
#2
Jordan E Cates, Holger W Unger, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Meghna Desai, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Julie Gutman, Martina Oneko, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Victor Mwapasa, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John P A Lusingu, Anna Maria van Eijk, Melissa Bauserman, Linda Adair, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the interaction between maternal malaria infection and maternal anthropometric status on the risk of LBW using pooled data from 14,633 pregnancies from 13 studies (6 cohort studies and 7 randomized controlled trials) conducted in Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996-2015...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791823/echocardiographic-characteristics-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-children-with-horizontally-transmitted-hiv
#3
Anca Meda Georgescu, Cosmin Moldovan, Janos Szederjesi, Dan Georgescu, Leonard Azamfirei
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of primitive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is estimated at approximately 0.5%, significantly higher than in the general population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the echocardiographic modifications in HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 117 patients, aged under 16, with horizontally transmitted HIV staged according to the U...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776612/overcoming-t-gondii-infection-and-intracellular-protein-nanocapsules-as-biomaterials-for-ultrasonically-controlled-drug-release
#4
REVIEW
M S Aw, L Paniwnyk
One of the pivotal matters of concern in intracellular drug delivery is the preparation of biomaterials containing drugs that are compatible with the host target. Nanocapsules for oral delivery are found to be suitable candidates for targeting Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a maneuvering and smart protozoic parasite found across Europe and America that causes a subtle but deadly infection. To overcome this disease, there is much potential of integrating protein-based cells into bioinspired nanocompartments such as via biodegradable cross-linked disulfide polyelectrolyte nanoparticles...
August 4, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747379/advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumonia-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Heather J Zar, Savvas Andronikou, Mark P Nicol
Pneumonia remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity globally. Accurate diagnosis and attribution of the causes of pneumonia are important for measuring the burden of disease, implementing appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, and developing more effective interventions. This review summarizes recent diagnostic advances in radiological techniques, specimen collection, and laboratory methods. Although chest ultrasound and chest magnetic resonance imaging are promising modalities for radiological diagnosis, their role in clinical management and their impact on outcomes need further study...
July 26, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737875/-intestinal-cystic-duplication-case-report
#6
Ana Herranz Barbero, Jordi Prat Ortells, M Elena Muñoz Fernández, Montserrat Castañón García-Alix, Josep Figueras Aloy
Intestinal cystic duplications are rare congenital anomalies, with an estimated incidence of approximately 1:4500 autopsies. The etiopathogenesis is uncertain. These duplications are cystic, tubular or diverticular structures lined with gastrointestinal mucosa. They share a common smooth muscle wall with the gastrointestinal tract but usually their lumens do not communicate with each other. Gastric duplication cysts represent 7-9% of the gastrointestinal tract duplication. They can be diagnosed prenatally by fetal ultrasound; magnetic resonance imaging characterizes the cyst and excludes other malformations...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722634/cystic-echinococcosis-in-turkana-kenya-the-role-of-cross-sectional-screening-surveys-in-assessing-the-prevalence-of-human-infection
#7
Nadia Solomon, Eberhard Zeyhle, Jane Carter, John Wachira, Asrat Mengiste, Thomas Romig, Paul J Fields, Calum N L Macpherson
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection leads to formation of cysts within the viscera of the human host. In the 1980s, the transhumant population of northwest Turkana, Kenya, was found to have the highest prevalence of CE in the world. In 1983, AMREF Health Africa and the Kenya Medical and Research Institute launched a CE Control Program in northwest Turkana, screening and treating the local people. This epidemiological study of CE in Turkana analyses approximately 30 years of surveillance and surgical data...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721044/stimulated-phase-shift-acoustic-nanodroplets-enhance-vancomycin-efficacy-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#8
Hao Guo, Ziming Wang, Quanyin Du, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Aimin Wang
PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719254/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-cystic-echinococcosis-in-the-cusco-region-of-the-peruvian-highlands-diagnosed-using-focused-abdominal-ultrasound
#9
Francesca Tamarozzi, Amy Hou, Maria Luisa Morales, Maria Teresa Giordani, Freddy Vilca, Karen Mozo, Ruben Bascope, A Clinton White, Enrico Brunetti, Lin Chen, Miguel M Cabada
AbstractLatin America is among the highly endemic regions for cystic echinococcosis (CE). In Peru, an estimated 1,139 disability-adjusted life years are lost annually from surgical treatment of CE. This is comparable with the combined total for Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Chile. The prevalence of human infection has been investigated in the central Peruvian Andes, but there are no community-based screening data from other regions of Peru. We carried out a population survey in January 2015 using abdominal ultrasound to estimate the prevalence of abdominal CE in the Canas and Canchis provinces, in the Cusco region of Peru...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701893/risk-assessment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-general-population-by-liver-stiffness-in-combination-with-controlled-attenuation-parameter-using-transient-elastography-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Takaaki Sugihara, Masahiko Koda, Tomomitsu Matono, Kinya Okamoto, Yoshikazu Murawaki, Hajime Isomoto, Shiho Tokunaga
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients without hepatitis B (HBV) and -C virus (HCV) infection are increasing in Japan. Method for detecting high-risk liver diseases of HCC in general population has still not been established. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) using transient elastography (TE; FibroScan System) are useful for detecting liver fibrosis and steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify TE for risk assessment of HCC in general population...
June 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682866/efficacy-and-safety-of-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-microwave-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-hepatic-alveolar-echinococcosis-a-preliminary-study
#11
Yangdan Cairang, Lingqiang Zhang, Bin Ren, Li Ren, Lizhao Hou, Haijiu Wang, Ying Zhou, Qingxi Zhang, Jun Shao, Haining Fan
The present study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) preliminarily.Seventeen patients diagnosed to HAE and treated with MWA (80 watts, 4 min) were retrospectively analyzed. The upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed at 1, 6, 12 months after the MWA treatment. The complications were evaluated to assess the safety.The diameters of the lesions in the HAE patients ranged from 1.9 to 4.7 cm...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674451/novel-interventional-management-of-hepatic-hydatid-cyst-with-nanosecond-pulses-on-experimental-mouse-model
#12
Xinhua Chen, Ruiqing Zhang, Tuerganaili Aji, Yingmei Shao, Yonggang Chen, Hao Wen
The nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is investigated as an alternative plan for benign hepatic hydatid cyst. Altogether 72 C57B6 mice were included. Normal group (n = 12) had no parasite injection and the other 60 mice were used to induce hydatid cyst in liver by injecting protoscolices in portal vein. The liver hydatid cysts were exposed to nsPEF with different doses and then follow up. The standard surgery was performed as positive control. The hydatid cyst growth was monitored by ultrasound; the morphology was checked by gross anatomy and pathology was tested by H&E stain...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646647/successful-maintenance-of-key-physiological-parameters-in-preterm-lambs-treated-with-ex%C3%A2-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy-for-a-period-of-1-week
#13
Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Yuichiro Miura, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Hideyuki Ikeda, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Tadashi Matsuda, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants born at the border of viability (22-24 weeks' gestation) have high rates of death and lasting disability. Ex vivo uterine environment therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy that provides gas exchange using parallel membranous oxygenators connected to the umbilical vessels, sparing the extremely preterm cardiopulmonary system from ventilation-derived injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to refine our ex vivo uterine environment therapy platform to eliminate fetal infection and inflammation, while simultaneously extending the duration of hemodynamically stable ex vivo uterine environment therapy to 1 week...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595971/bladder-debris-on-renal-and-bladder-ultrasound-a-significant-predictor-of-positive-urine-culture
#14
Joseph W McQuaid, Michael P Kurtz, Tanya Logvinenko, Caleb P Nelson
BACKGROUND: Renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) is recommended in evaluation of children after an initial, febrile urinary tract infection. Although it is not uncommon to observe debris within the bladder lumen on sonography, the significance of this finding is uncertain. Debris may be interpreted as an indication of ongoing infection, but there have been no studies to date investigating the association of bladder debris with a positive culture. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of bladder debris noted at the time of RBUS with positive urine culture results obtained from a catheterized specimen, among patients undergoing RBUS and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) on the same day...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521452/assessment-of-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-associated-liver-cirrhosis
#15
Li-Na Ma, Xiao-Yan Liu, Zhen-Hui Lu, Li-Gang Wu, Yuan-Yuan Tang, Xia Luo, Yan-Chao Hu, Ting-Ting Yan, Qi Wang, Xiang-Chun Ding, Yan Xie
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the majority (~80%) of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in China exhibit co-morbidity with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis. The goal of reliable early diagnostic and prognostic techniques for HBV-associated HCC remains unrealized. The aim of the present study was to explore the efficacy of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) tests in the early diagnosis of HCC in patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521102/co2-delivery-to-accelerate-incisional-wound-healing-following-single-irradiation-of-near-infrared-lamp-on-the-coordinated-colloids
#16
Wei-Peng Li, Chia-Hao Su, Sheng-Jung Wang, Fu-Ju Tsai, Chun-Ting Chang, Min-Chiao Liao, Chun-Chieh Yu, Thi-Tuong Vi Tran, Chaw-Ning Lee, Wen-Tai Chiu, Tak-Wah Wong, Chen-Sheng Yeh
Traditional wound care methods include wound infection control, adequate nutritional supplements, education of changing position every 2-3 h to avoid tissue hypoxia, vacuum assistant closure, debridement, skin graft, and tissue flap. Electric current stimulation, ultrasound, laser, and hydrotherapy have emerged as adjuvant therapies. However, most, if not all, of these therapies are expensive, and the treatment results are variable. The development of the active methods to improve wound healing is mandatory...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499830/implementation-of-a-systematic-culturing-program-to-monitor-the-efficacy-of-endoscope-reprocessing-outcomes-and-costs
#17
Gene K Ma, David A Pegues, Michael L Kochman, Kevin Alby, Neil O Fishman, Marianne Saunders, Carolyn Grous, Daniel T Dempsey, Gregory G Ginsberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for duodenoscope culturing and reprocessing in response to outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) duodenoscope-related infections. Based on this guidance, we implemented best practices for reprocessing and developed a systematic process for culturing endoscopes with elevator levers. The aim of this study is to report the outcomes and direct costs of this program...
May 10, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491315/subcutaneous-dirofilariasis-caused-by-dirofilaria-nochtiella-repens-in-sri-lanka-a-potential-risk-of-transmitting-human-dirofilariasis
#18
Nayana Gunathilaka, Shirom Siriwardana, Lakmini Wijesooriya, Gayana Gunaratne, Nilanga Perera
OBJECTIVE: Dirofilariasis is a parasitic infection caused by filarial nematodes belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens has been widely reported from European countries. Sri Lanka is the most affected country in Asia with an infection rate of almost 60% in dog population. However, human infection of D. repens remains undiagnosed and many of the cases are not scientifically documented. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to document the presence of dirofilariasis infections in humans...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486369/zika-risk-and-pregnancy-in-clinical-practice-ongoing-experience-as-the-outbreak-evolves
#19
Rashmi Rao, Stephanie L Gaw, Christina S Han, Lawrence D Platt, Neil S Silverman
OBJECTIVE: To describe a single U.S. perinatal center's ongoing experience with evaluating pregnant patients with potential exposure to Zika virus infection. METHODS: This is an institutional review board-approved longitudinal observational study from January to August 2016 from a single perinatal referral center. Patients who had traveled to or had sexual contact with a person who traveled to a region with documented local Zika virus transmission were included in the study...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477320/controversies-regarding-management-of-vesico-ureteric-reflux
#20
Ramesh Babu, Sujit Chowdhary
The primary goal in the management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) is to prevent recurrence of UTI and acquired renal damage. Approximately 15% of children develop renal scarring after a first episode of febrile UTI. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in 30-40% of children imaged after first febrile UTI. The 'top-down' approach involving ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA) first after an appropriate interval following UTI, can help in avoiding voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), an invasive test with higher radiation exposure...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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