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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792963/extraction-characterization-and-biological-activity-of-sulfated-polysaccharides-from-seaweed-dictyopteris-divaricata
#1
Yinxin Cui, Xin Liu, Shufang Li, Limin Hao, Juan Du, DaHai Gao, Qiaozhen Kang, Jike Lu
Dictyopteris divaricata is a kind of important brown algae with many biological activities. It has been receiving more and more attention, yet there are rarely studies done on its polysaccharides. In this study, the optimum extraction and biological activity of seaweed polysaccharides from Dictyopteris divaricata (DDSP) were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to obtain the best possible combinations for maximum polysaccharides yield...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792961/composite-films-of-regenerate-cellulose-with-chitosan-and-polyvinyl-alcohol-evaluation-of-water-adsorption-mechanical-and-optical-properties
#2
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vázquez, Gonzalo Velazquez
The aim of this study was to develop composite films from cellulose, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to obtain environmentally friendly materials. Toughness, burst strength, distance to burst and water adsorption properties were measured and analysed as a function of cellulose (3-5%), chitosan (0-1%) and polyvinyl alcohol (0-4%) contents. Polynomial models were obtained. Light-barrier properties, transparency, morphology, structural and thermal analyses were assessed. Results showed that chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the mechanical properties of cellulose-based films...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792956/development-of-photo-modified-starch-kefiran-tio-2-bio-nanocomposite-as-an-environmentally-friendly-food-packaging-material
#3
Vahid Goudarzi, Iman Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi
This paper reports on an experiment in which starch/kefiran/TiO2 (SKT)-based bio-nanocomposite films were developed and modified by photo-chemical reaction. In so doing, film-forming solutions were exposed to ultraviolet A (UV-A) for different times (1, 6, and 12 h). The obtained results indicated that increasing UV-A exposure time brought about an increase (≈14.9%) in the tensile strength of bio-nanocomposites. However, elongation at break and Young's modulus of irradiated film specimen decreased (≈32%, ≈12%, respectively) by increasing UV-A exposure time, and the moisture-sensitive parameters of specimen decreased using UV-A irradiation...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792906/four-novel-antibacterial-sesquiterpene-%C3%AE-amino-acid-quaternary-ammonium-hybrids-from-the-mycelium-of-mushroom-stereum-hirsutum
#4
Yuan-Chang Duan, Jun Feng, Na Bai, Guo-Hong Li, Ke-Qin Zhang, Pei-Ji Zhao
The mushroom Stereum hirsutum is parasitized by Tremella aurantia to form a heterogeneous basidiocarp Jin'er, which has been used as food and folk medicine in Chinese society. In present work, the S. hirsutum was fermented in YMG broth, and four novel mixed terpenes, stereumamides A-D (1-4), which are sesquiterpenes combined with α-amino acids to form quaternary ammonium hybrids, were isolated from the Stereum hirsutum FP-91666 and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Stereumamides A and D showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 12...
May 21, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792487/ethnic-racial-typicality-and-its-relation-to-ethnic-identity-and-psychological-functioning
#5
Lauren L Mitchell, Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla, Alex A Ajayi, Jillian Fish, Sarah C Nelson, Lovey H M Peissig, Moin Syed
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792361/effect-of-blueberry-extract-carriers-and-combinations-on-the-growth-rate-of-probiotic-and-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
María Gretel Michel-Barba, Hugo Espinosa-Andrews, Rudy Antonio García-Reyes, Yves Desjardins, Marisela González-Ávila
The blueberry is recognised as a source of phenolic compounds that have beneficial effects on human health; however, they possess low bioavailability and can be degraded by gastrointestinal conditions. Encapsulation has been widely used to mitigate these disadvantages; Gum Arabic (GA) and Corn Syrup Solids (CSS) are common carriers used in this technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Blueberry Extract (BE), carriers and their mixtures on the kinetic growth and maximal growth rate of probiotics and pathogenic bacteria...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791992/role-of-the-duodenum-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia-a-paradigm-shift
#7
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and post-infectious gastroenteritis in FD has been reported and confirmed...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791767/increased-body-size-along-urbanization-gradients-at-both-community-and-intraspecific-level-in-macro-moths
#8
Thomas Merckx, Aurélien Kaiser, Hans Van Dyck
Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level...
May 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#9
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791504/periconceptional-maternal-dairy-rich-dietary-pattern-is-associated-with-prenatal-cerebellar-growth
#10
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Irene V Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Jeanne H M de Vries, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been related to intrauterine brain development and neurodevelopmental disabilities in adult life. We aim to investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and prenatal cerebellar growth from the first trimester onwards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 126 women with singleton non-malformed pregnancies were enrolled before 8 weeks of gestation in the Rotterdam periconceptional cohort between 2013 and 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791454/development-and-validation-of-a-short-food-questionnaire-to-screen-for-low-protein-intake-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-the-protein-screener-55-pro55
#11
Hanneke A H Wijnhoven, Liset E M Elstgeest, Henrica C W de Vet, Mary Nicolaou, Marieke B Snijder, Marjolein Visser
In old age, sufficient protein intake is important to preserve muscle mass and function. Around 50% of older adults (65+ y) consumes ≤1.0 g/kg adjusted body weight (BW)/day (d). There is no rapid method available to screen for low protein intake in old age. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults. We used data of 1348 older men and women (56-101 y) of the LASA study (the Netherlands) to develop the questionnaire and data of 563 older men and women (55-71 y) of the HELIUS study (the Netherlands) for external validation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791453/the-association-between-food-insecurity-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-in-canada-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Christopher A Tait, Mary R L'Abbé, Peter M Smith, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: A pervasive and persistent finding is the health disadvantage experienced by those in food insecure households. While clear associations have been identified between food insecurity and diabetes risk factors, less is known about the relationship between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between household food insecurity and the future development of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data from Ontario adult respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, linked to health administrative data (n = 4,739)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791203/short-term-thermoneutral-housing-alters-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-adipose-tissue-browning-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-lean-mice
#13
Zachary Stephen Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy
Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid trafficking and impair immune function, while energy intake and expenditure decrease with increasing ambient temperature; importantly, dysregulation of these parameters have been strongly linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790260/endogenous-glp-1-alters-postprandial-functional-connectivity-between-homeostatic-and-reward-related-brain-regions-involved-in-the-regulation-of-appetite-in-healthy-lean-males-a-pilot-study
#14
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Huynh Giao Ly, Stefan Borgwardt, Patrick Dupont, Christoph Beglinger, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Bettina K Wölnerhanssen
AIMS: Peripheral infusion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) can affect brain activity in areas involved in the regulation of appetite, including hypothalamic and reward-related brain regions. In contrast, the physiological role of endogenous GLP-1 in the central regulation of appetite has hardly been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed as randomized, cross-over trial. Twelve healthy volunteers received an intragastric (ig) glucose (gluc) load with or without intravenous (iv) exendin9-39 (ex9-39; specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist)...
May 22, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789827/effect-of-the-monostearate-monopalmitate-ratio-on-the-oral-release-of-active-agents-from-monoacylglycerol-organogels
#15
F R Lupi, V Mancina, N Baldino, O I Parisi, L Scrivano, D Gabriele
The delivery of active agents from organogels is becoming an important topic owing to the possibility of releasing, in a controlled way, lipophilic agents. Controlled release from foods is a topic with increasing relevance owing to the growing industrial interest towards functional or medical foods, i.e. foods containing nutraceutical agents or drugs. Anyway, release properties are related to the rheological properties of organogels, and, therefore, a deep knowledge of their microstructure and physical characteristics is necessary to design carriers with expected release properties...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788909/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-the-diversity-and-evolutionary-relationships-between-necrotic-enteritis-causing-strains-of-clostridium-perfringens
#16
Jake A Lacey, Theodore R Allnutt, Ben Vezina, Thi Thu Hao Van, Thomas Stent, Xiaoyan Han, Julian I Rood, Ben Wade, Anthony L Keyburn, Torsten Seemann, Honglei Chen, Volker Haring, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens causes a range of diseases in animals and humans including necrotic enteritis in chickens and food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. Necrotic enteritis is of concern in commercial chicken production due to the cost of the implementation of infection control measures and to productivity losses. This study has focused on the genomic analysis of a range of chicken-derived C. perfringens isolates, from around the world and from different years. The genomes were sequenced and compared with 20 genomes available from public databases, which were from a diverse collection of isolates from chickens, other animals, and humans...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788877/contribution-of-nrf2-in-gastrointestinal-protection-from-oxidative-injury
#17
Akinori Yanaka
The human gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a variety of toxic agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gastric acid, enteric pathogenic bacteria, excessive auto immune reactions, and chronic mental stresses. These stressors generate free radicals within the gastrointestinal tissues, causing chronic inflammatory diseases, ulcers, cancers, and functional disturbances. Recent studies have demonstrated that some natural food compounds upregulate the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated antioxidant system, ameliorating or preventing these disorders...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788191/functional-characterization-of-why-wrky75-transcriptional-module-in-plant-response-to-cassava-bacterial-blight
#18
Wen Liu, Yu Yan, Hongqiu Zeng, Xiaolin Li, Yunxie Wei, Guoyin Liu, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
Cassava is a major food crop in tropical areas, but its productivity and quality are seriously limited by cassava bacterial blight. So far, the key factors regulating cassava immune response remain elusive. In this study, we identified three cassava Whirly genes (MeWHYs) in cassava variety of South China 124 (SC124), and explored the possible roles and utilization of MeWHYs in cassava disease resistance. Gene expression analysis revealed that the transcripts of three MeWHYs were commonly regulated by the highly conserved N-terminal epitope of f lagellin (flg22) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv...
May 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788009/the-effect-of-feeding-behavior-on-hypothalamus-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-rats-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-intervention
#19
Ke Lu, Xiaoyan Chen, Jianhua Yan, Xinchun Li, Chen Huang, Qi Wan, Xuelian Deng, Qiao Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion-diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) derived parameters in hypothalamus for monitoring the effect of Exendin-4 (Ex-4) intervention on the feeding behavior in obese diabetic rats within early feeding. METHODS: 21 obese and 19 non-obese rats which were treated with streptozotocin injections were initially divided into an obese diabetes group (OD, n = 10), a non-obese diabetes group (D, n = 8), an obese group (O, n = 9) and a non-obese group (N, n = 9)...
May 23, 2018: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787291/extrusion-processing-of-raw-food-materials-and-by-products-a-review
#20
Vivian Offiah, Vassilis Kontogiorgos, Kolawole O Falade
Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed...
May 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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