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Vitamin D and liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345527/prevalence-and-factors-promoting-the-occurrence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-the-elderly
#1
Magdalena Wyskida, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Jerzy Chudek
Vitamin D deficiency affects a large part of the population of elderly people, especially women, who live in moderate climate countries due to a reduced amount of vitamin D in the diet (small sea fish consumption) and reduced content of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which causes decreased skin synthesis. The lowest seasonal concentration of 25(OH)D3 is usually observed during winter and spring. Sun exposure influences 25(OH)D3 concentration more strongly in men than in women. Sociodemographic factors that increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly include poor environmental conditions, low economic status, lower educational level, drug exposure (smoking), reduced physical activity, overall poor health and obesity, which causes reduced skin exposure to sunlight...
March 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336823/-regulatory-mechanism-of-calcium-metabolism
#2
Keiichi Ozono
It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336108/vitamin-d-increases-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-promotes-beneficial-effects-of-physical-activity-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Rastegar Hoseini, Arsalan Damirchi, Parvin Babaei
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and vitamin D signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes involved in different physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aerobic training on metabolic syndrome and PPARγ expression. METHODS: Forty female ovariectomized rats were divided into five groups of aerobic training with high (OVX + Exe + HD), moderate (OVX + Exe + MD), and low dose of vitamin D (OVX + Exe + LD), aerobic training receving vehicle (sesame oil; OVX + Exe + oil), and sham-operated control (sham) groups...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330721/changes-in-the-human-transcriptome-upon-vitamin-d-supplementation
#4
Yvonne Pasing, Christopher Graham Fenton, Rolf Jorde, Ruth Hracky Paulssen
Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to its active form, which can bind to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR is present in a wide variety of different cells types and tissues and acts as a transcription factor. Although activation of the VDR is estimated to regulate expression of up to 5% of the human genome, our study is the first analysing gene expression after supplementation in more than 10 subjects. Subjects of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) received either vitamin D3 (n47) in a weekly dose of 20,000 IU or placebo (n 47) for a period of three to five years...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324001/cyp3a4-induction-by-rifampin-an-alternative-pathway-for-vitamin-d-inactivation-in-patients-with-cyp24a1-mutations
#5
Colin Patrick Hawkes, Dong Li, Hakon Hakonarson, Kevin E Meyers, Kenneth Thummel, Michael A Levine
Context: The P450 enzyme CYP24A1 is the principal inactivator of vitamin D metabolites. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CYP24A1 are associated with elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with consequent hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, and represent the most common form of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). Current management strategies for this condition include a low calcium diet, reduced dietary vitamin D intake and limited sunlight exposure. CYP3A4 is a P450 enzyme that inactivates many drugs and xenobiotics and may represent an alternative pathway for inactivation of vitamin D metabolites...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321531/bone-quality-in-beta-thalassemia-intermedia-relationships-with-bone-quantity-and-endocrine-and-hematologic-variables
#6
Marina Baldini, A Marcon, F M Ulivieri, S Seghezzi, R Cassin, C Messina, M D Cappellini, G Graziadei
We report the first evaluation of bone quality in 70 thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients (37 males, 33 females, age 41 ± 12 years). Thirty-three patients (47%) had been transfused, 34 (49%) had been splenectomized, 39 (56%) were on iron chelation therapy, and 11 (16%) were on hydroxyurea. Mean hemoglobin was 9.2 ± 1.5 g/dl, median ferritin 537 ng/dl (range 14-4893), and mean liver iron concentration 7.6 ± 6.4 mg Fe/g dw. Fifteen patients (21%) had endocrinopathies, and 29 (41%) had vitamin D deficiency...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318178/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-insulin-resistance-as-risk-factors-for-dyslipidemia-in-obese-children
#7
Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret, Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Özgu L Yiğit
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302087/knowledge-and-attitudes-about-vitamin-d-and-behaviors-related-to-vitamin-d-in-adults-with-and-without-coronary-heart-disease-in-saudi-arabia
#8
Najlaa M Aljefree, Patricia Lee, Faruk Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is prevailing in Saudi Arabia. Recent national data indicated an inverse association between vitamin D status and coronary heart disease (CHD), which increases concerns about vitamin D deficiency as a serious public health problem. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate whether knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to vitamin D contribute to the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adults with and without CHD in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This case-control study consisted of 130 CHD cases and 195 matched controls...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298391/vitamin-a-supplementation-redirects-the-flow-of-retinyl-esters-from-peripheral-to-central-organs-of-neonatal-rats-raised-under-vitamin-a-marginal-conditions
#9
Joanna K Hodges, Libo Tan, Michael H Green, A Catharine Ross
Background: Vitamin A (VA; retinol) supplementation is used to reduce child mortality in countries with high rates of malnutrition. Existing research suggests that neonates (<1 mo old) may have a limited capacity to store VA in organs other than the liver; however, knowledge about VA distribution and kinetics in individual, nonhepatic organs is limited.Objective: We examined retinol uptake and turnover in nonhepatic organs, including skin, brain, and adipose tissue, in neonatal rats without and after VA supplementation...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284562/the-vkorc1-and-cyp2c9-genotypes-significantly-effect-vitamin-k-antagonist-dosing-only-in-patients-over-the-age-of-20years
#10
U Nowak-Göttl, K Dietrich, A Kruempel, C Geisen, L G Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: Given the qualitative differences in the role of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) dosing variation between adults and children, we were interested in determining at what age these polymorphism begin to play a more significant role. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 190 patients aged 1-86years receiving VKA for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Blood samples were collected beyond the acute thrombotic event when patients were on stable targeted INR (2-3) for plasma testing and VKORC1/CYP2C9 genotyping...
December 30, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284396/pyridoxal-phosphate-supplementation-in-neuropediatric-disorders
#11
Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Marta Molero-Luis, Hsjd Working Group, Rafael Artuch, Àngels García-Cazorla
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and a cofactor in many enzyme reactions including neurotransmitter metabolism. PLP metabolism disturbances may mostly lead to refractory seizures. In this report, we review the main pathophysiological factors related with PLP deficiency and our experience in PLP treatment in pediatric patients with low-normal cerebrospinal fluid PLP values who presented epilepsy. Only one case had a definite diagnosis (Phelan-McDermid syndrome). The results of extensive metabolic workups and targeted genetic studies were normal for all patients...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274829/vitamin-d-and-histologic-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Wasin Ahuja, Anawin Sanguankeo, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Sikarin Upala
BACKGROUND: NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency often coexist and epidemiologic evidence has shown that both of these conditions share several risk factors. Recent studies investigating the relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of NAFLD showed conflicting results. Thus we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate association between vitamin D and NAFLD histologic severity. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the databases of the MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through November 2016...
February 16, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261385/influence-of-vitamin-d-on-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pooled-clinical-trials-data
#13
Alia S Dadabhai, Behnam Saberi, Katie Lobner, Russell T Shinohara, Gerard E Mullin
AIM: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-monoinfected or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Pertinent studies were located by a library literature search in PubMed/Embase/Cochrane/Scopus/LILACS by two individual reviewers. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies with patients with HCV or co-infected HCV/HIV; (2) studies with patients ≥ 18 years old; (3) studies that evaluated liver fibrosis stage, only based on liver biopsy; and (4) studies that reported serum or plasma 25(OH)D levels...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261302/the-vitamin-d-analogue-paricalcitol-attenuates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-down-regulation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-rats
#14
Min Sung Kim, Soyoung Lee, Namhee Jung, Kiho Lee, Jinwoo Choi, Sang-Hoon Kim, Jinhyun Jun, Won-Mee Lee, Yeonsoo Chang, Donghee Kim
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have revealed that vitamin D and its synthetic analogues have a protective effect on experimental ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models in several organs, but little is known about its effect on the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of vitamin D in a model of liver I/R in rats, focusing on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, which has been shown to be involved in I/R injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: Saline + Sham, Saline + I/R, Paricalcitol + Sham, and Paricalcitol + I/R...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255001/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-an-update
#15
Tianxin Yang, Chuanming Xu
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a pivotal role in the maintenance of extracellular volume homeostasis and blood pressure through complex mechanisms. Apart from the well known systemic RAS, occurrence of a local RAS has been documented in multiple tissues, including the kidney. A large body of recent evidence from pharmacologic and genetic studies, particularly those using various transgenic approaches to manipulate intrarenal levels of RAS components, has established the important role of intrarenal RAS in hypertension...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246016/gut-specific-delivery-of-t-helper-17-cells-reduces-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#16
Chun-Pyo Hong, Areum Park, Bo-Gie Yang, Chang Ho Yun, Min-Jung Kwak, Gil-Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Kim, Min Seong Jang, Eun-Jung Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Gihoon You, Kwang Soon Kim, Youngwoo Choi, Ji-Hwan Park, Daehee Hwang, Sin-Hyeog Im, Jihyun F Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, Charles D Surh, You-Me Kim, Myoung Ho Jang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome have been associated with alterations to the intestinal microbiota. However, few studies examined the effects of obesity on the intestinal immune system. We investigated changes in subsets of intestinal CD4+ T-helper (Th) cells with obesity and the effects of gut-tropic Th17 cells in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: We isolated immune cells from small intestine and adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a normal chow diet or a HFD for 10 weeks and analyzed the cells by flow cytometry...
February 25, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229097/pediatric-hypovitaminosis-d-molecular-perspectives-and-clinical-implications
#17
Rafiu Ariganjoye
Vitamin D, a secosteroid, is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bone in both the adult and pediatric populations. Low level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)-D) is highly prevalent in children worldwide and has been linked to various adverse health outcomes including rickets, osteomalacia, osteomalacic myopathy, sarcopenia, and weakness, growth retardation, hypocalcemia, seizure and tetany, autism, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers (prostate, colon, breast), infectious diseases (viral, tuberculosis), and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223230/myotoxicity-of-statins-mechanism-of-action
#18
REVIEW
Patrick du Souich, Ghislaine Roederer, Robert Dufour
Statins are effective drugs to reduce cardiovascular events secondary to dyslipidemia; however, they cause frequent undesirable side effects. The incidence of statin-induced myotoxicity (SIM) is presented by 7 to 29% of patients, depending upon the report. SIM may develop in presence of abnormally high concentrations of statins in the myocyte and/or in presence of muscular conditions that may predispose to SIM. High concentrations of statins in the myocyte may occur whenever the activity of liver influx membrane transporters, namely OATP1B1, of drug metabolizing enzymes, and of liver and muscular efflux transporters, MDR1 and BCRP, is reduced...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219837/chronic-maternal-calcium-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-deficiency-in-wistar-rats-programs-abnormal-hepatic-gene-expression-leading-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-female-offspring
#19
Sona S Sharma, Nivedita M Jangale, Abhay M Harsulkar, Medha K Gokhale, Bimba N Joshi
Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201969/vitamin-d-and-cancer-stem-cells-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
Ming-Xing Li, Long-Fei Li, Lin Zhang, Zan-Gang Xiao, Jing Shen, Wei Hu, Qiang Zeng, Chi-Hin Cho
Vitamin D has been widely used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of bone disorders. Epidemiological and preclinical studies demonstrated the anticancer action of vitamin D in a variety of cancers including those in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In these studies the inhibitory action of vitamin D on cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been a focus and is also an important subject to revolutionize the therapeutic potential of vitamin D on cancer treatment. Here, we summarize the involvement of CSC markers and factors and also their signaling pathways in the development of cancers in the esophagus, stomach, colon, pancreas and also liver...
February 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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