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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214996/alcohol-induced-retrograde-facilitation-renders-witnesses-of-crime-less-suggestible-to-misinformation
#2
Julie Gawrylowicz, Anne M Ridley, Ian P Albery, Edit Barnoth, Jack Young
RATIONALE: Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). METHOD: Participants watched a simulated crime video...
February 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196556/approach-to-atypical-alzheimer-s-disease-and-case-studies-of-the-major-subtypes
#3
Bradford C Dickerson, Scott M McGinnis, Chenjie Xia, Bruce H Price, Alireza Atri, Melissa E Murray, Mario F Mendez, David A Wolk
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has long been recognized as a heterogeneous illness, with a common clinical presentation of progressive amnesia and less common "atypical" clinical presentations, including syndromes dominated by visual, aphasic, "frontal," or apraxic symptoms. Our knowledge of atypical clinical phenotypes of AD comes from clinicopathologic studies, but with the growing use of in vivo molecular biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology, we are beginning to recognize that these syndromes may not be as rare as once thought...
February 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195960/a-prospective-analysis-of-olfactory-impairment-recovery-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Melanie Drummond, Jacinta Douglas, John Olver
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural progression of olfactory impairment (OI) in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 6 months postinjury. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven adults (mean age = 43.1 years, SD = 18.2), with predominantly severe TBI (mean posttraumatic amnesia [PTA] duration = 25.5 days, SD = 22.8). DESIGN: Consecutive admission longitudinal study. MAIN MEASURES: Participants were evaluated using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at resolution of PTA and at 6 months post-initial injury...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195521/a-computational-model-of-perceptual-and-mnemonic-deficits-in-medial-temporal-lobe-amnesia
#5
Patrick S Sadil, Rosemary A Cowell
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193126/predictors-of-major-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Maryse C Cnossen, Annemieke C Scholten, Hester F Lingsma, Anneliese Synnot, Juanita Haagsma, Prof Ewout W Steyerberg, Suzanne Polinder
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about which patients are at risk for developing them. The authors systematically reviewed the literature on predictors and multivariable models for MDD and PTSD after TBI. The authors included 26 observational studies. MDD was associated with female gender, preinjury depression, postinjury unemployment, and lower brain volume, whereas PTSD was related to shorter posttraumatic amnesia, memory of the traumatic event, and early posttraumatic symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185658/long-term-outcome-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia-a-population-based-study
#7
Julieta E Arena, Robert D Brown, Jay Mandrekar, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term risk of cerebrovascular events, seizures, and cognitive impairment in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data for all patients diagnosed with possible TGA in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2010, were retrieved from the Rochester Epidemiology Project database. Transient global amnesia was defined clinically. End points were cerebrovascular event (stroke or transient ischemic attack), seizure, or cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment or dementia) during follow-up...
February 6, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181182/characteristics-of-retrograde-amnesia-for-cs-preexposure
#8
James F Briggs, Brian P Olson
Two experiments using rats evaluated the susceptibility of CS preexposure to retrograde amnesia induced by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and tested whether amnesia for CS preexposure shares similar characteristics with amnesia for other memories. In Experiment 1, rats received cycloheximide either immediately, 60 minutes, or 120 minutes after preexposure. Following preexposure, rats received fear conditioning. When later tested, the subjects that received the amnestic treatment shortly after preexposure showed no CS preexposure effect (i...
February 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170122/utility-of-serum-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-and-stratification-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Lawrence M Lewis, Derek Schloemann, Linda Papa, Robert Fucetola, Jeffrey Bazarian, Miranda Lindburg, Robert Welch
OBJECTIVE: To compare test characteristics of a single serum concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100β, and ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), obtained within 6 hours of head injury, to diagnose mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in head-injured subjects. METHODS: Adults aged 18-80 who presented to one of seven EDs with a blunt closed head injury, underwent head CT within 4 hours of injury, and had blood drawn for biomarker analysis within 6 hours of injury were eligible...
February 7, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168070/chronic-subdural-hematoma-associated-with-thrombocytopenia-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cameroon
#10
Clovis Nkoke, Engelbert Bain Luchuo, Denis Teuwafeu, Ines Nepetsoun, Cyrille Nkouonlack
Hematological abnormalities including thrombocytopenia are common in patients living with HIV infection. Patients with HIV infection related thrombocytopenia present generally with only minor bleeding problems. But cases of subdural hematoma are very rare. A 61-year-old female with a history of HIV infection of 9 years' duration presented with a 3-month history of generalized headache associated with visual blurring and anterograde amnesia. There was no history of trauma or fever. She was treated empirically for cerebral toxoplasmosis for 6 weeks without any improvement of the symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160301/source-memory-in-korsakoff-syndrome-disentangling-the-mechanisms-of-temporal-confusion
#11
Mélanie Brion, Philippe de Timary, Anne-Lise Pitel, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Korsakoff syndrome (KS), most frequently resulting from alcohol dependence (ALC), is characterized by severe anterograde amnesia. It has been suggested that these deficits may extend to other memory components, and notably source memory deficits involved in the disorientation and temporal confusion frequently observed in KS. However, the extent of this source memory impairment in KS and its usefulness for the differential diagnosis between ALC and KS remain unexplored. METHODS: Nineteen patients with KS were compared with 19 alcohol-dependent individuals and 19 controls in a source memory test exploring temporal context confusions ("continuous recognition task")...
February 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148589/lesson-of-the-month-2-transient-reversible-amnesia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Priya Devi Shanmugarajah, Jane Alty, Oliver Lily, Helen L Ford
Transient amnestic syndromes are fascinating clinical entities and there are several subtypes. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterised by sudden onset of anterograde amnesia with repetitive questioning, lasting less than 24 hours. The pathophysiology of TGA involves the medial temporal lobes and hippocampi. Episodes of TGA are thought to involve venous congestion with Valsalva-like activities, vascular or migrainous mechanisms. In contrast, transient epileptic amnesia manifests as brief and frequent episodes of amnesia due to seizure activity in the temporal lobes...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145812/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-fear-of-abandonment-moderate-the-relation-of-intimate-partner-violence-to-severity-of-dissociation
#13
Noga Zerubavel, Terri L Messman-Moore, David DiLillo, Kim L Gratz
Betrayal trauma theory proposes a relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and dissociation, suggesting that dissociation among victims of IPV may function to restrict awareness of abuse in order to preserve attachments perceived as vital. We investigated two factors that may moderate the relation between IPV and dissociation-childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity and fear of abandonment-among 348 women currently in a relationship. The relation between frequency of IPV (sexual and physical) and dissociation (amnesia and depersonalization) was moderated by CSA severity and fear of abandonment...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138924/dissociation-and-alterations-in-brain-function-and-structure-implications-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Annegret Krause-Utz, Rachel Frost, Dorina Winter, Bernet M Elzinga
Dissociation involves disruptions of usually integrated functions of consciousness, perception, memory, identity, and affect (e.g., depersonalization, derealization, numbing, amnesia, and analgesia). While the precise neurobiological underpinnings of dissociation remain elusive, neuroimaging studies in disorders, characterized by high dissociation (e.g., depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD), dissociative identity disorder (DID), dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD)), have provided valuable insight into brain alterations possibly underlying dissociation...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128652/extensive-microhemorrhages-of-the-cerebellar-peduncles-after-high-altitude-cerebral-edema
#15
Jacqueline Pichler Hefti, Philipp Hoigné-Perret, Raimund Kottke
Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline, Philipp Hoigné-Perret, and Raimund Kottke. Extensive microhemorrhages of the cerebellar peduncles after high-altitude cerebral edema. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Neuromagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of subjects who suffered from high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) typically shows cerebral microhemorrhages (MH) of the corpus callosum, in particular the splenium, and supratentorial white matter. This is a case report of a 43-year-old male, who suffered from unusually prolonged severe ataxia and amnesia after having been rescued during the ascent to Mount Everest at 6400 m...
January 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127845/bright-light-therapy-for-sleep-disturbance-in-dementia-is-most-effective-for-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-a-case-series
#16
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Shuji Iritani, Kiyoshi Fujita
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in people with dementia are common and place a high burden on caregivers. Although hypnotic agents are often used to treat sleep disturbances, their use is associated with a considerable number of high-risk side-effects such as daytime sleepiness, amnesia, and an increased frequency of falling. The administration of bright light therapy (BLT) in the morning was a non-pharmacological remedy that was expected to treat sleep disorders in patients with dementia by entraining the circadian rhythm to ameliorate disturbances to the normal sleep-wake cycle...
January 27, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125600/conjugated-linoleic-acid-administration-induces-amnesia-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-and-exacerbates-recovery-from-functional-deficits-induced-by-a-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#17
Rastafa I Geddes, Kentaro Hayashi, Quinn Bongers, Marlyse Wehber, Icelle M Anderson, Alex D Jansen, Chase Nier, Emily Fares, Gabrielle Farquhar, Amita Kapoor, Toni E Ziegler, Sivan VadakkadathMeethal, Ian M Bird, Craig S Atwood
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids like conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are required for normal neural development and cognitive function and have been ascribed various beneficial functions. Recently, oral CLA also has been shown to increase testosterone (T) biosynthesis, which is known to diminish traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuropathology and reduce deficits induced by stroke in adult rats. To test the impact of CLA on cognitive recovery following a TBI, 5-6 month old male Sprague Dawley rats received a focal injury (craniectomy + controlled cortical impact (CCI; n = 17)) or Sham injury (craniectomy alone; n = 12) and were injected with 25 mg/kg body weight of Clarinol® G-80 (80% CLA in safflower oil; n = 16) or saline (n = 13) every 48 h for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121943/aggravation-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-concurrent-with-aggravation-of-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#18
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who developed aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated by follow-up diffusion tensor tractographies (DTTs). METHODS: A 42-year-old male patient experienced head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after collision with another vehicle from behind while stopped at an intersection...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121745/neurotoxicity-associated-with-dimethyl-sulfoxide-used-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Eda Ataseven, Özlem Tüfekçi, Şebnem Yilmaz, Handan Güleryüz, Hale Ören
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a cryoprotective agent used in storage of frozen stem cells in stem cell transplantation. Central nervous system side effects of DMSO such as epileptic seizures, stroke, transient global amnesia, and temporary leucoencephalopathy are rarely seen. Here, we report a pediatric patient who developed seizures after DMSO-cryopreserved stem cell infusion and whose magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated parietal and occipital focal cortical T2-signal intensity increase. DMSO toxicity should be kept in mind in patients who received cryopreserved stem cell infusion and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117263/plasma-micro-rna-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#20
Biswadev Mitra, Thomas F Rau, Nanda Surendran, James H Brennan, Prasanthan Thaveenthiran, Edmond Sorich, Mark C Fitzgerald, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Sarjubhai A Patel
Prediction of post-concussive syndrome after apparent mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent cognitive recovery remains challenging, with substantial limitations of current methods of cognitive testing. This pilot study aimed to determine if levels of micro ribonucleic acids (RNAs) circulating in plasma are altered following TBI, and if changes to levels of such biomarkers over time could assist in determination of prognosis after TBI. Patients were enrolled after TBI on presentation to the Emergency Department and allocated to three groups: A - TBI (physical trauma to the head), witnessed loss of consciousness, amnesia, GCS=15, a normal CT Brain and a recorded first pass after post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) scale; B TBI, witnessed LOC, amnesia, GCS=15, a normal CT brain and a PTA scale test fail and: C - TBI and initial GCS <13 on arrival to the ED...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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