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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#1
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097466/trachyspermum-ammi-seeds-supplementation-helps-reverse-scopolamine-alprazolam-and-electroshock-induced-amnesia
#2
Kapil Soni, Milind Parle
The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electroshock induced amnesia was employed to describe the actions...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095032/the-trajectories-of-overall-disability-in-the-first-5-years-after-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Marit V Forslund, Cecilie Roe, Paul B Perrin, Solrun Sigurdardottir, Juan Lu, Svein Berntsen, Nada Andelic
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal trajectories of overall disability after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to examine whether those trajectories could be predicted by socio-demographic and injury characteristics. METHODS: Demographics and injury characteristics of 105 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI were extracted from medical records. At the 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-ups, TBI-related disability was assessed by the GOSE. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to examine functional outcomes up to 5 years following injury and whether those outcomes could be predicted by: time, gender, age, relationship, education, employment pre-injury, occupation, GCS, cause of injury, length of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), CT findings and injury severity score, as well as the interactions between each of these predictors and time...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095029/utilization-of-conventional-neuroimaging-following-youth-concussion
#4
Sean C Rose, Caroline E Schaffer, Julie A Young, Kelly A McNally, Anastasia N Fischer, Geoffrey L Heyer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Conventional neuroimaging is not recommended for the routine diagnosis of concussion, but some patients with concussion undergo computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this study was to explore the clinical factors that predict neuroimaging utilization in concussion. METHODS: Concussion-related CT and MRI data were analysed from 1953 patients, aged 10-19 years, who presented to a sports concussion clinic within 30 days of injury...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087556/ahead-study-an-observational-study-of-the-management-of-anticoagulated-patients-who-suffer-head-injury
#5
Suzanne Mason, Maxine Kuczawski, M Dawn Teare, Matt Stevenson, Steve Goodacre, Shammi Ramlakhan, Francis Morris, Joanne Rothwell
OBJECTIVES: Management of anticoagulated patients after head injury is unclear due to lack of robust evidence. This study aimed to determine the adverse outcome rate in these patients and identify risk factors associated with poor outcome. DESIGN: Multicentre, observational study using routine patient records. SETTING: 33 emergency departments in England and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 3566 adults (aged ≥16 years) who had suffered blunt head injury and were currently taking warfarin...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076834/risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Shu Ou, Xi Liu, Jinxian Yuan, Hao Huang, Juan Yang, Liang He, Yangmei Chen
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to identify risk factors for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). METHODS: Two electronic databases (Medline and Embase) were searched to identify studies with a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design reporting on epidemiologic evidence regarding risk factors for PTE. RESULTS: Men had a higher risk of developing PTE than women [relative ratio (RR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1...
January 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066141/dehydroevodiamine%C3%A2-hcl-enhances-cognitive-function-in-memory-impaired-rat-models
#7
Ki Young Shin, Ka Young Kim, Yoo-Hun Suh
Progressive memory impairment such as that associated with depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can interfere with daily life. In particular, AD, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, prominently features a memory and learning impairment that is related to changes in acetylcholine and abnormal β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) on cognitive improvement and the related mechanism in memory-impaired rat models, namely, a scopolamine-induced amnesia model and a Aβ1-42-infused model...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063022/identification-of-a-syndrome-class-of-neuropsychiatric-adverse-reactions-to-mefloquine-from-latent-class-modeling-of-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-data
#8
Remington L Nevin, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos
INTRODUCTION: Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. METHODS: Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs...
January 6, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062719/characteristics-in-limbic-encephalitis-with-anti-adenylate-kinase-5-autoantibodies
#9
Le-Duy Do, Eve Chanson, Virginie Desestret, Bastien Joubert, François Ducray, Sabine Brugière, Yohann Couté, Maité Formaglio, Veronique Rogemond, Catherine Thomas-Antérion, Laura Borrega, Brice Laurens, Francois Tison, Jonathan Curot, Thomas De Brouker, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jerome Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To report 10 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) and adenylate kinase 5 autoantibodies (AK5-Abs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 50 patients with LE with uncharacterized autoantibodies and identified a specific target using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and cell-based assay. RESULTS: AK5 (a known autoantigen of LE) was identified as the target of antibodies in the CSFs and sera of 10 patients with LE (median age 64 years; range 57-80), which was characterized by subacute anterograde amnesia without seizure and sometimes preceded by a prodromal phase of asthenia or mood disturbances...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054807/retrograde-amnesia-of-contextual-fear-conditioning-evidence-for-retrosplenial-cortex-involvement-in-configural-processing
#10
Travis P Todd, Nicole E DeAngeli, Matthew Y Jiang, David J Bucci
It has been suggested that contextual fear conditioning can be supported by either an elemental system, where individual features of the environment are associated with shock, or a configural system, where environmental features are bound together and associated with shock. Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to be involved in contextual fear conditioning, it is not clear whether it contributes to the elemental or configural system. To isolate the role of the RSC in contextual fear conditioning, the current experiments examined the influence of RSC lesions on the context preexposure facilitation effect, a procedure known to produce conditioning to a configural representation of context...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038387/on-the-nose-olfactory-disturbances-in-patients-with-transient-epileptic-amnesia
#11
Sharon A Savage, Christopher R Butler, Fraser Milton, Yang Han, Adam Z Zeman
OBJECTIVE: While olfactory hallucinations are relatively rare in epilepsy, a high prevalence (up to 42%) has been reported in one form - Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). TEA is characterized by recurring amnestic seizures and is commonly associated with persistent interictal memory deficits. Despite reports of changes in smell, olfactory ability has not been objectively assessed in this group. The aim of this study was to measure olfactory ability in patients with TEA and explore whether olfactory symptoms relate to other clinical variables...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024493/-clinicopathological-features-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-and-their-influence-on-prognosis-of-desease
#12
Chao-Yang DU, Ru-Yu Yang, Chao Li, Li-Juan Duan
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL) and their influence on prognosis. METHODS: Forty-two cases of PCNSL hospitallized in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2015 were selected, and the laboratory analysis, imaging examination, bone marrow analysis and pathological examination all were performed, 26 cases were treated by lumbar puncture combined with intrathecal injection of drugs (Ara C, dexamethason and methotrexate), 8 cases were treated by methotrexate combined with rituximab, 8 cases voluntanly abandon treatment after being diagnosed as PCNSL...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007327/isolated-mammillary-body-infarct-causing-global-amnesia-a-case-report
#13
Shailesh Male, Ramin Zand
OBJECTIVES: Mamillary bodies play an important role in human memory and emotions. Vascular lesions causing an isolated mammillary body lesion without affecting the surrounding structures are very rare. METHODS: A 53-year-old male was brought to the emergency department with acute-onset memory problems suggestive of partial anterograde and retrograde amnesia. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated left mammillary body infarct sparing adjacent structures...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004602/posterior-hippocampal-stroke-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#14
Federica Naldi, Simone Baiardi, Maria Guarino, Luca Spinardi, Fabio Cirignotta, Andrea Stracciari
The acute onset of isolated amnesia is an intriguing challenge for neurologist, because the lack of associated signs can be misleading for diagnosis. The most common cause is transient global amnesia (TGA), a benign condition, but rarely it results from abuse of substance/alcohol or cerebrovascular diseases. In the latter, the brain region involved is the hippocampus. We describe a patient with presenting symptoms of TGA, but affected by an ischemic hippocampal stroke. The computed tomography angiography helped the etiologic diagnosis showing an hemodynamic stenosis of the posterior P2P segment...
December 22, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003570/correlations-between-cognitive-impairments-and-employment-status-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#15
Shin Hirota, Motoki Inaji, Tadashi Nariai, Mutsuya Hara, Masashi Tamaki, Taketoshi Maehara, Hiroki Tomita, Osamu Tone
Patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may initially present with prominent physical impairments, but their cognitive dysfunctions are more persistent and are attributable to later unemployment. In this study, we analyzed how the findings of early and delayed neuropsychological assessments correlated with employment outcome of patients with DAI. A total of 56 patients with DAI without motor or visual dysfunction were included in this study. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R), Trail Making Test (TMT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Word Fluency Test (WFT)...
December 22, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996351/effect-of-pregabalin-on-fear-based-conditioned-avoidance-learning-and-spatial-learning-in-a-mouse-model-of-scopolamine-induced-amnesia
#16
Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Natalia Malikowska, Jędrzej Trajer
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are one of the frequent symptoms accompanying epilepsy or its treatment. METHODS: In this study the effect on cognition of intraperitoneally administered antiepileptic drug, pregabalin (10 mg/kg), was investigated in scopolamine-induced memory-impaired mice in the passive avoidance task and Morris water maze task. The effect of scopolamine and pregabalin on animals' locomotor activity was also studied. RESULTS: In the retention phase of the passive avoidance task, pregabalin reversed memory deficits induced by scopolamine (P < 0...
December 20, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993648/contribution-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-nmda-and-muscarinic-receptors-in-rat-s-memory-retrieval
#17
Efat Nazarinia, Ameneh Rezayof, Maryam Sardari, Nima Yazdanbakhsh
The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in memory retrieval. Also, the possible relationship between the BLA muscarinic cholinergic and the NMDA receptor systems was evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated into the BLAs and memory retrieval was measured in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance apparatus. Intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine (0...
December 16, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983570/anti-fatigue-effect-by-peptide-fraction-from-protein-hydrolysate-of-croceine-croaker-pseudosciaena-crocea-swim-bladder-through-inhibiting-the-oxidative-reactions-including-dna-damage
#18
Yu-Qin Zhao, Li Zeng, Zui-Su Yang, Fang-Fang Huang, Guo-Fang Ding, Bin Wang
The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects...
December 13, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976620/amnesia-memory-disturbances-and-epilepsy
#19
Bondish Kambaja, Sophie Dupont
The epileptic syndromes, notably the temporal lobe epilepsy, frequently include memory disturbances. These memory disturbances may occur during seizures, i.e. ictal memory disturbances, or between seizures, i.e. interictal memory disturbances. Two atypical clinical epileptic syndromes should be pointed out in the elderly: the transient epileptic amnesia and the epileptic pseudodementia. Both represent potentially reversible memory disturbances and have a treatment based on antiepileptic drugs. Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a subtype of medial temporal lobe epilepsy with late onset...
December 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974370/should-all-anticoagulated-patients-with-head-injury-receive-a-ct-scan-decision-analysis-modelling-of-an-observational-cohort
#20
Maxine Kuczawski, Matt Stevenson, Steve Goodacre, M Dawn Teare, Shammi Ramlakhan, Francis Morris, Suzanne Mason
OBJECTIVES: It is not currently clear whether all anticoagulated patients with a head injury should receive CT scanning or only those with evidence of traumatic brain injury (eg, loss of consciousness or amnesia). We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of CT for all compared with selective CT use for anticoagulated patients with a head injury. DESIGN: Decision-analysis modelling of data from a multicentre observational study. SETTING: 33 emergency departments in England and Scotland...
December 13, 2016: BMJ Open
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