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vaccine adjuvants

Dongdong Qiao, Lixin Liu, Yi Chen, Chenbao Xue, Qiang Gao, Hai-Quan Mao, Kam W Leong, Yongming Chen
Nanoparticulate vaccines can potentiate immune responses by site-specific drainage to lymph nodes (LNs). This approach may benefit from a nanoparticle engineering method with fine control over size and co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant. Here, we applied the flash nanocomplexation (FNC) method to prepare nanovaccines via polyelectrolyte complexation of chitosan and heparin to co-encapsulate the VP1 protein antigen from enterovirus 71, which causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) or CpG as adjuvants...
April 25, 2018: Nano Letters
Georges Van Kriekinge, Woo-Yun Sohn, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, Ruey Soon, Chee-Meng Yong, Jing Chen, I-Heng Lee
Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the results of a 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18v) or HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (4vHPVv), in addition to cervical cancer (CC) screening, in Malaysia. Methods: A lifetime Markov model replicating the natural history of HPV in 13-year-old girls was adapted to Malaysia to assess the impact of vaccination on pre-cancerous lesions, genital warts and CC cases, CC deaths, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs from the perspective of the Malaysian Ministry of Health...
April 25, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Aydah Al-Awadhi, James Lee Murray, Nuhad K Ibrahim
Breast cancer accounts for more than one million new cases annually and is the leading cause of death in women globally. HER2 overexpression induces cellular and humoral immune responses against the HER2 protein and is associated with higher tumour proliferation rates. Trastuzumab-based therapies are effectively and widely used as standard of care in HER2-amplified/overexpressed breast cancer patients; one cited mechanism of action is the induction of passive immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against malignant breast cancer cells...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Emaad M Khansur, Ashish H Shah, Kyle Lacy, Manish Kuchakulla, Ricardo J Komotar
Despite surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, survival for glioblastoma remains poor. Because of the dismal prognosis, attention has shifted to alternative adjuvant treatment modalities. Although traditionally limited to systemic malignancies (melanoma, lung and colon cancer), the field of immunotherapy has recently identified glioblastoma as a potential target for new treatments. Anti-tumor vaccines (dendritic cell/heat shock), checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric T-cell receptors, and virotherapy all have been preliminarily trialed in glioblastoma patients with reasonable success and safety...
January 30, 2018: Curēus
Veerapandian Raja, Sankaran Sobana, Charles Solomon Akino Mercy, Bianca Cotto, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
The emergence of >300 serovars of Leptospira confounded the use of generalized bacterin, the whole cell lysate, as vaccines to control leptospirosis. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating serovars, one vaccine strain per serovar cannot be efficacious against all the serovars. We have performed heterologous DNA prime-protein boost vaccination challenge studies in hamsters using in vivo expressed, leptospiral recombinase A (RecA) and flagellar hook associated protein (FliD)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jafar Mosafer, Ali Badiee, Zahra Mohammadamini, Alireza Komeilinezhad, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Chitosan-coated ISCOMATRIX nanoparticles co-administrated with PR8 influenza virus were successfully developed via a lipid film hydration method to evaluate their in vivo immuniadjuvant potential in immunization against influenza. The prepared ISCOMATRIX (ISC) and chitosan-coated ISCOMATRIX (ISC-CIT) showed a particle size of 171 and 233 nm with a zeta potential of -9.47 and +5.65, respectively. Furthermore, ISC-CIT formulations were co-administered with PR8 antigen (PR8-ISC-CIT) and their immunogenicity was investigated after intranasal and intramuscular immunization of BALBc/mice...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sandra Iurescia, Daniela Fioretti, Monica Rinaldi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection though also influences pathways involved in cancer immunosurveillance. The innate immune system relies on a limited set of germ line-encoded sensors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), signaling proteins and immune response factors. Cytosolic receptors mediate recognition of danger damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hoa Thi My Vo, Barbara Christiane Baudner, Stefano Sammicheli, Matteo Iannacone, Ugo D'Oro, Diego Piccioli
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective health interventions and, with the exception of water sanitization, no other action has had such a major effect in mortality reduction. Combined with other approaches, such as clean water, better hygiene, and health education, vaccination contributed to prevent millions of cases of deaths among children under 5 years of age. New or improved vaccines are needed to fight some vaccine-preventable diseases that are still a threat for the public health globally, as reported also in the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ilona Baraniak, Barbara Kropff, Lyn Ambrose, Megan McIntosh, Gary R McLean, Sylvie Pichon, Claire Atkinson, Richard S B Milne, Michael Mach, Paul D Griffiths, Matthew B Reeves
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen in transplant patients and in congenital infection. Previously, we demonstrated that vaccination with a recombinant viral glycoprotein B (gB)/MF59 adjuvant formulation before solid organ transplant reduced viral load parameters post transplant. Reduced posttransplant viremia was directly correlated with antibody titers against gB consistent with a humoral response against gB being important. Here we show that sera from the vaccinated seronegative patients displayed little evidence of a neutralizing antibody response against cell-free HCMV in vitro...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julia Engert, Cihad Anamur, Laura Engelke, Christian Fellner, Peter Lell, Stefan Henke, Julia Stadler, Susanne Zöls, Mathias Ritzmann, Gerhard Winter
Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) is an alternative technique to the classical immunization route using needle and syringe. In this work, we present the results of an in vivo pilot study in piglets using a dried influenza model vaccine which was applied by EPI using a novel pyrotechnically driven applicator. A liquid influenza vaccine (Pandemrix® ) was first concentrated by tangential flow filtration and hemagglutinin content was determined by RP-HPLC. The liquid formulation was then transformed into a dry powder by collapse freeze-drying and subsequent cryo-milling...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Alison A McCormick, Aisha Shakeel, Chris Yi, Hardeep Kaur, Ahd M Mansour, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi
Tularemia is a fatal human disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of aerosolized transmission, and lethal effects, the CDC lists F. tularensis as a Category A pathogen, the highest level for a potential biothreat agent. Previous vaccine studies have been conducted with live attenuated, inactivated, and subunit vaccines, which have achieved partial or full protection from F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge, but no vaccine has been approved for human use...
2018: PloS One
Xue Chen, Ting Zhang, Hongyang Liu, Yaru Hao, Guoyang Liao, Xuemei Xu
Current available human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the major capsid protein L1 virus-like particles (VLPs), which mainly induce type-specific neutralizing antibodies against vaccine types. Continuing to add more types of VLPs in a vaccine raises the complexity and cost of production which remains the principal impediment to achieve broad implementation of HPV vaccines, particularly in developing regions. In this study, we constructed 16L1-31L2 chimeric VLP (cVLP) by displaying HPV31 L2 aa.17-38 on the h4 coil surface region of HPV16 L1, and assessed its immunogenicity in mouse model...
April 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Gina R Webster, Craig van Dolleweerd, Thais Guerra, Szymon Stelter, Sven Hofmann, Mi-Young Kim, Audrey Y-H Teh, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Alastair Copland, Mathew Paul, Peter Hart, Rajko Reljic, Julian K-C Ma
In this study, a strategy based on polymeric immunoglobulin G scaffolds (PIGS), was used to produce a vaccine candidate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A genetic fusion construct comprising genes encoding the mycobacterial Ag85B antigen, an immunoglobulin γ-chain fragment and the tailpiece from immunoglobulin μ chain was engineered. Expression was attempted in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and in Nicotiana benthamiana. The recombinant protein assembled into polymeric structures (TB-PIGS) in N. benthamiana, similar in size to polymeric IgM...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Suvi Heinimäki, Maria Malm, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) delivered intramuscularly (IM). Since NoV is an enteric pathogen, it is likely that mucosal immunity has a significant role in protection from infection in the intestine. Due to the fact that IM delivery of NoV VLPs does not generate mucosal immunity, we investigated whether NoV genotype GII.4 VLPs coadministered with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3 ) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) would induce mucosal antibodies in mice...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Daisuke Watanabe, Akiko Mizukami, Katsiaryna Holl, Desmond Curran, Desirée Van Oorschot, Lijoy Varghese, Makoto Shiragami
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the public health impact of introducing two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines into the vaccination programs for the Japanese population aged ≥ 50 years: a single-dose Varicella Vaccine Live (VVL) or a two-dose adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (RZV). METHODS: A multi-cohort static Markov model was developed to follow age cohorts (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years) over their remaining lifetime. Japan-specific data inputs for the model were obtained from Japanese data sources...
April 21, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Katja Höschler, Jo Southern, Catherine Thompson, Fiona Warburton, Nick J Andrews, Elizabeth Miller, Maria Zambon
BACKGROUND: We report a phase III/IV open-label study on the immunogenicity of a single dose of a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) (Fluenz™) in children naïve to, or in previous receipt of, AS03B adjuvanted A/H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccine (Pandemrix™), to investigate whether early exposure to an adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine impacts on subsequent response to quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV). METHOD AND FINDINGS: Eligible children were enrolled to receive qLAIV and stratified according to previous Pandemrix™ vaccination...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
Didik Setiawan, Abrham Wondimu, KohJun Ong, Albert Jan van Hoek, Maarten J Postma
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men require special attention for human papillomavirus vaccination given elevated infection risks and the development of, in particular, anal cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to review the cost effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for both currently vaccine-eligible and non-eligible individuals, particularly the men-who-have-sex-with-men population, and synthesize the available evidence. METHODS: We systematically searched for published articles in two main databases (PubMed and EMBASE)...
April 20, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Huiling Sun, Sanlei Xie, Xiaofei Li, Fuzhou Xu, Yi Li, Charlotte E Boucher, Xiaoling Chen
Infectious coryza is an important respiratory disease of chickens around the world and is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Among the three Page serovars currently recognized for this bacterium, serovar B is a major circulating serovar in China nowadays. The cross-protection ability of the Page serovar B reference strain (0222) and five local isolates was evaluated by a vaccination-challenge trial in SPF chickens. The clinical signs seen in control birds challenged by strain 0222 and isolate HB 01 were significantly different, with isolate HB 01 giving more severe clinical signs...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Je Hyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
The present study aimed to investigate whether the incorporation of flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, in the bacterial ghosts (BGs) of Salmonella Gallinarum can enhance protective immune responses against fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease of poultry, in chickens. BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria through the bacteriophage phiX174 gene E mediated lysis. In this study, the S. Gallinarum ghosts carrying flagellin were genetically constructed utilizing a lysis plasmid pJHL184-flagellin, designed for the coexpression of the flagellin and the lysis protein E...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sungwon Kim, Pete Kaiser, Dominika Borowska, Lonneke Vervelde
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR-Ls) are critical activators of immunity and are successfully being developed as vaccine adjuvants in both mammals and birds. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of co-stimulation of membrane and endosomal TLRs on the innate immune responses using chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and studied the effect of age on the induction of innate responses. BMMs from 1 and 4-week-old birds were stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4 (PCSK; TLR2), synthetic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), Di[3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A ammonium salt (KLA; TLR4), Gardiquimod, Resiquimod (R848; TLR7), CpG class B and C (TLR21)...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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