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vaccine adjuvants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453838/impact-of-pre-exposure-history-and-host-genetics-on-antibody-avidity-following-norovirus-vaccination
#1
Lisa C Lindesmith, Michael L Mallory, Taylor A Jones, Charles Richardson, Robert R Goodwin, Frank Baehner, Paul M Mendelman, Robert F Bargatze, Ralph S Baric
Background.: Development of high avidity, broadly neutralizing antibodies (Abs) is a priority after vaccination against rapidly evolving, widely disseminated viruses like human norovirus. After vaccination with a multivalent GI.1 and GII.4c norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate adjuvanted with alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), blockade Ab titers peaked early, with no increase in titer following a second vaccine dose. Methods.: Blockade Ab relative avidity was evaluated by measuring the slope of blockade Ab neutralization curves...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453555/multi-subunit-bcg-booster-vaccine-gamtbvac-assessment-of-immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-in-murine-and-guinea-pig-tb-models
#2
A P Tkachuk, V A Gushchin, V D Potapov, A V Demidenko, V G Lunin, A L Gintsburg
New innovative vaccines are highly needed to combat the global threat posed by tuberculosis. Efficient components-antigens and adjuvants-are crucial for development of modern recombinant TB vaccines. This study describes a new vaccine (GamTBvac) consisting of two mycobacterial antigen fusions (Ag85A and ESAT6-CFP10)-with dextran-binding domain immobilized on dextran and mixed with an adjuvant consisting of DEAE-dextran core, and with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (TLR9 agonists). GamTBvac and its components were assessed for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in GamTBvac-prime/boost and BCG-prime/ GamTBvac-boost in murine and guinea pig TB models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446441/long-term-persistence-of-cell-mediated-and-humoral-responses-to-a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-the-role-of-the-as03-adjuvant-system-in-adults-during-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Robbert G van der Most, Frédéric Clément, Julie Willekens, Walthère Dewé, Karl Walravens, David W Vaughn, Geert Leroux-Roels
We investigated the role of AS03, an α-tocopherol oil-in-water-emulsion-based Adjuvant System, on the long-term persistence of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines. In two studies (NCT00968539/NCT00989287), a total of 261 healthy adults (age ≤60 years) were randomized to receive two doses of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine containing 3.75 μg hemagglutinin, or non-adjuvanted vaccine containing 15 μg hemagglutinin (in Study A) or 3.75 μg hemagglutinin (in Study B), 21 days apart...
April 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446245/mining-a-differential-sialotranscriptome-of-rhipicephalus-microplus-guides-antigen-discovery-to-formulate-a-vaccine-that-reduces-tick-infestations
#4
Sandra R Maruyama, Gustavo R Garcia, Felipe R Teixeira, Lucinda G Brandão, Jennifer M Anderson, José M C Ribeiro, Jesus G Valenzuela, Jana Horackova, Cecília J Veríssimo, Luciana M Katiki, Tamy M Banin, Amanda F Zangirolamo, Luiz G Gardinassi, Beatriz R Ferreira, Isabel K F de Miranda-Santos
BACKGROUND: Ticks cause massive damage to livestock and vaccines are one sustainable substitute for the acaricides currently heavily used to control infestations. To guide antigen discovery for a vaccine that targets the gamut of parasitic strategies mediated by tick saliva and enables immunological memory, we exploited a transcriptome constructed from salivary glands from all stages of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks feeding on genetically tick-resistant and susceptible bovines. RESULTS: Different levels of host anti-tick immunity affected gene expression in tick salivary glands; we thus selected four proteins encoded by genes weakly expressed in ticks attempting to feed on resistant hosts or otherwise abundantly expressed in ticks fed on susceptible hosts; these sialoproteins mediate four functions of parasitism deployed by male ticks and that do not induce antibodies in naturally infected, susceptible bovines...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445856/procyanidin-a-kind-of-biological-flavonoid-induces-protective-anti-tumor-immunity-and-protects-mice-from-lethal-b16f10-challenge
#5
Lina Zhang, Shuang Wang, Zeyuan Liu, Li Zhang, Shanzheng Wang, Bin Wang
Recently, increasing evidences show that procyanidin (PC) modulate immune responses in human. To evaluate adjuvant effects of PC on vaccine immune modulation and anti-tumor activity, we formulated PC with B16F10 tumor antigen as tumor vaccine to immune C57BL/6 mice and used intramuscular injection before challenge with tumor B16F10 cells. Our results revealed that PC enhanced T cell-mediated immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the B16F10 tumor vaccine induced some degree of anti-tumor effects as evaluated by the inhibition of tumor growth and the prolongation of survival...
April 23, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445612/influence-of-adjuvant-formulation-on-inducing-immune-response-in-mice-immunized-with-a-recombinant-serpin-from-trichinella-spiralis
#6
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Libo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B van der Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens on the world and they can still cause major public health problems in many parts of the world. Vaccination against the helminth nematode Trichinella could be a good strategy to reduce the risk of human and animal infection. It was our aim to evaluate three adjuvants, which could be used as an efficient vaccine for animals in combination with rTs-Serpin antigen. In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by an intramuscular route with rTs-Serpin antigen from the parasite Trichinella spiralis in combination with three different adjuvant formulations: Montanide ISA201, Montanide IMS 1313 N PR VG and Freund's complete adjuvant / Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FCA/FIA)...
April 26, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441965/evaluation-of-a-dna-a%C3%AE-42-vaccine-in-adult-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-antibody-kinetics-and-immune-profile-after-intradermal-immunization-with-full-length-dna-a%C3%AE-42-trimer
#7
Doris Lambracht-Washington, Min Fu, Pat Frost, Roger N Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Aggregated amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ42), derived from the cellular amyloid precursor protein, is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although active immunization against Aβ42 peptide was successful in AD mouse models and led to removal of plaques and improved memory, a similar clinical trial in humans (Aβ42 peptide immunization with QS-21 adjuvant) was stopped in phase II, when 6% of the treated patients developed encephalitis. Currently ongoing passive immunizations with the injection of preformed monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes within the Aβ1-42 peptide, which do not lead to activation of the immune system, have shown some effects in slowing AD pathology...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440992/-autoimmune-inflammatory-syndrome-induced-by-adjuvants-a-new-clinical-entity
#8
Belkis Ferrer-Cosme, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Alexander Batista-Duharte
Recently Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin proposed a new clinical entity called autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), which includes four clinical entities called: 1) siliconosis, 2) Gulf War syndrome, 3) macrophage myofasciitis) and 4) post-vaccination phenomenon associated with adjuvants. They all have a common denominator: a prior exposure to immunoadjuvants, and, in addition, they also share several clinical criteria associated to chronic inflammation and autoimmune reactions. This proposal still needs to be validated by the scientific community, but nowadays is a topic of hot discussion in the literature and in various international conferences...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440707/recent-developments-in-nanocarrier-aided-mucosal-vaccination
#9
Olga Kammona, Vassilis Bourganis, Theodora Karamanidou, Costas Kiparissides
To date, most of the licensed vaccines for mucosal delivery are based on live-attenuated viruses which carry the risk of regaining their pathogenicity. Therefore, the development of efficient nonviral vectors allowing the induction of potent humoral and cell-mediated immunity is regarded as an imperative scientific challenge as well as a commercial breakthrough for the pharma industries. For a successful translation to the clinic, such nanocarriers should protect the antigens from mucosal enzymes, facilitate antigen uptake by microfold cells and allow the copresentation of robust, safe for human use, mucosal adjuvants to antigen-presenting cells...
April 25, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440596/immunogenicity-of-a-fully-synthetic-muc1-glycopeptide-antitumor-vaccine-enhanced-by-poly-i-c-as-tlr3-activating-adjuvant
#10
Horst Kunz, Markus Glaffig, Natascha Stergiou, Edgar Schmitt
Fully synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide antitumor vaccines have an exactly specified structure, and induce a targeted immune response without suppression of the immune response when using an immunogenic carrier protein. However, tumor-associated aberrantly glycosylated MUC1 glycopeptides are endogenous structures, "self-antigens", which exhibit only low immunogenicity. To overcome this obstacle, a fully synthetic MUC1 glycopeptide antitumor vaccine 1 was combined with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, poly(I:C), as a structurally defined Toll-like receptor 3 activating adjuvant...
April 25, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436755/modes-of-action-for-mucosal-vaccine-adjuvants
#11
Taiki Aoshi
Vaccine adjuvants induce innate immune responses and the addition of adjuvants to the vaccine helps to induce protective immunity in the host. Vaccines utilizing live attenuated or killed whole pathogens usually contain endogenous adjuvants, such as bacterial cell wall products and their genomic nucleic acids, which act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are sufficient to induce adaptive immune responses. However, purified protein- or antigen-based vaccines, including component or recombinant vaccines, usually lose these endogenous innate immune stimulators, so the addition of an exogenous adjuvant is essential for the success of these vaccine types...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433944/evaluation-of-vaccinal-effectiveness-of-preparations-containing-membrane-antigens-of-leishmania-l-amazonensis-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-model
#12
João G Ribeiro, Amália S Ferreira, Sharon R A Macedo, Norton R D L P Rossi, Mayara C P da Silva, Rosane N M Guerra, Neuza B de Barros, Roberto Nicolete
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is considered a neglected disease, for which an effective vaccine or an efficient diagnosis is not yet available and whose chemotherapeutic arsenal is threatened by the emergence of resistance by etiological agents such as Leishmania amazonensis. ATL is endemic in poor countries and has a high incidence in Brazil. Vaccines developed from native parasite fractions have led to the identification of defined antigenic subunits and the development of vaccine adjuvant technology...
April 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433326/status-of-the-development-of-a-vaccine-against-mycoplasma-bovis
#13
REVIEW
Jose Perez-Casal, Tracy Prysliak, Teresa Maina, Muhammad Suleman, Steve Jimbo
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen of cattle and, despite numerous efforts an effective vaccine for control of the disease it causes remains elusive. Although we now know more about the biology of this pathogen, information is lacking about appropriate protective antigens, the type of immune response that confers protection and adjuvants selection. The use of conserved recombinant proteins, selected using in silico approaches, as components of a vaccine may be a better choice over bacterin-based vaccines due to the limited protection afforded by them and adverse reactions caused by them...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432455/dual-activation-of-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-impairs-the-efficacy-of-antitumor-vaccines-in-murine-models-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#14
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, María Florencia Gottardo, María Soledad Gori, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Carla Caruso, Andrea De Laurentiis, Mercedes Imsen, Slobodanka Klein, Elisa Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriela Salamone, Maria G Castro, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
PURPOSE: Since combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could boost antitumor immunity, we evaluated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines upon dual activation of TLR9 and TLR7 in breast cancer models. METHODS: DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood from healthy human donors and stimulated with CpG1826 (mouse TLR9 agonist), CpG2006 or IMT504 (human TLR9 agonists) and R848 (TLR7 agonist). Efficacy of antitumor vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing metastatic mammary adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432147/cutting-edge-a-dual-tlr2-and-tlr7-ligand-induces-highly-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#15
Alice Gutjahr, Laura Papagno, Francesco Nicoli, Alain Lamoureux, Fabienne Vernejoul, Thierry Lioux, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Gérard Tiraby, Eric Perouzel, Victor Appay, Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul
TLR agonists are currently being developed and tested as adjuvants in various formulations to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory properties of a novel compound incorporating covalently linked moieties designed to stimulate both TLR2 and TLR7. This dual TLR2/TLR7 agonist induced the maturation of dendritic cells and primed substantial populations of cytolytic and highly polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and safely potentiated the immunogenic properties of a nanoparticulate Ag in vivo, eliciting humoral responses with a balanced TH1/TH2 profile in mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432130/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-engaging-our-endogenous-adjuvants
#16
Nicholas Collins, Yasmine Belkaid
The reliance of the immune system on constitutive microbial stimulation support the idea that both responsiveness to vaccines and vaccine design need to be considered in the context of host-microbiota interactions. Manipulation of microbe function or composition via diet alteration or microbiota engraftment may soon become a viable approach to control immunity and, as such, vaccine responses. Learning from our endogenous original adjuvants could be critical in overcoming the enormous hurdle of vaccine design against the numerous pathogens that cause chronic infection...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432083/optimal-cd4-t-cell-priming-after-lps-based-adjuvanticity-with-cd134-costimulation-relies-on-cxcl9-production
#17
Paurvi Shinde, Wenhai Liu, Antoine Ménoret, Andrew D Luster, Anthony T Vella
LPS is a powerful adjuvant, and although LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling has been exquisitely delineated, the in vivo mechanism of how TLR4 responses impact T cell priming is far less clear. Besides costimulation, TNF and type 1 IFN are dominant cytokines released after TLR4 activation and can shape T cell responses, but other downstream factors have not been examined extensively. Depending on context, we show that IFNαR1 blockade resulted in minor to major effects on specific CD4 T cell clonal expansion. To help explain these differences, it was hypothesized that IFNαR1 blockade would inhibit specific T cell migration by reducing chemokine receptor signaling, but specific CD4 T cells from IFNαR1-blocked mice were readily able to migrate in response to specific chemokines...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431813/evaluation-of-immune-responses-of-stabilised-sat2-antigens-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-cattle
#18
Katherine A Scott, N M Rathogwa, A V Capozzo, Francois F Maree
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. This is especially so for serotypes O and SAT2 which are unstable in mildly acidic pH conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146S particle) and loss of immunogenicity. Previously, stabilised SAT2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a guinea pig trial...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431490/new-challenges-in-therapeutic-vaccines-against-hiv-infection
#19
Lorna Leal, Constanza Lucero, Josep M Gatell, Teresa Gallart, Montserrat Plana, Felipe García
There is a growing interest in developing curative strategies for HIV infection. Therapeutic vaccines are one of the most promising approaches. We will review the current knowledge and the new challenges in this research field. Areas covered: PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched to review the progress and prospects for clinical development of immunotherapies aimed to cure HIV infection. Dendritic cells (DC)-based vaccines have yielded the best results in the field. However, major immune-virologic barriers may hamper current vaccine strategies...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429728/a-formulated-tlr7-8-agonist-is-a-flexible-highly-potent-and-effective-adjuvant-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccines
#20
Neal Van Hoeven, Christopher B Fox, Brian Granger, Tara Evers, Sharvari W Joshi, Ghislain I Nana, Sarah C Evans, Susan Lin, Hong Liang, Li Liang, Rie Nakajima, Philip L Felgner, Richard A Bowen, Nicole Marlenee, Airn Hartwig, Susan L Baldwin, Rhea N Coler, Mark Tomai, James Elvecrog, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter
Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been transmitted from avian hosts to humans. The severity of H5N1 infection in humans, as well as the sporadic nature of H5N1 outbreaks, both geographically and temporally, make generation of an effective vaccine a global public health priority. An effective H5N1 vaccine must ultimately provide protection against viruses from diverse clades. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvant formulations have a demonstrated ability to broaden H5N1 vaccine responses in pre-clinical models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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