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vaccine adjuvants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439869/immunization-with-an-adjuvanted-low-energy-electron-irradiation-inactivated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-shows-immunoprotective-activity-in-mice
#1
Lea Bayer, Jasmin Fertey, Sebastian Ulbert, Thomas Grunwald
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and the elderly. In spite of the great need for a vaccine against RSV, currently there is no licensed product on the market. A very early vaccine candidate developed in the 1960s based on formaldehyde inactivation (FI) turned out to instead enhance the disease. Our novel inactivation method applied low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) to produce a killed RSV vaccine. LEEI yielded inactivated virus particles with a reproducible virus antigen conservation above 70%, while FI resulted in highly variable antigen conservation...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438441/development-of-vaccine-for-dyslipidemia-targeted-to-a-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-epitope-in-mice
#2
Ryo Kawakami, Yoichi Nozato, Hironori Nakagami, Yuka Ikeda, Munehisa Shimamura, Shota Yoshida, Jiao Sun, Tomohiro Kawano, Yoichi Takami, Takahisa Noma, Hiromi Rakugi, Tetsuo Minamino, Ryuichi Morishita
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors via receptor internalization and subsequent lysosomal degradation. Thus, an anti-PCSK9 antibody is well known as an anti-hyperlipidemia drug. Here, we aimed to develop vaccine for a long-term treatment of dyslipidemia targeted to PCSK9. In This study, we designed a peptide vaccine for mouse PCSK-9, which consisted of short peptides conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a carrier protein...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436537/photosensitizer-induced-self-assembly-of-antigens-as-nanovaccines-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
F Q Cao, M M Yan, Y J Liu, L X Liu, L Lu, H Wang, Ch Zhang, H F Sun, D L Kong, G L Ma
Herein, the photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) is used to induce the self-assembly of antigens to form nanovaccines. Under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, reactive oxygen species can be generated by nanovaccines to disrupt the membranes of endo/lysosomes, which helps to release antigens into the cytosol efficiently, thereby enhancing antigen cross-presentation and anti-cancer immunity. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first example of ICG as a biocompatible adjuvant to improve cancer vaccine efficacy...
February 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433450/pathogen-recognition-by-nk-cells-amplifies-the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-of-monocyte-derived-dc-via-ifn-%C3%AE
#4
Tammy Oth, Thomas H P M Habets, Wilfred T V Germeraad, Marijke I Zonneveld, Gerard M J Bos, Joris Vanderlocht
BACKGROUND: Besides their prominent role in the elimination of infected or malignantly transformed cells, natural killer (NK) cells serve as modulators of adaptive immune responses. Enhancing bidirectional crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells (DC) is considered a promising tool to potentiate cancer vaccines. We investigated to what extent direct sensing of viral and bacterial motifs by NK cells contributes to the response of inflammatory DC against the same pathogenic stimulus...
February 13, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432824/immune-response-to-antigen-adsorbed-to-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-effects-of-co-adsorption-of-alf-or-alfq-adjuvant-to-the-aluminum-antigen-complex
#5
Zoltan Beck, Oscar B Torres, Gary R Matyas, David E Lanar, Carl R Alving
Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for >50 years, and they are currently present in at least 146 licensed vaccines worldwide. In this study we examined whether adsorption of Army Liposome Formulation (ALF) to an aluminum salt that already has an antigen adsorbed to it might result in improved immune potency of the aluminum-adsorbed antigen. ALF is composed of a family of anionic liposome-based adjuvants, in which the liposomes contain synthetic phospholipids having dimyristoyl fatty acyl groups, cholesterol and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432282/phase-i-study-of-multiple-epitope-peptide-vaccination-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-persistent-cervical-cancer
#6
Kosei Hasegawa, Yuji Ikeda, Yuko Kunugi, Akira Kurosaki, Yuichi Imai, Shunsuke Kohyama, Shoji Nagao, Eito Kozawa, Koji Yoshida, Takuya Tsunoda, Yusuke Nakamura, Keiichi Fujiwara
Cancer immunotherapy has now been established as a leading standard therapeutic option in a subset of patients with cancer. In this study, we conducted a phase I dose-escalation trial using a mixture of 5 peptides to vaccinate cervical cancer patients with HLA-A*2402. The primary endpoints were safety and determination of a recommended vaccine dose, and the secondary endpoints were evaluations of immunologic responses and clinical efficacy. All patients had recurrent or persistent disease and had failed to respond to or were intolerant to prior standard chemotherapy...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431693/an-antigen-free-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-targeting-immunotherapy-to-bolster-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nonhuman-primates
#7
Yuji Masuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Tomohiro Kanuma, Eiko Moriishi, Kouji Kobiyama, Kenji Mizuguchi, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Ken J Ishii
The priming, boosting, and restoration of memory cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes by vaccination or immunotherapy in vivo is an area of active research. Particularly, nucleic acid-based compounds have attracted attention due to their ability to elicit strong Ag-specific CTL responses as a vaccine adjuvant. Nucleic acid-based compounds have been shown to act as anticancer monotherapeutic agents even without coadministration of cancer Ag(s); however, so far they have lacked efficacy in clinical trials. We recently developed a second-generation TLR9 agonist, a humanized CpG DNA (K3) complexed with schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG, a nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430819/intranasal-nanovaccine-confers-homo-and-hetero-subtypic-influenza-protection
#8
Mi Qi, Xian-En Zhang, Xianxun Sun, Xiaowei Zhang, Yanfeng Yao, Siling Liu, Ze Chen, Wei Li, Zhiping Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Zongqiang Cui
Cross-protective and non-invasively administered vaccines are attractive and highly desired for the control of influenza. Self-assembling nanotechnology provides an opportunity for the development of vaccines with superior performance. In this study, an intranasal nanovaccine is developed targeting the conserved ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2(M2e). 3-sequential repeats of M2e (3M2e) is presented on the self-assembling recombinant human heavy chain ferritin (rHF) cage to form the 3M2e-rHF nanoparticle...
February 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429808/immune-parameters-to-p67c-antigen-adjuvanted-with-isa206vg-correlate-with-protection-against-east-coast-fever
#9
Anna Lacasta, Stephen Mwalimu, Elisabeth Kibwana, Rosemary Saya, Elias Awino, Thomas Njoroge, Jane Poole, Nicholas Ndiwa, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene, Lucilla Steinaa
East Coast fever (ECF) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-transmitted protozoan parasite Theileria parva. ECF is one of the most serious cattle tick-borne diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. We have previously demonstrated that three doses of the C-terminal part of the sporozoite protein p67 (p67C) adjuvanted with ISA206VG confers partial protection against ECF at a herd level. We have tested the efficacy of two doses of this experimental vaccine, as reducing the vaccination regimen would facilitate its deployment in the field...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428196/evaluation-of-cellular-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-cytochrome-p450-cyp141-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-human-and-mouse-model
#10
Mahshid Salehi, Rahman Abdizadeh, Batoul Pourgheysari, Behnam Zamanzad, Amin Soltani, Abolfazl Gholipour, Reza Heidari
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is still considered one of the unsolved problems for the World Health Organization Identifying and selecting an immunogenic antigen capable of generating specific immune responses is generally the goal of all studies being carried out in to designing new vaccines. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of a M. tuberculosis recombinant protein which exist in the regions of the bacterium genome and may be an immunogenic protein. Immunogenicity of purified proteins was measured by PBMC and mouse spleen lymphocytes culturing methods using ELISA after an appropriate amount of time of incubation with Recombinant cytochrome P450 CYP141 protein...
February 7, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426660/ped-subunit-vaccine-based-on-coe-domain-replacement-of-flagellin-domain-d3-improved-specific-humoral-and-mucosal-immunity-in-mice
#11
Qianniu Li, Ouyang Peng, Tingting Wu, Zhichao Xu, Licheng Huang, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Zhifen Wen, Qingfeng Zhou, Yongchang Cao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an important re-emergent infectious disease and inflicts huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. To meet the pressing need of developing a safe and cost-efficient PED maternal vaccine, we generated three PED subunit vaccine candidates, using recombined Salmonella flagellin (rSF) as a mucosal molecular adjuvant. Domain D3 in rSF was replaced with COE domain of PEDV to generate rSF-COE-3D. COE fused to the flanking C'/N' terminal of rSF yielded rSF-COE-C and rSF-COE-N...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425079/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-different-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-in-the-elderly-italian-population
#12
Stefano Capri, Marco Barbieri, Chiara de Waure, Sara Boccalini, Donatella Panatto
ABSRACT In the perspective of reaching at least 75% influenza vaccination coverage in the elderly and substantial budget constraints, Italian decision makers are facing important challenges in determining an optimal immunization strategy for this growing and particularly vulnerable population. Four different influenza vaccines are currently available for Italian older adults aged 65 years or above, namely trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs), MF59-adjuvanted TIV (MF59-TIV), intradermal TIV (ID-TIV) and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines (QIVs)...
February 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424799/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-hpv-16-18-as04-adjuvanted-vaccine-in-4-6-year-old-girls-results-to-month-12-from-a-randomized-trial
#13
Lan Lin, Mercedes Macias Parra, Victor Y Sierra, Albino Salas Cespedes, Maria Angelica Granados, Adriana Luque, Silvia Damaso, Maria Mercedes Castrejon Alba, Luis Romano-Mazzotti, Frank Struyf
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls aged <9 years. METHODS: This ongoing phase III, controlled, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama (NCT01627561) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424324/nano-medicine-as-a-newly-emerging-approach-to-combat-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#14
Muthupandian Saravanan, Tsehaye Asmalash, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Tadele Araya, Haftamu Hilekiros, Hamed Barabadi, Kumaresan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers...
February 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421521/disodium-cromoglycate-may-act-as-a-novel-adjuvant-for-uv-attenuated-toxoplasma-gondii-vaccine-in-mouse-model
#15
Xi Li, Yifan Wu, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
We have proven the beneficial effects during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection when mast cells were inhibited by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Here we investigated the adjuvant effect of DSCG on the protective efficacy of UV-attenuated T. gondii (UV-Tg) vaccine. Mice were infected with 102Tg alone or infected with 102Tg plus DSCG (Tg + DSCG), immunized with 105 UV-Tg and challenged with 102Tg (UV-Tg + Tg) or immunized with 105 UV-Tg plus DSCG and challenged with 102Tg (UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg). Compared to Tg group, Tg + DSCG, UV-Tg + Tg, and UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg showed significantly prolonged survival times, decreased parasite burdens, reduced liver histopathologies, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers and spleens by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421304/%C3%AE-defensins-underestimated-peptides-in-influenza-combat
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Agnieszka Sirko
Defensins are a family of host defense peptides present in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. They display broad antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory functions. Herein, the natural anti-influenzal role of β-defensins, as well as their potential usage as anti-influenza vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents, is reviewed. This article summarizes previously published information on β-defensin modes of action, expression changes after influenza infection and vaccination, biotechnological usage and possible boosting of their production by dietary supplementation...
January 29, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421216/the-preparation-and-physico-chemical-characterization-of-aluminum-hydroxide-tlr7a-a-novel-vaccine-adjuvant-comprising-a-small-molecule-adsorbed-to-aluminum-hydroxide
#17
Padma Malyala, Donatello Laera, Simona Cianetti, Simone Bufali, Marianna Aggravi, Elvira Ianni, Casey Judge, Gillis Otten, Manmohan Singh, Derek T O' Hagan
Adjuvants are necessary to enable vaccine development against a significant number of challenging pathogens for which effective vaccines are not available [1]. We engineered a novel small-molecule immune potentiator (SMIP), a benzonaphthyridine agonist targeting toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), as a vaccine adjuvant. TLR7 agonist (TLR7a) was engineered to be adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), and the resulting AlOH/TLR7a was evaluated as a vaccine adjuvant [2-6]. AlOH/TLR7a exploits the flexibility of AlOH formulations, has an application in many vaccine candidates, and induced good efficacy and safety profiles against all tested antigens (bacterial- and viral-derived protein antigens, toxoids, glycoconjugates, etc...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420901/enhancing-efficacy-and-stability-of-an-anti-heroin-vaccine-examination-of-antinociception-opioid-binding-profile-and-lethality
#18
Candy S Hwang, Paul T Bremer, Cody J Wenthur, Sam On Ho, SuMing Chiang, Beverly Ellis, Bin Zhou, Gary Fujii, Kim D Janda
In recent years, drug conjugate vaccines have shown promise as therapeutics for substance use disorder. As a means to improve the efficacy of a heroin conjugate vaccine, we systematically explored twenty vaccine formulations with varying combinations of carrier proteins and adjuvants. In regard to adjuvants, we explored a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist and a TLR3 agonist in the presence of alum. The TLR9 agonist was cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826), while the TLR3 agonist was virus-derived genomic doubled-stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416539/adjuvant-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-the-preterm-and-term-newborn
#19
Annette Scheid, Francesco Borriello, Carlo Pietrasanta, Helen Christou, Joann Diray-Arce, Matthew A Pettengill, Sweta Joshi, Ning Li, Ilana Bergelson, Tobias Kollmann, David J Dowling, Ofer Levy
Immunization is key to protecting term and preterm infants from a heightened risk of infection. However, preterm immunity is distinct from that of the term, limiting its ability to effectively respond to vaccines routinely given at birth, such as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). As part of the Expanded Program on Immunization, HBV is often given together with the live-attenuated vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), known to activate multiple pattern-recognition receptors. Of note, some clinical studies suggest BCG can enhance efficacy of other vaccines in term newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416095/pilvax-a-novel-peptide-delivery-platform-for-the-development-of-mucosal-vaccines
#20
Dasun Wagachchi, Jia-Yun C Tsai, Callum Chalmers, Sam Blanchett, Jacelyn M S Loh, Thomas Proft
Peptide vaccines are an attractive strategy to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses and avoid potentially allergenic and/or reactogenic protein regions. However, peptides by themselves are often unstable and poorly immunogenic, necessitating the need for an adjuvant and a specialised delivery system. We have developed a novel peptide delivery platform (PilVax) that allows the presentation of a stabilised and highly amplified peptide as part of the group A streptococcus serotype M1 pilus structure (PilM1) on the surface of the non-pathogenic bacterium Lactococcus lactis...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
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