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exosome microRNA

Xin Zhou, Zipeng Lu, Tongshan Wang, Zebo Huang, Wei Zhu, Yi Miao
The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients may act as a diagnostic biomarker. A four-stage study was performed to identify plasma miRNAs with potential in detecting PC. Exiqon panels (20 PC vs. 10 normal controls (NCs)) were applied in the screening phase to obtain miRNA profiling. The identified miRNAs were further assessed in the training (40 PC vs. 40 NCs) and testing stages (112 PC vs. 116 NCs) with qRT-PCR assays. A six-miRNA signature including up-regulated miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-27b-3p was identified...
June 15, 2018: Gene
Kosuke Otani, Mai Yokoya, Tomoko Kodama, Kiko Hori, Kengo Matsumoto, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Exosomes, the smallest extracellular vesicle, contain various molecules and mediate cell-cell communication. A number of studies demonstrate exosomes are involved in important physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, microRNA (miRNA) regulating hypertension development through the suppression of certain translation was recently reported. However, roles of exosomes containing various molecules including miRNA on development of essential hypertension have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that plasma exosomes regulate systemic blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M de Souza, Andrea C Bauer, Daisy Crispim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Emerging evidence has suggested a role for miRNAs in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), indicating that miRNAs may represent potential biomarkers of this disease. However, results are still inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the subject, followed by bioinformatic analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify all studies that compared miRNA expressions between patients with DKD and diabetic patients without this complication or healthy subjects...
June 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Rongyao Xu, Xiang Shen, Yameng Si, Yu Fu, Weiwen Zhu, Tao Xiao, Zongyun Fu, Ping Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hongbing Jiang
The alteration of age-related molecules in the bone marrow microenvironment is one of the driving forces in osteoporosis. These molecules inhibit bone formation and promote bone resorption by regulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, contributing to age-related bone loss. Here, we observed that the level of microRNA-31a-5p (miR-31a-5p) was significantly increased in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from aged rats, and these BMSCs demonstrated increased adipogenesis and aging phenotypes as well as decreased osteogenesis and stemness...
June 12, 2018: Aging Cell
Masashi Fukayama, Akiko Kunita, Atsushi Kaneda
Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is a representative EBV-infected epithelial neoplasm, which is now included as one of the four subtypes of The Cancer Genome Atlas molecular classification of gastric cancer. In this review, we portray a gastritis-infection-cancer sequence of EBVaGC. This virus-associated type of gastric cancer demonstrates clonal growth of EBV-infected epithelial cells within the mucosa of atrophic gastritis. Its core molecular abnormality is the EBV-specific hyper-epigenotype of CpG island promoter methylation, which induces silencing of tumor suppressor genes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chao Zhang, Kun Zhang, Feifei Huang, Weijing Feng, Jie Chen, Huanji Zhang, Jingfeng Wang, Pei Luo, Hui Huang
Vascular calcification (VC) is caused by hydroxyapatite deposition in the intimal and medial layers of the vascular wall, leading to severe cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. VC occurrences involve complicated mechanism networks, such as matrix vesicles or exosomes production, osteogenic differentiation, reduced cell viability, aging and so on. However, with present therapeutic methods targeting at VC ineffectively, novel targets for VC treatment are demanded...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
D Bellavia, L Raimondi, V Costa, A De Luca, V Carina, M Maglio, M Fini, R Alessandro, G Giavaresi
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanovesicles actively secreted by potentially all cell types, including tumour cells, with the primary role of extracellular systemic communication mediators, both at autocrine and paracrine levels, at short and long distances. Recently, different studies have used exosomes as a delivery system for a plethora of different molecules, such as drugs, microRNAs and proteins. This has been made possible thanks to the simplicity in exosomes engineering, their great stability and versatility for applications in oncology as well as in regenerative medicine...
June 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chao Lv, Wen-Xian Yu, Yan Wang, Da-Jing Yi, Ming-Hua Zeng, Hong-Mei Xiao
Human preimplantation embryo development is susceptible to high rates of early embryo wastage. We determined the microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in fertilized eggs and embryo of varying stages and their response to miR-21 microinjection. Sexually mature female and male mice were mated. Next, the expression and immunohistochemistry intensity of surface markers (CD9 and CD63) of EVs were detected in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Exosomes were co-cultured with embryos for detection of blastocyst formation rate, and embryo apoptosis...
June 8, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Wenjing Chen, Andrew D Hoffmann, Huiping Liu, Xia Liu
Metastasis accounts for 90% of breast cancer mortality. Despite the significant progress made over the past decade in cancer medicine our understanding of metastasis remains limited, therefore preventing and targeting metastasis is not yet possible. Breast cancer cells preferentially metastasize to specific organs, known as "organotropic metastasis", which is regulated by subtypes of breast cancer, host organ microenvironment, and cancer cells-organ interactions. The cross-talk between cancer cells and host organs facilitates the formation of the premetastatic niche and is augmented by factors released from cancer cells prior to the cancer cells' arrival at the host organ...
2018: NPJ Precision Oncology
Michael W Graner, Sathya Schnell, Michael R Olin
Originally considered to be part of a cellular waste pathway, expansive research into exosomes has shown that these vesicles possess a vast array of functional utilities. As vital transporters of materials for communications between cells, particular interest has been generated in the ability of cancer cells to use exosomes to induce immune suppression, and to establish a thriving microenvironment, ideal for disease progression. Exosomes carry and transfer many types of cargo, including microRNAs (miRNAs; miRs), which are important modulators of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression...
June 4, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Indrabahadur Singh, Adriana Contreras, Julio Cordero, Karla Rubio, Stephanie Dobersch, Stefan Günther, Sylvia Jeratsch, Aditi Mehta, Marcus Krüger, Johannes Graumann, Werner Seeger, Gergana Dobreva, Thomas Braun, Guillermo Barreto
The majority of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed into noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are important regulators of different nuclear processes by controlling chromatin structure. However, the full extent of ncRNA function has remained elusive. Here we deciphered the function of the microRNA Mirlet7d as a key regulator of bidirectionally transcribed genes. We found that nuclear Mirlet7d binds ncRNAs expressed from these genes. Mirlet7d-ncRNA duplexes are further bound by C1D, which in turn targets the RNA exosome complex and the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the bidirectionally active loci...
June 4, 2018: Nature Genetics
Petra A B Klemmt, Anna Starzinski-Powitz
Background: A substantial body of studies supports the view that molecular and cellular features of endometriotic lesions differ from those of eutopic endometrium. Apart from that, evidence exists that the eutopic endometrium from pa-tients with endometriosis differs from that of females without endometriosis. Objective: Aberrant expression profiles include a number of non-steroid signaling pathways that exert their putative influ-ence on the pathogenesis of endometriosis at least in part via crosstalk(s) with estrogen-mediated mechanisms...
June 2018: Current Women's Health Reviews
Xue-Jia Lin, Jian-Hong Fang, Xiao-Jing Yang, Chong Zhang, Yunfei Yuan, Limin Zheng, Shi-Mei Zhuang
We previously found that 19 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly increased in the sera of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Here, we evaluated whether these miRNAs were secreted by HCC cells and contributed to tumor angiogenesis. High level of miR-210-3p (miR-210) was detected in the exosomes isolated from the sera of HCC patients and the conditioned media of hepatoma cells. Higher miR-210 level in serum was correlated with higher microvessel density in HCC tissues. Moreover, the HCC cell-secreted exosomes promoted in vitro tubulogenesis of endothelial cells, which was strengthened by overexpressing miR-210 in HCC cells but was attenuated by repressing miR-210 or DROSHA in HCC cells...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yuji Toiyama, Yoshinaga Okugawa, James Fleshman, C Richard Boland, Ajay Goel
Emerging evidence has demonstrated the feasibility of circulating miRNAs as robust non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis in colorectal cancer. The use of circulating miRNAs for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is of particular interest as it can offer a potential complementary approach to screening colonoscopy. However, the development of circulating miRNAs as "liquid biopsy" biomarkers for development into clinical screening tests has been hampered by several issues. In this article, we summarize the status of this field for the clinical utilization of miRNA biomarkers as liquid biopsies in colorectal cancer (CRC) and discuss their applications as screening tests for patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA) and CRC...
May 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elisa Guarino, Chiara Delli Poggi, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Valeria Cenci, Elena Ceccarelli, Isabella Crisci, Guido Sebastiani, Francesco Dotta
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately monitor the status of gestational diabetes...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Rudiger Hardeland
Several recent developments in melatonin research deserve attention and divulgation. The role of melatonin in the brain has been extended to its synthesis in the cerebellum as a response to inflammation, findings that exceed the earlier demonstration of aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase expression. The release of melatonin via the pineal recess into the third ventricle appears to be more important than previously believed and has been discussed as a strong direct signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The mitochondrial role of melatonin has been substantially extended by the demonstration of the melatonin receptor MT1 in this organelle and evidence for melatonin synthesis in mammalian mitochondria, in addition to the previously shown uptake into these organelles...
May 30, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
N Balaguer, I Moreno, M Herrero, M González, C Simón, F Vilella
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific mechanism to load the microRNA, hsa-miR-30d, into exosomes to facilitate maternal communication with pre-implantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 (hnRNPC1) is involved in the internalization of endometrial miR-30d into exosomes to prepare for its subsequent incorporation into trophectoderm cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Our group previously described a novel cell-to-cell communication mechanism involving the delivery of endometrial microRNAs (miRNAs) from the maternal endometrium to the trophectoderm cells of preimplantation embryos...
May 29, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Michael Boyiadzis, Theresa L Whiteside
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exosomes are cell-derived, biologically active membrane-bound vesicles, and are emerging as key modulators of hematopoiesis. Recent studies have provided a clearer understanding of the mechanisms whereby blast-derived exosomes act to suppress hematopoiesis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes released from leukemia blasts have been shown to suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) functions indirectly through stromal reprogramming of niche-retention factors and also as a consequence of AML exosome-directed microRNA delivery to HPC...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Francesco Dotta, Giuliana Ventriglia, Isaac V Snowhite, Alberto Pugliese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss current knowledge about microRNAs (miRNAs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disease leading to severe loss of pancreatic β-cells. We describe: the role of cellular miRNAs in regulating immune functions and pathways impacting insulin secretion and β-cell survival; circulating miRNAs as disease biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies examined miRNAs in experimental models and patients, including analysis of tissues from organ donors, peripheral blood cells, and circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma, and exosomes...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Guilong Zhang, Lukui Chen, Xiaoyuan Guo, Hong Wang, Wanghao Chen, Guojian Wu, Bin Gu, Wei Miao, Jun Kong, Xingxing Jin, Guoqing Yi, Yang You, Xinhui Su, Ning Gu
Stroke recovery is associated with neural stem cell (NSC) development and neurovascular unit reconstruction. The exosome, as an important intercellular player in neurovascular communication, mediates neuro-restorative events by transferring exosomal protein and RNA cargoes. In this study, we explored the role of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in human NSCs (hNSCs), and analyzed the expression profiles of miRNAs in hNSC-derived and hypoxic preconditioning hNSC-derived exosomes with the help of next generation sequencing (NGS)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
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