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exosome microRNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910046/exosomes-based-gene-therapy-for-microrna-delivery
#1
Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Susmita Sahoo
Despite recent advances in scientific knowledge and clinical practice, cardiovascular disease management and treatment remain a major burden. While several treatment strategies using drugs and surgeries are being developed for cardiovascular manifestations, gene-based therapies hold significant promise. Recent findings from our laboratory unveiled a novel mechanism that exosomes, secreted nanovesicles from stem cells, mediate cardiac repair via transferring their unique repertoire of microRNAs (miRNA) to recipient cells in the heart...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#2
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906035/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#3
REVIEW
Joseph Withrow, Cameron Murphy, Yutao Liu, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are both debilitating diseases that cause significant morbidity in the US population. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are now recognized to play important roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting various proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs. EV-derived proteins and miRNAs impact cell viability and cell differentiation, and are likely to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of both OA and RA. Some of the processes by which these membrane-bound vesicles can alter joint tissue include extracellular matrix degradation, cell-to-cell communication, modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, and antigen presentation...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905554/increased-plasma-vegf-levels-following-ischemic-preconditioning-are-associated-with-downregulation-of-mirna-762-and-mir-3072-5p
#4
Koji Ueno, Makoto Samura, Tamami Nakamura, Yuya Tanaka, Yuriko Takeuchi, Daichi Kawamura, Masaya Takahashi, Tohru Hosoyama, Noriyasu Morikage, Kimikazu Hamano
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has protective effects against ischemia-perfusion injury of organs. In the present study, we investigated the associated mechanisms after performing remote IPC (rIPC) of lower limbs by clamping abdominal aorta in mice. Subsequent experiments showed decreased damage and paralysis of lower limbs following spinal cord injury (SCI). Concomitantly, plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were increased 24 h after rIPC compared with those in sham-operated animals. In subsequent microRNA analyses, thirteen microRNAs were downregulated in exosomes 24 h after rIPC...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899750/circulating-micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-stenosis-progression-in-asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis
#5
Sandra Dolz, David Górriz, José Ignacio Tembl, Dolors Sánchez, Gerardo Fortea, Vera Parkhutik, Aida Lago
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progression of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) in patients with >50% luminal narrowing is considered a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke; however, subclinical molecular biomarkers of ACAS progression are lacking. Recent studies suggest a regulatory function for several microRNAs (miRNAs) on the evolution of carotid plaque, but its role in ACAS progression is mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate a wide miRNA panel in peripheral blood exosomes from patients with ACAS to associate circulating miRNA expression profiles with stenosis progression...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890076/dirofilaria-immitis-exhibits-sex-and-stage-specific-differences-in-excretory-secretory-mirna-and-protein-profiles
#6
Lucienne Tritten, Damian Clarke, Scott Timmins, Tom McTier, Timothy G Geary
The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884305/micrornas-in-extracellular-vesicles-protect-kidney-from%C3%A2-ischemic-injury-from-endothelial-to-tubular-epithelial
#7
Man Jiang Livingston, Qingqing Wei
Extracellular vesicles from stem cells or progenitor cells are novel therapeutic systems for acute kidney injury. With exosomes (the smallest class of extracellular vesicles), Viñas et al. successfully rescued ischemic injured kidney. MicroRNA-486-5p, the crucial factor specifically delivered by exosomes to kidney, ameliorates the injury by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog and inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis. In this commentary, we discuss the potential underlying mechanism and the pivotal impact of their study on extracellular vesicle therapy...
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883272/circulating-adipocyte-derived-exosomal-micrornas-associated-with-decreased-insulin-resistance-after-gastric-bypass
#8
Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Sarah C Ferrante, Matthew D Barberio, Jung-Hyuk Suh, Justin Wang, G Lynis Dohm, Walter J Pories, Michelle Mietus-Snyder, Robert J Freishtat
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes from obese adipose contain dysregulated microRNAs linked to insulin signaling, as compared with lean controls, providing a direct connection between adiposity and insulin resistance. This study tested the hypotheses that gastric bypass surgery and its subsequent weight loss would normalize adipocyte-derived exosomal microRNAs associated with insulin signaling and the associated metabolome related to glucose homeostasis. METHODS: African American female subjects with obesity (N = 6; age: 38...
November 24, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881406/enrichment-of-selective-mirnas-in-exosomes-and-delivery-of-exosomal-mirnas-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Duo Zhang, Heedoo Lee, Ziwen Zhu, Jasleen K Minhas, Yang Jin
Exosomes are nano vesicles secreted by cells, and contain various molecules including protein, lipid and DNA/RNA. They are crucial mediators of the intercellular communication and serve as promising vehicles for drug delivery and gene therapy. Recently, accumulating evidence suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as new and potentially powerful targets for therapeutic interventions against various human diseases. However, steadily and effectively delivering miRNA mimics or inhibitors to target cells remains a major obstacle...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878944/the-roles-of-bone-derived-exosomes-and-exosomal-micrornas-in-regulating-bone-remodelling
#10
REVIEW
Yong Xie, Yanyu Chen, Licheng Zhang, Wei Ge, Peifu Tang
Pathological destructive bone diseases are primarily caused by the failure of a lifelong self-renewal process of the skeletal system called bone remodelling. The mechanisms underlying this process include enhanced osteoclast activity and decreased generation of the osteoblast lineage. Intercellular interaction and crosstalk among these cell types are crucial for the maintenance of bone remodelling, either through the secretion of growth factors or direct cell-cell physical engagement. Recent studies have revealed that exosomes derived from bone cells, including osteoclasts, osteoblasts and their precursors, play pivotal roles on bone remodelling by transferring biologically active molecules to target cells, especially in the processes of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872698/the-role-of-exosomes-contents-on-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-of-recipient-cancer-cells
#11
REVIEW
Golnoush Dehbashi Behbahani, Soghra Khani, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Kazem Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi, Saeed Nazeri
Exosomes, as a mediator of cell-to-cell transfer of genetic information, act an important role in intercommunication between tumor cells and their niche including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, adipocytes and monocytes. Several studies have shown that tumor cells can influence their neighboring cells by releasing exosomes. These exosomes provide signaling cues for stimulation, activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Exosomes contain mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNA), and proteins that could be transferred to target cells inducing genetic and epigenetic changes...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872688/functional-roles-for-exosomal-micrornas-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Emma Bell, Molly A Taylor
Extracellular microRNAs are released from cells both passively and actively. The presence of these microRNAs in the tumour microenvironment (TME) can significantly impact on the plasticity of cancer cells leading to the promotion of metastatic and angiogenic processes. These extracellular microRNAs can act not only on other cancer cells, but also cells present in the TME, such as immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and others acting to subvert the host immune system and drive tumour progression. In this review we highlight the current understanding of both the mechanisms by which microRNAs are released from tumour cells and the downstream functional effects that extracellular microRNAs have on recipient cells...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872050/experimental-systems-and-computational-approaches-to-understanding-the-microrna-mediated-reparative-potential-of-cardiac-progenitor-cell-derived-exosomes-from-pediatric-patients
#13
Udit Agarwal, Alex George, Srishti Bhutani, Shohini Ghosh-Choudhary, Josh T Maxwell, Milton E Brown, Yash Mehta, Manu O Platt, Yaxuan Liang, Susmita Sahoo, Michael E Davis
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that exosomes can repair cardiac tissue post myocardial infarction (MI) and recapitulate the benefits of cellular therapy. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of donor age and hypoxia of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-derived exosomes, in a rat model of ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human CPCs from the right atrial appendages from children of different ages undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects were isolated and cultured under hypoxic or normoxic conditions...
November 21, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871993/msc-exosome-as-a-cell-free-msc-therapy-for-cartilage-regeneration-implications-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Wei Seong Toh, Ruenn Chai Lai, James Hoi Po Hui, Sai Kiang Lim
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in cartilage repair in animal and clinical studies. The efficacy of MSC-based therapies which was previously predicated on the chondrogenic potential of MSC is increasingly attributed to the paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. Exosomes are thought to function primarily as intercellular communication vehicles to transfer bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNAs and microRNAs) and proteins between cells to elicit biological responses in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864711/mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomal-micrornas-contribute-to-wound-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Dongdong Ti, Haojie Hao, Xiaobing Fu, Weidong Han
Clinical and experimental studies have highlighted the significance of inflammation in coordinating wound repair and regeneration. However, it remains challenging to control the inflammatory response and tolerance at systemic levels without causing toxicity to injured tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties and facilitate tissue repair by releasing exosomes, which generate a suitable microenvironment for inflammatory resolution. Exosomes contain several effective bioactive molecules and act as a cell-cell communication vehicle to influence cellular activities in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852870/biological-activities-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-cargos-from-bovine-and-human-milk-in-humans-and-implications-for-infants
#16
REVIEW
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843374/potential-serum-and-urine-biomarkers-in-patients-with-lupus-nephritis-and-the-unsolved-problems
#17
REVIEW
Song-Chou Hsieh, Chang-Youh Tsai, Chia-Li Yu
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin) antibodies, may also involve in LN...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837435/exosomal-mir-221-targets-dnm3-to-induce-tumor-progression-and-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioma
#18
Jian-Kai Yang, Ji-Peng Yang, Jing Tong, Shi-Yuan Jing, Bo Fan, Feng Wang, Guo-Zhu Sun, Bao-Hua Jiao
MicroRNA is an important regulator of glioblastoma. This study aims at validating microRNA-221 (miR-221) as a biomarker for glioblastoma, and understanding how miR-221 regulates glioblastoma progression. Using clinical samples, miR-221 expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qPCR). SHG-44 cells were treated with anti-miR-221 or U87MG-derived exosomes followed by monitoring changes in cell viability, migration and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. Bioinformatics approach was used to identify targets of miR-221...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834360/glioblastoma-exosome-and-microrna-as-novel-diagnosis-biomarkers
#19
REVIEW
L Saadatpour, E Fadaee, S Fadaei, R Nassiri Mansour, M Mohammadi, S M Mousavi, M Goodarzi, J Verdi, H Mirzaei
Glioblastoma (GBM) is known as a tumor type, which arises from astrocytes. Several studies indicated that GBM tumor cells are malignant. This is because of the fact that they consist of different cell types, which are reproducing very quickly and are also supported by a large network of blood vessels. The correct identification of various stages of GBM could help to better treat the patients with this disease. Therefore, new biomarkers such as exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) may help us to learn more about GBM and they may also lead to a more effective treatment for patients with GBM...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826926/analysis-of-the-distribution-profiles-of-circulating-micrornas-by-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#20
Kenneth Flack, Luis A Jimenez, Wenwan Zhong
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stably present in circulatory systems. They are bound to various carriers like proteins, lipoprotein particles, and exosomes. Investigating the process of miRNA distribution among these carriers will help improve our understanding of their functions in the extracellular environment and their potential relationship with diseases. Here, we describe how to obtain the distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs by separation of different miRNA carriers in human serum with asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4), and detection of the miRNAs in the eluted fractions that enrich particular types of carriers with RT-qPCR...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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