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exosome microRNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029277/mir-122-release-in-exosomes-precedes-overt-tolvaptan-induced-necrosis-in-a-primary-human-hepatocyte-micropatterned-coculture-model
#1
Merrie Mosedale, J Scott Eaddy, O Joseph Trask, Natalie S Holman, Kristina K Wolf, Edward LeCluyse, Brenton R Ware, Salman R Khetani, Jingtao Lu, William J Brock, Sharin E Roth, Paul B Watkins
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is thought to often result from an adaptive immune attack on the liver. However, it has been proposed that the cascade of events culminating in an adaptive immune response begins with drug-induced hepatocyte stress, release of exosomal danger signals, and innate immune activation, all of which may occur in the absence of significant hepatocelluar death. A micropatterned coculture model (HepatoPac®) was used to explore the possibility that changes in exosome content precede overt necrosis in response to the IDILI drug tolvaptan...
September 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028873/mirna-in-tumour-metabolism-and-why-could-it-be-the-preferred-pathway-for-energy-reprograming
#2
Aliaa A Alamoudi, Amina Alnoury, Hoda Gad
The current literature on the role of microRNA (miRNA) in tumour metabolism is growing, and a number of studies regularly confirm the impact miRNA can have in energy reprograming in tumours. However, there remains to be a lack of understanding of the larger perspective of the role of miRNA in the metabolism story. In the first part of this review, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the extensive role of miRNAs in tumour metabolism including glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. However, in the second part, we aim to provide a description of the multidimensional role miRNA can be playing in tumour metabolism...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024380/cell-to-cell-communication-micrornas-as-hormones
#3
REVIEW
Recep Bayraktar, Katrien Van Roosbroeck, George A Calin
Mammalian cells can release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. Accumulating evidence suggests that EVs play a role in cell-to-cell communication within the tumor microenvironment. EVs' components, such as proteins, non-coding RNAs [microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)], messenger RNAs (mRNAs), DNA, and lipids, can mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, miRNAs encapsulated in secreted EVs have been identified in the extracellular space...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022142/microvesicle-mediated-delivery-of-mir-1343-impact-on-markers-of-fibrosis
#4
Lindsay R Stolzenburg, Ann Harris
Tissue fibrosis, the development of fibrous connective tissue as a result of injury or damage, is associated with many common diseases and cannot be treated effectively. The complex biological processes accompanying fibrosis often involve aberrant signaling through the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway. In the search for mechanisms to repress this signaling, microRNAs have emerged as a novel class of molecules capable of targeting single members of the TGF-β pathway, or the pathway as a whole...
October 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#5
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016843/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-natural-bio-factories-for-exosomes-carrying-mir-124a-in-the-treatment-of-gliomas
#6
Frederick M Lang, Anwar Hossain, Joy Gumin, Eric N Momin, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Dan Ledbetter, Tal Shahar, Shinji Yamashita, Brittany Parker-Kerrigan, Juan Fueyo, Raymond Sawaya, Frederick F Lang
Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are promising new therapeutics for glioblastoma. However, which miRs are most effective against glioblastomas and how these miRs should be delivered are major unanswered problems. Methods: To identify potent anti-glioma miRs, we selected eight miRs based on a literature search and screened them against a panel of glioma stem cell lines (GSCs), representing all TCGA-defined glioblastoma subtypes. To address delivery, we tested the hypothesis that ex vivo-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can package miRs into exosomes and that these engineered exosomes can systemically deliver antiglioma miRs to glioblastomas...
August 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993808/micrornas-new-players-in-the-pathobiology-of-preeclampsia
#7
REVIEW
Kelsey R Bounds, Valorie L Chiasson, Lu J Pan, Sudhiranjan Gupta, Piyali Chatterjee
Our understanding of how microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene networks and affect different molecular pathways leading to various human pathologies has significantly improved over the years. In contrary, the role of miRNAs in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) is only beginning to emerge. Recent papers highlight that adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with aberrant expression of several miRNAs. Presently, efforts are underway to determine the biologic function of these placental miRNAs which can shed light on their contribution to these pregnancy-related disease conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993299/circulating-micrornas-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-therapy-efficacy-in-hepatitis-c-patients-with-different-genotypes
#8
Zhicheng Fan, Qiaoxin Zhang, Huanzhu Chen, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Mengya Si, Xiaoyang Jiao
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype exerts a major influence on therapeutic response; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the circulating microRNAs as the biomarkers to predict the response to therapy in chronic hepatitisC patients (HepC) with different genotypes. METHODS: HepC patients were separated into 4 groups by genotype, healthy individuals were enrolled as the control. microRNA-122 (miR-122), microRNA-155 (miR-155) and HCV RNA in serum and exosome were measured, associations between microRNAs, viral load and other conventional biomarkers were analyzed...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990243/micrornas-a-novel-potential-biomarker-for-diagnosis-and-therapy-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Qun Zhou, Shao-Xin Huang, Feng Zhang, Shu-Jun Li, Cong Liu, Yong-Yong Xi, Liang Wang, Xin Wang, Qi-Qiang He, Cheng-Cao Sun, De-Jia Li
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is still one of the most serious causes of cancer-related deaths all over the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are defined as small non-coding RNAs which could play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Increasing evidence demonstrated dysregulation of miRNA expression associates with the development and progression of NSCLC. AIMS: To emphasize a variety of tissue-specific miRNAs, circulating miRNAs and miRNA-derived exosomes could be used as potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in NSCLC patients...
October 8, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986361/regulating-microrna-expression-at-the-heart-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-mitochondrion
#10
Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Andrya J Durr, Shanawar Waris, Danielle L Shepherd, John M Hollander
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus results in a systemic milieu of increased circulating glucose and fatty acids. The development of insulin resistance in cardiac tissue decreases cellular glucose import and enhances mitochondrial fatty acid uptake. While triacylglycerol and cytotoxic lipid species begin to accumulate in the cardiomyocyte, the energy substrate utilization ratio of free fatty acids (FFAs) to glucose changes to almost entirely FFAs...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986250/a-serum-exosomal-microrna-panel-as-a-potential-biomarker-test-for-gastric-cancer
#11
Ning Wang, Lina Wang, Yongjun Yang, Li Gong, Bin Xiao, Xin Liu
The findings from several studies have suggested that circulating miRNAs are imbalanced with the genesis of gastric cancer (GC). Both normal and cancer cells can generate and secrete exosomes, which are nanosized membrane vesicles that can transport microRNAs and proteins. Emerging evidence indicates that the exosomes secreted by cancer cells can be released into the circulatory system. In this study, we investigated whether circulating exosomal miRNAs can be used to discriminate individuals with GC from healthy controls (NCs)...
October 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982131/mex3c-interacts-with-adaptor-related-protein-complex-2-and-involves-in-mir-451a-exosomal-sorting
#12
Pin Lu, Huanhuan Li, Ning Li, Ravi N Singh, Colin E Bishop, Xiangxian Chen, Baisong Lu
Some RNA species, especially microRNAs, are non-randomly sorted into exosomes, but how selectivity of RNA exosomal sorting is achieved is unknown. We found that all three variants of RNA-binding ubiquitin E3 ligase (MEX3C)-MEX3C-1, MEX3C-2, and MEX3C-3 -interact with adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2), a cargo adaptor in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. MEX3C's C-terminal RING finger domain and the hnRNP K homology (KH) domain shared by the three MEX3C variants are both necessary for MEX3C/AP-2 interaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981169/mir-200c-3p-spreads-invasive-capacity-in-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment
#13
Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Masahiko Morioka, Mai Hazekawa, Atsushi Yasukochi, Takuya Nishinakagawa, Kazuhiko Ono, Shintaro Kawano, Seiji Nakamura, Manabu Nakashima
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all cancers in the oral cavity. The prognosis for patients with invasive OSCC is poor; therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of invasion and subsequent metastasis not only to prevent cancer progression but also to detect new therapeutic targets against OSCC. Recently, extracellular vesicles-particularly exosomes-have been recognized as intercellular communicators in the tumor microenvironment. As exosomic cargo, deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) can shape the surrounding microenvironment in a cancer-dependent manner...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979813/tumor-microenvironment-interruption-a-novel-anti-cancer-mechanism-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-in-gastric-cancer-by-suppressing-the-release-of-microrna-carrying-exosomes
#14
Xu-Wen Guan, Fang Zhao, Jing-Ya Wang, Hai-Yan Wang, Shao-Hua Ge, Xia Wang, Le Zhang, Rui Liu, Yi Ba, Hong-Li Li, Ting Deng, Li-Kun Zhou, Ming Bai, Tao Ning, Hai-Yang Zhang, Ding-Zhi Huang
Poor prognosis of gastric cancer is related to not only malignancy of gastric cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment. Thus drugs, which can inhibit both of them, are urgently needed to be explored. Studies on effect of Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in anti-neoplasms are increasing, but is rare in gastric in gastric cancer. Here we investigated how the gastric cancer microenvironment is regulated by PPIs. The objective response rate of gastric cancer patients in our hospital treated by PPIs is investigated...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978424/slowing-down-aging
#15
Katharina Meyer, Bruce A Yankner
The hypothalamus plays a key role in coordinating the physiological changes that underlie mammalian aging. In a recent issue of Nature, Cai and colleagues (2017) shed new light on the mechanism of this effect by providing evidence that hypothalamic stem cells may regulate aging through the release of microRNAs in exosomes.
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968550/esophageal-adenocarcinoma-derived-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-induce-a-neoplastic-phenotype-in-gastric-organoids
#16
Xiquan Ke, Rong Yan, Zhenguo Sun, Yulan Cheng, Amy Meltzer, Nonghua Lu, Xu Shu, Zhe Wang, Binbin Huang, Xi Liu, Zhixiong Wang, Jee Hoon Song, Christopher K Ng, Sariat Ibrahim, John M Abraham, Eun Ji Shin, Shuixiang He, Stephen J Meltzer
There have been no reports describing the effects of cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) on three-dimensional organoids. In this study, we delineated the proneoplastic effects of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)-derived EVs on gastric organoids (gastroids) and elucidated molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. EVs were identified using PKH-67 staining. Morphologic changes, Ki-67 immunochemistry, cell viability, growth rates, and expression levels of miR-25 and miR-210, as well as of their target mRNAs, were determined in gastroids co-cultured with EAC-derived extracellular vesicles (c-EVs)...
September 29, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966883/micrornas-in-cancer-challenges-and-opportunities-in-early-detection-disease-monitoring-and-therapeutic-agents
#17
Namita Chatterjee, Shushan Rana, Cristina Espinosa-Diez, Sudarshan Anand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goals of this review are to examine the usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer and to evaluate the applicability of miRNAs as cancer therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Examination of miRNA milieu from body fluids offers a new alternative for quick, affordable and easy analysis of disease status in patients. Blood-based exosomal miRNAs have increased stability and are an excellent choice for clinical cancer diagnostics and prognostics...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965750/emerging-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-musculoskeletal-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Cameron Murphy, Joseph Withrow, Monte Hunter, Yutao Liu, Yao Liang Tang, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Research into the biology of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has expanded significantly with advances in EV isolation techniques, a better understanding of the surface markers that characterize exosomes and microvesicles, and greater information derived from -omics approaches on the proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) transported by EVs. We have recently discovered a role for exosome-derived miRNAs in age-related bone loss and osteoarthritis, two conditions that impose a significant public health burden on the aging global population...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953276/modelling-the-propagation-of-a-dynamical-signature-in-gene-expression-mediated-by-the-transport-of-extracellular-micrornas
#19
Alexis Grau Ribes, Yannick De Decker, Claude Gérard, Laurence Rongy
Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) carried by exosomes can play a key role in cell-to-cell communication. Deregulation of miRNA expression and exosome secretion have been related to pathological conditions such as cancer. While it is known that circulating miRNAs can alter gene expression in recipient cells, it remains unclear how significant the dynamical impact of these extracellular miRNAs is. To shed light on this issue, we propose a model for the spatio-temporal evolution of the protein expression in a cell tissue altered by abnormal miRNA expression in a donor cell...
September 27, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951728/urinary-exosomes-and-their-cargo-potential-biomarkers-for-mineralocorticoid-arterial-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Eric R Barros, Cristian A Carvajal
Arterial hypertension (AHT) currently affects approximately 40% of adults worldwide, and its pathological mechanisms are mainly related to renal, vascular, and endocrine systems. Steroid hormones as aldosterone and cortisol are highly relevant to human endocrine physiology, and also to endocrine hypertension. Pathophysiological conditions, such as primary aldosteronism, affect approximately 10% of patients diagnosed with AHT and are secondary to a high production of aldosterone, increasing the risk also for cardiovascular damage and heart diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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