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exosome microRNA

Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohsen Navari, Maryam Etebari, Mostafa Ibrahimi, Lorenzo Leoncini, Pier Paolo Piccaluga
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human γ-herpesvirus implicated in several human malignancies, including a wide range of lymphomas. Several molecules encoded by EBV in its latent state are believed to be related to EBV-induced lymphomagenesis, among which microRNAs-small RNAs with a posttranscriptional regulating role-are of great importance. The genome of EBV encodes 44 mature microRNAs belonging to two different classes, including BamHI-A rightward transcript ( BART ) and Bam HI fragment H rightward open reading frame 1 ( BHRF1 ), with different expression levels in different EBV latency types...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sarah Kahn, Yalin Liao, Xiaogu Du, Wei Xu, Jie Li, Bo Lönnerdal
SCOPE: This study investigates the ability of preterm milk exosomes to survive gastric/pancreatic digestion, internalization by intestinal epithelia, and the microRNAs (miRNAs) contents. METHODS AND RESULTS: At average infant age 1 week 6 days, milk was collected from mothers who delivered preterm and term infants (n  =  10). Milk was exposed to conditions simulating infant gut digestion. Exosomes were isolated and lysed, and the exposed miRNAs were sequenced...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Wei Wang, Dong-Bin Li, Ru-Ying Li, Xia Zhou, Dong-Ju Yu, Xiao-Yan Lan, Jin-Pin Li, Jing-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Early and accurate diagnosis of ischaemic stroke (IS) requires the use of an optimized biomarker. Exosomal microRNAs have the potential to serve as biomarkers owing to their stability and specificity. We investigated the expression levels of plasma-derived exosomal microRNA-21-5p and microRNA-30a-5p in the different phases of IS. METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients with IS and 24 non-stroke controls were enrolled. The patients were divided into the following 5 groups: 1 group for the hyperacute phase IS (HIS, within 6 h); two for the acute phase IS (AIS, including days 1-3 and days 4-7); one for the subacute phase IS (SIS, days 8-14); and one for the recovery phase IS (RIS, days >14)...
April 6, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Liangzhi Gong, Qiyuan Bao, Chuanzhen Hu, Jun Wang, Qi Zhou, Li Wei, Lei Tong, Weibin Zhang, Yuhui Shen
Exosomal microRNAs(miRNAs) transfer from tumor to stromal cells is reportedly associated with cancer progression and metastasis in various epithelial cancers. However, the role of exosomal miRNA in the metastasis of osteosarcoma(OS) -the most common bone malignancy-still largely remains unknown. In this study, we purified exosomes with a median size close to 100 nm from cell culture media as well as patient serum, and proved that exosomes derived from the metastatic, but not the non-metastatic OS cells increase the migration and invasion of non-malignant fibroblast cells (hFOB1...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kimitoshi Kimura, Hirohiko Hohjoh, Takashi Yamamura
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, in which myelin and oligodendrocytes are the main targets recognized by inflammatory CD4+ T cells reactive to myelin peptides. Regulatory CD4+ T (Treg) cells normally keep homeostasis of the immune system by inhibiting detrimental effects of inflammatory T cells. However, Treg cells are reduced in patients with MS for unknown reason. This commentary highlights a novel function of circulating exosomes to inhibit the differentiation of Treg cells in MS...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Xiaotang Ma, Jinju Wang, Jiao Li, Chunlian Ma, Shuzhen Chen, Wei Lei, Yi Yang, Shiming Liu, Ji Bihl, Can Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stem cell-derived exosomes (EXs) offer protective effects on various cells via their carried microRNAs (miRs). Meanwhile, miR-210 has been shown to reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. In this study, we determined the potential effects of endothelial progenitor cell-derived EXs (EPC-EXs) on hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) injured endothelial cells (ECs) and investigated whether these effects could be boosted by miR-210 loading. METHODS: Human EPCs were used to generate EPC-EXs, or transfected with scrambler control or miR-210 mimics to generate EPC-EXssc and EPC-EXsmiR-210...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kenichiro Ishii, Sanai Takahashi, Yoshiki Sugimura, Masatoshi Watanabe
Androgens are essential for the development, differentiation, growth, and function of the prostate through epithelial-stromal interactions. However, androgen concentrations in the hypertrophic human prostate decrease significantly with age, suggesting an inverse correlation between androgen levels and proliferative diseases of the aging prostate. In elderly males, age- and/or androgen-related stromal remodeling is spontaneously induced, i.e., increased fibroblast and myofibroblast numbers, but decreased smooth muscle cell numbers in the prostatic stroma...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Orsolya Biró, János Rigó
Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality that affects 3-8% of pregnancies worldwide. Its main symptoms include new onset of high blood pressure and proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The cause of the disease is still debated. microRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that play a pivotal part in the posttranscriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes. They are involved in fine-tuning of vital physiological processes such as cell cycle, proliferation, differentiation and cell death...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Ting Ting Yang, Chen Geng Liu, Shi Chao Gao, Yi Zhang, Pei Chang Wang
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRs) are attractive molecules to be considered as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to explore their potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD. METHODS: The expression levels of exosomal miR-135a, -193b, and -384 in the serum from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer-type (DAT), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients were measured with a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) method...
February 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Paul M McKeever, Raphael Schneider, Foad Taghdiri, Anna Weichert, Namita Multani, Robert A Brown, Adam L Boxer, Anna Karydas, Bruce Miller, Janice Robertson, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to the age of 65 years is classified as young-onset (YOAD), whereas diagnosis after the age of 65 years is considered late-onset (LOAD). Although rare autosomal mutations more commonly associate with YOAD, most YOAD and LOAD cases are sporadic. YOAD and LOAD share amyloid and tau pathology, but many YOAD patients show increased disease severity and rate of progression. The current study examined the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile from exosomes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of YOAD patients with biomarker-confirmed AD...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Naveen Ramalingam, Stefanie S Jeffrey
Liquid biopsy provides minimally invasive and readily obtainable access to tumor-associated biological material in blood or other body fluids. These samples provide important insights into cancer biology, such as primary tumor heterogeneity; real-time tumor evolution; response to therapy, including immunotherapy; and mechanisms of cancer metastasis. Initial biological materials studied were circulating tumor cells and circulating nucleic acids, including circulating tumor DNA and microRNAs; more recently, studies have expanded to investigate extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, microvesicles, and large oncosomes; tumor-derived circulating endothelial cells; and tumor-educated platelets...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
Ying Liu, Haidong Wang, Juan Wang
Exosomes are one of the most potent intercellular communicators, which are able to communicate with adjacent or distant cells. Exosomes deliver various bioactive molecules, including membrane receptors, proteins, mRNA and microRNA, to target cells and serve roles. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes may regulate the functions and diseases of the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. The abnormal functions of the skin lead to the progression of scleroderma, melanoma, baldness and other diseases...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Yue Zhou, Pengfei Li, Andrew J Goodwin, James A Cook, Perry V Halushka, Eugene Chang, Hongkuan Fan
Microvascular dysfunction leads to multi-organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of exogenous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) confers protection in sepsis as evidenced by reduced vascular leakage, improved organ function, and increased survival. We hypothesize that EPCs protect the microvasculature through the exosomes-mediated transfer of microRNAs (miRNAs). Mice were rendered septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and EPC exosomes were administered intravenously at 4 hr after CLP...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Yamei Qiao, Xiao Liang, Yingjie Yan, Yake Lu, Di Zhang, Wu Yao, Weidong Wu, Zhen Yan
It has been previously shown that inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) can modulate inflammation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed in exosomes have been identified as an important signature for inflammatory responses. However, the role of exosomal miRNAs during pathogenic inflammation has not been investigated. Healthy rats were exposed to ZnO-NPs (41.7 nm; 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) or saline (control) via oropharyngeal aspiration. ZnO-NPs induced significant increases in the serum levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and elevated the number of cells and the percentage of neutrophils in the blood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Aiqing Zhang, Min Li, Bin Wang, Janet D Klein, S Russ Price, Xiaonan H Wang
BACKGROUND: The treatment of muscle wasting is accompanied by benefits in other organs, possibly resulting from muscle-organ crosstalk. However, how the muscle communicates with these organs is less understood. Two microRNAs (miRs), miR-23a and miR-27a, are located together in a gene cluster and regulate proteins that are involved in the atrophy process. MiR-23a/27a has been shown to reduce muscle wasting and act as an anti-fibrotic agent. We hypothesized that intramuscular injection of miR-23a/27a would counteract both muscle wasting and renal fibrosis lesions in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yujuan Zhou, Longzheng Xia, Jingguan Lin, Heran Wang, Linda Oyang, Shiming Tan, Yutong Tian, Min Su, Hui Wang, Deliang Cao, Qianjin Liao
Exosomes are nanosized (30-100nm) membrane microvesicles secreted through a complex cellular process. Exosomes contain a variety of bioactive molecules, such as proteins, microRNAs(miRNAs or miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), playing an important role in the cell-to-cell substance transportation and signal transduction. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-related exosomes (NPC-Exo) have been identified in circulating blood and contribute to tumor cell proliferation, angiopoiesis, and immune tolerance through remodeling of tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Tsai-Ling Liao, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Hung-Jen Liu, Hsiu-Chin Lee, Der-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Several studies observed that rituximab (RTX) may enhance hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral activity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in modulating host immune response in HCV infection and then shuttled by the exosomes to exert biological functions. But the role of exosomal miRNAs in RTX-related HCV activity enhancement remains unclear. METHODS: The association between RTX and increased HCV activity was examined using an in vitro cell-based assay...
March 25, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Yurong Wang, Chunyan Zhang, Pengjun Zhang, Guanghong Guo, Tao Jiang, Xiumei Zhao, Jingjing Jiang, Xueliang Huang, Hongli Tong, Yaping Tian
Exosomal microRNAs have recently been studied as the potential diagnostic marker for various malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate serum exosomal microRNA profiles as HCC diagnostic marker. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot were used to identify serum exosomes. Deep sequencing was performed to screen differentially expressed microRNAs between HCC (n = 5) and liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 5) groups. Three upregulated and two downregulated microRNAs were selected for qPCR analysis...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Linyan Jia, Xinyao Zhou, Xiaojie Huang, Xianghong Xu, Yuanhui Jia, Yingting Wu, Julei Yao, Yanming Wu, Kai Wang
We investigated the role of exosomes derived from maternal (ME) and umbilical (UE) cord blood in the regulation of angiogenesis. We report here that both MEs and UEs significantly enhance HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Importantly, ME-treated HUVECs (MEXs) displayed significantly increased migration, but not proliferation or tube formation, compared with UE-treated HUVECs (UEXs). We found that the expression of a subset of migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-210-3p, miR-376c-3p, miR-151a-5p, miR-296-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-550a-5p, among others, were significantly increased or decreased in UEs, and this altered expression was likely correlated with the differential regulation of HUVEC migration...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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