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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434135/son-preference-of-immigrants-to-the-united-states-data-from-u-s-birth-certificates-2004-2013
#1
Embry M Howell, Huanjun Zhang, Dudley L Poston
Son preference has existed for centuries in many cultures and societies. In some Asian countries, including China and India, the sex ratio at birth (SRB, number of male infants divided by number of female infants times 100) is elevated above the worldwide biological norm of about 105. We investigate whether this ratio is elevated in the U.S. for immigrant women. We analyze U.S. birth certificates for 2004-2013 and categorize births by mother's and father's race/ethnicity; mother's place of birth, and birth order of the child...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434102/outcomes-following-surgical-management-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-does-race-matter
#2
Amit Jain, Emmanuel Menga, Addisu Mesfin
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a surgical emergency requiring urgent spinal decompression. Our objective is to analyze the association between race and in-hospital outcomes (complications, mortality, length of stay, and discharge disposition) in patients with CES. This is a retrospective cohort study of CES patients identified via the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2000 to 2010 in inpatient hospitalizations in the USA. The patient sample includes 46,017 patients ≥18 undergoing spine surgery for CES...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#3
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433732/the-clinical-significance-of-an-estimated-fetal-weight-below-the-10th-centile-a-comparison-of-outcomes-between-5th-versus-5th-9th-centile
#4
Malgorzata Mlynarczyk, Suneet P Chauhan, Hind A Baydoun, Catherine M Wilkes, Kimberly R Earhart, Yili Zhao, Christopher Goodier, Eugene Chang, Nicole M Lee Plenty, E Kaitlyn Mize, Michelle Owens, Shilpa Babbar, Dev Maulik, Emily DeFranco, David McKinney, Alfred Z Abuhamad
BACKGROUND: The association between small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10(th) centile for gestational age) and neonatal morbidity is well established. Yet there is a paucity of data on the relationship between suspected SGA (sonographic estimated fetal weight <10(th) centile), at two thresholds and subsequent neonatal morbidity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sonographic estimated fetal weight (SEFW) < 5(th) centile versus 5-9(th) centile and neonatal morbidity...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433658/molecular-cloning-of-esr2-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-esr1-and-esr2-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-female-reproductive-cycle
#5
Ruidong Zhang, Yanan Yin, Long Sun, Peng Yan, Yongkang Zhou, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
Estrogens play critical roles in reproductive physiology via estrogen receptors (ESRs) in vertebrates, including reptiles. Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endemic and endangered reptile species in China. In the present study, we cloned ESR2 gene from the ovary using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), investigated the spatial expression of ESRs in various tissues and temporal expression of ESRs in the pituitary glands during the reproductive cycle in Chinese alligators by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
April 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433546/symptom-trajectories-in-children-receiving-treatment-for-leukemia-a-latent-class-growth-analysis-with-multitrajectory-modeling
#6
Marilyn J Hockenberry, Mary C Hooke, Cheryl Rodgers, Olga Taylor, Kari M Koerner, Pauline Mitby, Ida Moore, Michael E Scheurer, Wei Pan
CONTEXT: Cancer treatment symptoms play a major role in determining the health of children with cancer. Symptom toxicity often results in complications, treatment delays, and therapy dose reductions that can compromise leukemia therapy and jeopardize chances for long-term survival. Critical to understanding symptom experiences during treatment is the need for exploration of "why" inter-individual symptom differences occur; this will determine who may be most susceptible to treatment toxicities...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433225/adjuvant-chemotherapy-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-locally-invasive-node-negative-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Usman Ahmad, Traves D Crabtree, Aalok P Patel, Daniel Morgensztern, Cliff G Robinson, A Sasha Krupnick, Daniel Kreisel, David R Jones, G Alexander Patterson, Bryan F Meyers, Varun Puri
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to explore factors that are associated with use of adjuvant chemotherapy and to evaluate its impact on overall survival in node-negative patients who undergo lung and chest wall resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients who underwent concomitant lung and chest wall resection for NSCLC were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. Clinical, pathologic, treatment, and follow-up data were obtained...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433207/correlation-of-frontal-sinus-recess-anatomy-with-ethnicity-gender-and-pathology
#8
Laura K House, Scott P Stringer, Samantha Seals
PURPOSE: Research on frontal sinus cells has been conflicting regarding relationship between frontal sinus cells and frontal sinus disease. There are no published studies regarding gender differences in frontal sinus disease. No comparisons between African Americans and Caucasians and frontal sinus disease have been published. This study attempts to define the above relationships as well as the relationship between number and types of cells and disease. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on sinus CT scans done from 2003 to 2011 at an academic medical center...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432682/prognostics-factors-and-survival-in-acral-lentiginous-melanoma
#9
M M Asgari, L Shen, M M Sokil, I Yeh, E Jorgenson
BACKGROUND: Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype that disproportionately afflicts people of color. Acral lentiginous melanomas have a worse prognosis than other melanomas subtypes, which has been attributed to aggressive biological behavior, more advanced stage at presentation and possible disparities in access to healthcare. OBJECTIVES: Using comprehensive patient data and long-term follow-up information in a well-characterized cohort, to examine how patient, tumor, and clinical management variables impact overall and melanoma-specific survival...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432412/genotyping-by-sequencing-targeting-of-a-novel-downy-mildew-resistance-gene-pl-20-from-wild-helianthus-argophyllus-for-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#10
G J Ma, S G Markell, Q J Song, L L Qi
Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P...
April 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432127/sex-differences-in-hospitalizations-with-maintenance-hemodialysis
#11
Scott V Adams, Matthew Rivara, Elani Streja, Alfred K Cheung, Onyebuchi A Arah, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Rajnish Mehrotra
Hospitalization is a major source of morbidity among patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and is a significant contributor to health care costs. To identify subgroups at the highest risk of hospitalization, we analyzed by sex, age, and race, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the hospitalization rates, and 30-day readmissions for 333,756 hospitalizations among 111,653 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in facilities operated by a large dialysis organization in the United States (2007-2011)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431974/unique-mitochondrial-localization-of-arginase-1-and-2-in-hepatocytes-of-air-breathing-walking-catfish-clarias-batrachus-and-their-differential-expression-patterns-under-hyper-ammonia-stress
#12
Bodhisattwa Banerjee, Debaprasad Koner, Priyanka Lal, Nirmalendu Saha
Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH4Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431923/sources-of-racial-disparities-in-hiv-prevalence-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-atlanta-ga-usa-a-modelling-study
#13
Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Samuel M Jenness, Nicole Luisi, Sarah E Stansfield, Gregorio A Millett, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: In the USA, men who have sex men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV, and black MSM have a substantially higher prevalence of infection than white MSM. We created a simulation model to assess the strength of existing hypotheses and data that account for these disparities. METHODS: We built a dynamic, stochastic, agent-based network model of black and white MSM aged 18-39 years in Atlanta, GA, USA, that incorporated race-specific individual and dyadic-level prevention and risk behaviours, network attributes, and care patterns...
April 18, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431865/statin-use-and-other-factors-associated-with-mortality-after-major-lower-extremity-amputation
#14
Charles DeCarlo, Larry Scher, Saadat Shariff, John Phair, Evan Lipsitz, Karan Garg
OBJECTIVE: Above-knee amputations (AKAs) and below-knee amputations (BKAs) are associated with high postoperative mortality rates. In this study, we examined factors associated with 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality in patients who underwent a major lower extremity amputation. METHODS: We queried a prospectively collected institutional database for all patients who underwent AKA or BKA with primary or secondary closure, during a 5-year period, between November 2009 and November 2014...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431619/age-sex-and-race-ethnic-temporal-trends-in-metabolic-syndrome-prevalence-among-individuals-with-myocardial-infarction-or-stroke-in-the-united-states
#15
Alain Lekoubou, Bruce Ovbiagele, Daniela Markovic, Nerses Sanossian, Amytis Towfighi
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, affects 1 in 3 adults in the United States. Recent trends in MetS prevalence among MI and stroke survivors are unknown. METHODS: We assessed age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic status specific trends in rates of MetS among adults ≥18years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 and who fasted for 8h (n=12,502)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431602/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-aca-velocities-and-aca-infarction-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#16
Michael Moussouttas, Jocelyn Cheng, Joseph Antonakakis, Ameesh Patel, Maria Iuanow
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between anterior cerebral artery (ACA) velocities (and ancillary parameters) and ACA infarction following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and to examine the factors that influence velocities. METHODS: Retrospective investigation of 500 consecutive aSAH patients. ACA mean velocities (Vm) were evaluated by daily transcranial ultrasound during the early (days 1-4) and late (days 5-20) periods posthemorrhage. Presence and timing of acute ACA infarctions were identified by serial retrospective review of cerebral computerized tomography (CT) scans...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431409/outcomes-of-hemiarthroplasty-and-total-hip-arthroplasty-for-femoral-neck-fracture-a-medicare-cohort-study
#17
Zhong Wang, Timothy Bhattacharyya
OBJECTIVES: For patients with femoral neck fractures, total hip arthroplasty (THA) demonstrates superior outcomes compared with hemiarthroplasty. However, hemiarthroplasty remains a common treatment for femoral neck fractures and the conversion rates are unknown. We compared the results of the 2 procedures using a Medicare database. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 70,242 patients 65 to 90 years of age with an ICD9 diagnosis and matching Current Procedure Terminology code for femoral neck fracture between 2008 and 2012...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431171/heritability-of-heart-rate-response-to-arousals-in-twins
#18
Xiaoling Gao, Ali Azarbarzin, Brendan T Keenan, Michele Ostrowski, Frances M Pack, Bethany Staley, Greg Maislin, Allan I Pack, Magdy Younes, Samuel T Kuna
Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible inter-individual differences in arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal (ΔHR) during non-REM sleep are heritable. Methods: Polysomnograms of 55 monozygotic (14 male and 41 female pairs) and 36 dizygotic (15 male and 21 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs were analyzed. Arousals were scored using the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Arousal intensity was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in EEG time and frequency characteristics...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430972/identifying-subpopulations-vulnerable-to-the-thyroid-blocking-effects-of-perchlorate-and-thiocyanate
#19
Jenica McMullen, Akhgar Ghassabian, Brenda Kohn, Leonardo Trasande
Context: Common environmental contaminants can disrupt normal thyroid function, which plays essential but varying roles at different ages. Objective: To evaluate the relationship of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, three sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors, and thyroid function in different age-sex-stratified populations. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) evaluating the exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate in 3,151 participants aged 12-80...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430921/association-between-cardiovascular-health-and-endothelial-function-with-future-erectile-dysfunction-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#20
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Kiarri Kershaw, Kiang Liu, David Herrington, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
BACKGROUND: The association of Cardiovascular Health (CVH; defined by the American Heart Association by assigning points for health-related behavioral and clinical factors) with endothelial and erectile dysfunction has not been reported, although endothelial and erectile dysfunction have been associated with components of CVH. METHODS: Data were collected in 1,136 men in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis at baseline and erectile dysfunction status (measured by survey or medication use) at exam 5...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
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