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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#1
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346318/predictors-of-impaired-hdl-function-in-hiv-1-infected-compared-to-uninfected-individuals
#2
Theodoros Kelesidis, Michael N Oda, Mark S Borja, Yumin Yee, Kit F Ng, Diana Huynh, David Elashoff, Judith S Currier
OBJECTIVE: HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Novel methods can measure HDL function using patient samples. The objective of this study is to identify factors that may contribute to HDL dysfunction in chronic, treated HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study of HDL function measured in two ways in HIV-1 infected males with low overall CVD risk and healthy males with no known CVD risk matched by race to the HIV-1 infected participants...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346154/text-message-intervention-improves-objective-sleep-hours-among-adolescents-the-moderating-role-of-race-ethnicity
#3
Royette Tavernier, Emma K Adam
OBJECTIVES: This 10-day study aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of a text message-based sleep intervention and (2) determine whether the intervention was equally effective for non-Hispanic whites and racial-ethnic minority adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 46 (50% female) adolescents (13-18 years; mean=15.75 years old, SD=0.98) from a public high school in the Midwest. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to a control or text message intervention condition...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346150/factors-contributing-to-poor-satisfaction-with-sleep-and-healthcare-seeking-behavior-in-older-adults
#4
Olufunmilola Abraham, Jia Pu, Loren J Schleiden, Steven M Albert
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing older adults' poor satisfaction with sleep and their current healthcare seeking behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pittsburgh Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center Community Registry. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 or older enrolled in the registry that completed a cross-sectional mailed survey (N = 1026). MEASUREMENTS: Participant demographics (age, gender, marital status, race, education), overall health (self-rated health, pain, and comorbidities), and health behaviors (physical activity, smoking, drinking behaviors) were collected from the registry database...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346147/differences-in-short-and-long-sleep-durations-between-blacks-and-whites-attributed-to-emotional-distress-analysis-of-the-national-health-interview-survey-in-the-united-states
#5
Azizi A Seixas, Emmanuella Auguste, Mark Butler, Caryl James, Valerie Newsome, Evan Auguste, Vilma Aparecida da Silva Fonseca, Andres Schneeberger, Ferdinand Zizi, Girardin Jean-Louis
OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the role of emotional distress in explaining racial/ethnic differences in unhealthy sleep duration. DESIGN: Data from the 2004-2013 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed using SPSS 20. SETTING: Data were collected through personal household interviews in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Of the total 261,686 participants (age≥18 years), 17.0% were black, 83.0% were white, and the mean age was 48 years (SE=0...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345439/primary-nonadherence-to-overactive-bladder-medications-in-an-integrated-managed-care-health-care-system
#6
Nazia Rashid, Maria Vassilakis, Kathy J Lin, Rita Kristy, Daniel B Ng
BACKGROUND: Treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) remains suboptimal, in part because of patient nonadherence to medications. Primary nonadherence is when patients fail to pick up their initial prescriptions. OBJECTIVE: To measure primary nonadherence to OAB medications within 30 days of a first OAB prescription order using electronic medical records from a U.S. managed care health care system METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) database to identify patients with new OAB prescriptions between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345435/predicting-adherence-and-persistence-with-oral-bisphosphonate-therapy-in-an-integrated-health-care-delivery-system
#7
Rita L Hui, Annette L Adams, Fang Niu, Bruce Ettinger, David K Yi, Malini Chandra, Joan C Lo
BACKGROUND: Examining drug exposure is essential to pharmacovigilance, especially for bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in 4 measures of oral BP exposure: treatment discontinuation, adherence, persistence, and nonpersistence. METHODS: Among women aged ≥ 50 years who initiated oral BP therapy during 2002-2007 with at least 3 years of health plan membership follow-up, discontinuation was defined by evidence of no further treatment during the study observation period...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345302/outcome-of-subsequent-pregnancies-in-patients-with-a-history-of-peripartum-cardiomyopathy
#8
Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Arash Haghikia, David Masuko, Justus Nonhoff, Dominik Held, Elena Libhaber, Mark C Petrie, Niki L Walker, Edith Podewski, Dominik Berliner, Johann Bauersachs, Karen Sliwa
AIMS: Subsequent pregnancies (SSPs) in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) have a high risk of heart failure relapse. We report on outcome of SSPs in PPCM patients in Germany, Scotland, and South Africa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 34 PPCM patients with a SSP, pregnancy ended prematurely in four patients while it was full-term in 30. Overall relapse rate [left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <50% or death after at least 6-month follow-up] was 56% with 12% (4/34) mortality...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344839/associations-between-body-fat-percentage-and-fitness-among-police-officers-a-statewide-study
#9
John M Violanti, Claudia C Ma, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael E Andrew, Ja K Gu, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Cecil M Burchfiel
BACKGROUND: Police work is generally sedentary although there may be situations that require physical endurance and strength, such as foot chases and arresting suspects. Factors such as excessive body fat can impede an officer's physical ability to deal with such occurrences. Our objective was to examine associations between officers' body fat percentage (BF%) and performance on a standardized fitness protocol. METHODS: Data were obtained from fitness screening among 1,826 male and 115 female officers in a large US police agency...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344790/prognostic-factors-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-survival-after-radiofrequency-ablation-a-us-population-based-study
#10
Mohamed Abd El-Fattah, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Mohammed Elhamouly
OBJECTIVE: To determine the survival outcome and prognostic factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) survival in patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA). METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was queried: There were 2588 HCC patients from 2004 to 2012 who underwent RFA. The Kaplan-Meier curves and the multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to assess the prognostic factors. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 20 months, the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were: 83%, 51% and 33%...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344459/applied-sports-nutrition-support-dietary-intake-and-body-composition-changes-of-a-female-athlete-completing-26-marathons-in-26-days-a-case-study
#11
Chris J McManus, Kelly A Murray, David A Parry
The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344150/cardiorespiratory-fitness-change-and-mortality-risk-among-black-and-white-patients-henry-ford-exercise-testing-fit-project
#12
Jonathan K Ehrman, Clinton A Brawner, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Waqas T Qureshi, Michael J Blaha, Steven J Keteyian
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship of change in cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality risk in Black patients. This study assessed change in cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with all-cause mortality risk in Black and White patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of 13,345 patients (age = 55 ± 11 y; 39% women; 26% Black) who completed two exercise tests, at least 12 months apart at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit MI...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343920/impact-of-insurance-status-and-race-on-receipt-of-treatment-for-acoustic-neuroma-a-national-cancer-database-analysis
#13
Shearwood McClelland, Ellen Kim, James D Murphy, Jerry J Jaboin
Acoustic neuroma (AN) management involves surgery, radiation, or observation. Previous studies have demonstrated that patient race and insurance status impact in-hospital morbidity/mortality following surgery; however the nationwide impact of these demographics on the receipt of each treatment modality has not been examined. The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) from 2004 to 2013 identified AN patients. Multivariate analysis adjusted for several variables within each treatment modality, including patient age, race, sex, income, primary payer for care, tumor size, and medical comorbidities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343285/the-prevalence-and-antecedents-of-religious-beliefs-about-health-control-in-the-us-population-variations-by-race-and-religious-background
#14
R David Hayward, Neal Krause, Kenneth Pargament
The ways in which religious beliefs influence beliefs about health have important implications for motivation to engage in positive health behaviors and comply with medical treatment. This study examines the prevalence of two health-related religious beliefs: belief in healing miracles and deferral of responsibility for health outcomes to God. Data came from a representative nationwide US survey of religion and health (N = 3010). Full-factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in both dimensions of belief by race, by religious background, and by the interaction between the two...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343179/nulliparous-teenagers-and-preterm-birth-in-california
#15
Jonathan A Mayo, Bat Zion Shachar, David K Stevenson, Gary M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Young maternal age is one of the numerous risk factors for delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, yet the mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between teenagers and the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in a large and recent cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using 2007-2011 California birth certificate records linked with hospital discharge indices and United States census data for nulliparous 13-20 year olds who gave birth to singletons...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343110/the-harder-they-fall-sex-and-race-ethnic-specific-suicide-rates-in-the-u-s-foreclosure-crisis
#16
Jason N Houle, Michael T Light
Previous work shows suicide rates increase during economic recessions, but little research has examined the extent to which the foreclosure crisis-a unique aspect of the Great Recession-has contributed to disparities in rising suicide rates by race and sex. We develop and test two competing hypotheses regarding the association between foreclosures and race by sex specific suicide rates. We link foreclosure data (RealtyTrac) and suicide data (CDC) from 174 metropolitan areas from 2005 to 2010 (1044 MSA-year observations) and find that-net of time invariant unobserved between-metro area differences, national time trends, and time-varying confounders-a rise in the foreclosure rate is associated with a marginal increase in suicide, but this main effect masks considerable heterogeneity across groups...
March 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342349/evaluation-of-individual-and-area-level-factors-as-modifiers-of-the-association-between-warm-season-temperature-and-pediatric-asthma-morbidity-in-atlanta-ga
#17
Cassandra R O'Lenick, Andrea Winquist, Howard H Chang, Michael R Kramer, James A Mulholland, Andrew Grundstein, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have found associations between respiratory morbidity and high temperatures; however, few studies have explored associations in potentially sensitive sub-populations. METHODS: We evaluated individual and area-level factors as modifiers of the association between warm-season (May-Sept.) temperature and pediatric respiratory morbidity in Atlanta. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for children, 5-18 years old, with primary diagnoses of asthma or respiratory disease (diagnoses of upper respiratory infections, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or wheeze) in 20-county Atlanta during 1993-2012...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342087/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-and-the-risk-of-ovarian-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#18
Zhiyi Zhou, Fangfang Zeng, Jianhui Yuan, Jinling Tang, Graham A Colditz, Shelley S Tworoger, Britton Trabert, Xuefen Su
PURPOSE: Previous studies on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the risk of ovarian cancer have found inconsistent results. We performed an updated meta-analysis to summarize the evidence of this association. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science databases were searched through October 2016 for studies that investigated the PID and ovarian cancer association. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULT: Thirteen studies were eligible for analysis, which included six cohort studies and seven case-control studies...
March 24, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342038/coronary-artery-calcium-in-breast-cancer-survivors-after-radiation-therapy
#19
Richard A P Takx, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, U Joseph Schoepf, Lothar R Pilz, Stefan O Schoenberg, Pamela B Morris, Thomas Henzler, Paul Apfaltrer
The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether breast cancer survivors after radiation therapy have a higher burden of coronary artery calcium as a potential surrogate of radiation-induced accelerated coronary artery disease. 333 patients were included. 54 patients underwent chest CT ≥ 6 months after the start of radiation therapy (radiation therapy group), while 279 patients had a CT scan either prior to or without undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Coronary artery calcium was quantified from CT by applying a threshold-based automated algorithm...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342029/self-awareness-and-cultural-identity-as-an-effort-to-reduce-bias-in-medicine
#20
Augustus A White, Heather J Logghe, Dan A Goodenough, Linda L Barnes, Anne Hallward, Irving M Allen, David W Green, Edward Krupat, Roxana Llerena-Quinn
In response to persistently documented health disparities based on race and other demographic factors, medical schools have implemented "cultural competency" coursework. While many of these courses have focused on strategies for treating patients of different cultural backgrounds, very few have addressed the impact of the physician's own cultural background and offered methods to overcome his or her own unconscious biases. In hopes of training physicians to contextualize the impact of their own cultural background on their ability to provide optimal patient care, the authors created a 14-session course on culture, self-reflection, and medicine...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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