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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792749/engagement-with-a-text-messaging-intervention-improves-adherence-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-brief-report
#1
Shuodan Zhang, Emily Hamburger, Sachini Kahanda, Morgan Lyttle, Rodayne Williams, Sarah S Jaser
Adherence to diabetes management is a challenge for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Positive psychology interventions have improved adherence to treatment recommendations in adults with chronic health conditions but have not been widely tested in pediatric populations. We hypothesized that higher engagement with a text-messaging intervention to promote positive affect would increase the effects on diabetes management among adolescents with T1D. Adolescents with T1D (n = 48) and their caregivers were randomized to either an attention control condition or a novel positive psychology intervention delivered through personalized automated text messaging...
May 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792581/victimization-and-violence-an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-child-sexual-abuse-violence-and-delinquency
#2
Rebecca Shoaf Kozak, Melinda Gushwa, Tamara J Cadet
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792566/clues-to-an-evolutionary-mystery-the-genes-for-t-toxin-enabler-of-the-devastating-1970-southern-corn-leaf-blight-epidemic-are-present-in-ancestral-species-suggesting-an-ancient-origin
#3
Bradford J Condon, Candace E Elliott, Jonathan Gonzalez, Sung-Hwan Yun, Yasunori Akagi, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Motoichiro Kodama, Gillian Turgeon
The Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic of 1970 devastated fields of T-cytoplasm corn planted in monoculture throughout the eastern US. The epidemic was driven by race T, a previously unseen race of Cochliobolus heterostrophus. A second fungus, Phyllosticta zeae-maydis, with the same biological specificity, appeared coincidentally. Race T produces T-toxin, while P. zeae-maydis produces PM-toxin, both host selective polyketide toxins necessary for supervirulence. Present abundance of genome sequences offers an opportunity to tackle the evolutionary origins of T- and PM- toxin biosynthetic genes, previously thought unique to these species...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792499/teacher-and-student-race-as-a-predictor-for-negative-feedback-during-instruction
#4
Terrance M Scott, Nicholas Gage, Regina Hirn, HyunSuk Han
There is a long and persistent gap between the academic achievement of White and Black students in America's schools. Further, Black students are suspended from school at a rate that is more than three times greater than White students. While there has been some suggestion that perhaps teacher-student racial matching may be part of a solution, the research does not currently provide adequate support for teacher race alone to be sufficiently effective. This study analyzed 41 Black and White teacher-student dyad mixes in elementary schools and another 41 in a high school to examine how teacher and student race interact in terms of teacher and student behaviors...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792494/fostering-youth-self-efficacy-to-address-transgender-and-racial-diversity-issues-the-role-of-gay-straight-alliances
#5
Eddie S K Chong, V Paul Poteat, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Jerel P Calzo
Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) aspire to empower youth to address multiple systems of oppression, including those affecting transgender and racial/ethnic minority youth, yet there is little indication of factors contributing to youths' self-efficacy to do so. We examined individual and group factors predicting self-efficacy to address transgender and racial issues among 295 youth in 33 high school GSAs. Multilevel results indicated that level of GSA engagement, individual and collective involvement in transgender- and race-specific discussions, and in some cases intergroup friendships were associated with each form of self-efficacy...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792487/ethnic-racial-typicality-and-its-relation-to-ethnic-identity-and-psychological-functioning
#6
Lauren L Mitchell, Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla, Alex A Ajayi, Jillian Fish, Sarah C Nelson, Lovey H M Peissig, Moin Syed
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792486/okay-to-say-initial-validation-of-the-acceptability-of-racial-microaggressions-scale
#7
Yara Mekawi, Nathan R Todd
Despite a growing body of research documenting the negative impact of racial microaggressions on racial and ethnic minorities' wellbeing, there remains debate in society about whether it is acceptable to say racially microaggressive statements. However, no scale exists to assess attitudes about the acceptability of saying such statements. OBJECTIVES: In this study we present an initial validation of a new scale, the Acceptability of Racial Microaggressions Scale (ARMS), which assesses attitudes about how "okay" it is for White individuals to say different types of racially microaggressive statements to racial and ethnic minorities in an interpersonal interaction...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792280/resource-utilization-and-indications-for-helicopter-transport-of-head-injured-children
#8
Clay M Elswick, Deidre Wyrick, Lori A Gurien, Malik Rettiganti, Marie Gowen, Ambre' Pownall, Diaa Bahgat, R Todd Maxson, Eylem Öcal, Gregory W Albert
INTRODUCTION: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have provided benefit for severely injured patients. However, HEMS are likely overused for the transportation of both adult and pediatric trauma patients. In this study, we aim to evaluate the degree of overuse of helicopter as a mode of transport for head-injured children. In addition, we propose criteria that can be used to determine if a particular patient is suitable for air versus ground transport. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients who were transported to our facility for head injuries...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792241/efficacy-of-digital-cbt-for-insomnia-to-reduce-depression-across-demographic-groups-a-randomized-trial
#9
Philip Cheng, Annemarie I Luik, Cynthia Fellman-Couture, Edward Peterson, Christine L M Joseph, Gabriel Tallent, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Brian K Ahmedani, Timothy Roehrs, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
BACKGROUND: Insomnia and depression are highly comorbid and mutually exacerbate clinical trajectories and outcomes. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) effectively reduces both insomnia and depression severity, and can be delivered digitally. This could substantially increase the accessibility to CBT-I, which could reduce the health disparities related to insomnia; however, the efficacy of digital CBT-I (dCBT-I) across a range of demographic groups has not yet been adequately examined...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792039/identifying-palliative-care-needs-among-older-adults-in-nonclinical-settings
#10
Elissa Kozlov, Anna Cai, Jo Anne Sirey, Angela Ghesquiere, M Carrington Reid
Though palliative care is appropriate for patients with serious illness at any stage of the illness and treatment process, the vast majority of palliative care is currently delivered in inpatient medical settings in the past month of life during an acute hospitalization. Palliative care can have maximal benefit to patients when it is integrated earlier in the illness trajectory. One possible way to increase earlier palliative care use is to screen for unmet palliative care needs in community settings. The goal of this study was to assess the rates of unmet palliative care needs in older adults who attend New York City-based senior centers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791813/higher-lung-cancer-incidence-in-young-women-than-young-men-in-the-united-states
#11
Ahmedin Jemal, Kimberly D Miller, Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Farhad Islami, Susan S Devesa, Michael J Thun
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed a higher incidence of lung cancer among young women than among young men in the United States. Whether this pattern has continued in contemporary birth cohorts and, if so, whether it can be fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors are unknown. METHODS: We examined the nationwide population-based incidence of lung cancer according to sex, race or ethnic group, age group (30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and 50 to 54 years), year of birth (1945 to 1980), and calendar period of diagnosis (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014), and we calculated female-to-male incidence rate ratios...
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791458/incidence-of-lung-cancer-histologic-cell-types-according-to-neighborhood-factors-a-population-based-study-in-california
#12
Mindy C DeRouen, Lauren Hu, Meg McKinley, Kathleen Gali, Manali Patel, Christina Clarke, Heather Wakelee, Robert Haile, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
BACKGROUND: The relationships between neighborhood factors (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and ethnic enclave) and histologic subtypes of lung cancer for racial/ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics and Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), are poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 75,631 Californians diagnosed with lung cancer from 2008 through2012. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for lung cancer histologic cell-types by nSES among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks, Hispanics and AAPIs) and according to Hispanic or Asian neighborhood ethnic enclave status among Hispanics and AAPIs, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791303/the-timing-of-suicide-in-18-united-state-states-from-2003-2014
#13
Niu Tian, Matthew Zack, Katherine A Fowler, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVES: We investigated suicide timing over different time periods by age, sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS: 122,107 suicide deaths were identified from the population-based U.S. National Violent Death Reporting System in 18 U.S. States from 2003 through 2014. RESULTS: Suicides significantly increased (p < 0.05) from March to peak in September before falling, the first week of the month, and early in the week. Suicides also significantly increased (p < 0...
May 23, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790680/spirometry-testing-among-the-homeless
#14
Jerzy Romaszko, Adam Buciński, Anna M Romaszko, Anna Doboszyńska
BACKGROUND: Many literature reports have indicated the fact that the percentage of active smokers among the homeless is high, often several times higher than that of the general population. The homeless are known to have worse spirometric parameters than the general population. OBJECTIVES: The question of what the principal and exclusive cause of airway obstruction among the homeless is remains unanswered. Verification of the above-mentioned hypothesis is possible by comparing the spirometric parameters in homeless people with those in the general population, based on the data related to subgroups with similar tobacco smoke exposure, which are homogenous in terms of sex, race and age...
April 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790667/differences-in-cancer-survival-among-white-and-black-cancer-patients-by-presence-of-diabetes-mellitus-estimations-based-on-seer-medicare-linked-data-resource
#15
Clara Lam, Kathleen Cronin, Rachel Ballard, Angela Mariotto
Diabetes prevalence and racial health disparities in the diabetic population are increasing in the US. Population-based cancer-specific survival estimates for cancer patients with diabetes have not been assessed. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage provided data on cancer-specific deaths and diabetes prevalence among 14 separate cohorts representing 1 068 098 cancer patients ages 66 +  years diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 in 17 SEER areas. Cancer-specific survival estimates were calculated by diabetes status adjusted by age, stage, comorbidities, and cancer treatment, and stratified by cancer site and sex with whites without diabetes as the reference group...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790408/working-men-s-constructions-of-visiting-the-doctor
#16
James R Mahalik, Faedra R Backus Dagirmanjian
To understand influences on medical help seeking in men from traditionally masculine occupations, semistructured interviews with 12 men employed in manual and industrial labor were conducted. The semistructured interview format explored participant men's understanding and experiences of annual exams and medical help seeking, their own and others' reactions to seeking medical help, and influences on their own care and understanding of what it means to seek medical care. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, five domains emerged: Social norms around medical care, managing threat, getting medical help is gendered, work-related influences, and pragmatic contributors to medical help seeking...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790298/risk-of-childhood-rheumatic-and-non-rheumatic-autoimmune-diseases-in-children-born-to-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Julie Couture, Sasha Bernatsky, Susan Scott, Christian A Pineau, Evelyne Vinet
OBJECTIVES: Several autoimmune diseases have familial aggregation and possibly, common genetic predispositions. In a large population-based study, we evaluated if children born to mothers with SLE have an increased risk of rheumatic and non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases, versus children born to mothers without SLE. METHODS: Using the "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)", we identified children born live to SLE mothers and their matched controls, and ascertained autoimmune diseases based on ≥1 hospitalization or ≥2 physician visits with a relevant diagnostic code...
May 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790293/the-relationship-between-self-reported-restless-sleep-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-adults-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#18
Abigail L Gilbert, Jungwha Lee, Jing Song, Pamela A Semanik, Linda S Ehrlich-Jones, C Kent Kwoh, Dorothy D Dunlop, Rowland W Chang
OBJECTIVE: Despite many health benefits of physical activity, inactivity is endemic among adults with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Because sleep quality may be a target to improve physical activity behavior, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between restless sleep and physical activity in participants with or at risk for KOA. METHODS: We analyzed accelerometer-measured physical activity and clinical data from Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants...
May 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789507/acute-caffeinated-coffee-consumption-does-not-improve-time-trial-performance-in-an-800-m-run-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Alexandre C Marques, Alison A Jesus, Bruna M Giglio, Ana C Marini, Patrícia C B Lobo, João F Mota, Gustavo D Pimentel
INTRODUCTION: Studies evaluating caffeinated coffee (CAF) can reveal ergogenic effects; however, studies on the effects of caffeinated coffee on running are scarce and controversial. AIM: To investigate the effects of CAF consumption compared to decaffeinated coffee (DEC) consumption on time trial performances in an 800-m run in overnight-fasting runners. METHODS: A randomly counterbalanced, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 12 healthy adult males with experience in amateur endurance running...
May 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789303/-me_who-anatomy-of-scholastic-leadership-and-social-isolation-of-underrepresented-minority-women-in-academic-medicine
#20
Michelle A Albert
In academic medicine, under-represented minority women physician-scientists (URMWP)* are uncommon, particularly in leadership positions. Data from the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) show that among internal medicine chairs, there are 12 Asian males, 10 African/American (blacks; 9 men), 7 Hispanics (2 females) and 137 whites (21 females). In the top 40 ranked cardiology programs, there are no female cardiology chiefs, whereas there are at least 10, 2, 1 and 24 Asian, black, Hispanic and white males respectively...
May 22, 2018: Circulation
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