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S E Allen, S M Rosanowski, A J Stirk, K L P Verheyen
BACKGROUND: No large-scale studies have described veterinary events occurring in National Hunt flat (NHF) racing or investigated risk factors for fatality in this race type. OBJECTIVES: To describe injuries and conditions requiring veterinary attendance on race-day and to determine risk factors for racehorse fatality in NHF racing in Great Britain. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (2000-2013). METHODS: Information from all NHF races held over the study period, including horse, race and veterinary event report details, was combined...
February 24, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Ruixue Li, Dandan Chen, Taichu Wang, Yizhen Wan, Rongfang Li, Rongjun Fang, Yuting Wang, Fei Hu, Hong Zhou, Long Li, Weiguo Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Identification of miRNA targets is essential to better understanding the roles of miRNAs. miRNA targets have not been well characterized in mulberry (Morus alba). To anatomize miRNA guided gene regulation under drought stress, transcriptome-wide high throughput degradome sequencing was used in this study to directly detect drought stress responsive miRNA targets in mulberry. A drought library (DL) and a contrast library (CL) were constructed to capture the cleaved mRNAs for sequencing...
2017: PloS One
Sarah M Dry, Sarah B Garrett, Barbara A Koenig, Arleen F Brown, Michael M Burgess, Jen R Hult, Holly Longstaff, Elizabeth S Wilcox, Sigrid Karina Madrigal Contreras, Arturo Martinez, Elizabeth A Boyd, Daniel Dohan
United States-based biorepositories are on the cusp of substantial change in regulatory oversight at the same time that they are increasingly including samples and data from large populations, e.g. all patients in healthcare system. It is appropriate to engage stakeholders from these populations in new governance arrangements. We sought to describe community recommendations for biorepository governance and oversight using deliberative community engagement (DCE), a qualitative research method designed to elicit lay perspectives on complex technical issues...
2017: PloS One
Wonsuk Yoo, Sangmi Kim, Warner K Huh, Sarah Dilley, Steven S Coughlin, Edward E Partridge, Yunmi Chung, Vivian Dicks, Jae-Kwan Lee, Sejong Bae
BACKGROUND: Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012...
2017: PloS One
Selma Masic, Samuel L Washington, Peter R Carroll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Active surveillance has become the recommended management strategy for most patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but whether surveillance criteria can be expanded without compromising oncologic outcomes is a matter of debate. Whereas there is essentially uniform consensus that those with low-risk disease can be safely managed with AS, those with intermediate-risk disease, younger men and African-American men are often excluded. RECENT FINDINGS: Outcome data for intermediate-risk patients managed by active surveillance demonstrate acceptable oncologic outcomes, but there is also evidence that such patients have higher rates of progression, adverse disease and metastatic disease...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
Valerie F Williams, Shauna Stahlman, Gi-Taik Oh
From 1 January 2013 through 31 December 2015, a total of 3,912 medical evacuations of service members from the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility were followed by at least one medical encounter in a fixed medical facility outside the operational theater. Overall, there were more medical evacuations for mental disorders than for any other category of illnesses or injuries. Among all service members, annual rates of medical evacuations attributable to battle injuries decreased from 3.4 per 1,000 deployed personyears (dp-yrs) in 2013 to a low of 0...
February 2017: MSMR
James McCreath, Essie Larson, Purabi Bharatiya, Hisham A Labanieh, Zvi Weiss, Michael Lozovatsky
Objective: Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications are employed universally for the treatment of schizophrenia. This study retrospectively assessed the variables that factor into an individual's adherence to LAIs. Methods: The data sample was obtained from the adult ambulatory services of a large general hospital mental health center located in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Reports were run in November 2015 to identify patients who had received at least 1 LAI between January 1, 2014, and October 14, 2015...
February 23, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Rebecca A Vidourek, Kenneth D Woodson, Keith A King
Violent victimization and school safety continues to be a major health concern in the United States. This study examines whether there is an association between school violent victimization and perceived school safety among youth. The PRIDE Questionnaire for 6th-through 12th-grade students, which assesses violent victimization and perceived school safety, was completed voluntarily by students (N = 54,938) in a large Midwestern city. Results indicated that a sizeable percentage of youth felt unsafe at school...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Shailender Swaminathan, Vincent Mor, Rajnish Mehrotra, Amal N Trivedi
BACKGROUND: The association of dialysis session duration with mortality in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis is unclear. We compared mortality rates of patients treated in dialysis facilities that used initial session durations of either ≥ 4 versus 3 hours for all incident patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: Patients with end-stage renal disease beginning maintenance hemodialysis therapy in January 2006 to December 2010 and followed up through December 2012, including 39,172 patients in 852 facilities who initiated treatment for ≥ 4 hours and 47,721 patients in 631 facilities who initiated treatment for 3 hours...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Jing Qin Wu, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Chongmei Dong, Peng Zhang, Christina A Cuomo, Robert F Park
Leaf rust is one of the most common and damaging diseases of wheat, and is caused by an obligate biotrophic basidiomycete, Puccinia triticina (Pt). In the present study, 20 Pt isolates from Australia, comprising 10 phenotype-matched pairs with contrasting pathogenicity for Lr20, were analyzed using whole genome sequencing. Compared to the reference genome of the American Pt isolate 1-1 BBBD Race 1, an average of 404,690 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) per isolate was found and the proportion of heterozygous SNPs was above 87% in the majority of the isolates, demonstrating a high level of polymorphism and a high rate of heterozygosity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huijie Zhang, Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Yajun Guo, Wei Shen, Camilo Fernandez, Emily W Harville, Lydia A Bazzano, Elaine M Urbina, Jiang He, Wei Chen
Rationale: Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Objective: Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood BMI with adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Methods and Results: This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, age 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured 4 or more times during childhood and 2 or more times during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28...
February 23, 2017: Circulation Research
Henry Zhao, Skye Coote, Lauren Pesavento, Leonid Churilov, Helen M Dewey, Stephen M Davis, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical large vessel occlusion (LVO) triage scales were developed to identify and bypass LVO to endovascular centers. However, there are concerns that scale misclassification of patients may cause excessive harm. We studied the settings where misclassifications were likely to occur and the consequences of these misclassifications in a representative stroke population. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from consecutive ambulance-initiated stroke alerts at 2 stroke centers, with patients stratified into typical (LVO with predefined severe syndrome and non-LVO without) or atypical presentations (opposite situations)...
February 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Matthew W Gillman, Elsie M Taveras
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We examined associations of ever crossing upwards ≥2 (vs <2) major weight-for-length (WFL) percentiles in the first 24 months with obesity at 5 years among white and black children. METHODS: We included 10 979 white and 1245 black children from the Linked CENTURY Study with percentile crossing data in all four 6-month periods in the first 24 months and obesity (age-specific and sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile) at 5 years...
February 23, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Elizabeth A Jackson, Kristine Ruppert, Carol A Derby, Yinjuan Lian, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Laurel A Habel, Ping G Tepper, Siobán D Harlow, Daniel H Solomon
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive medication use may vary by race and ethnicity. Longitudinal antihypertensive medication use patterns are not well described in women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort of women (n=3302, aged 42-52), who reported a diagnosis of hypertension or antihypertensive medication use at any annual visit were included. Antihypertensive medications were grouped by class and examined by race/ethnicity adjusting for potential confounders in logistic regression models...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Faisal M Merchant, Zachary Binney, Adarsh Patel, Jennifer Li, Lakshmi P Peddareddy, Mikhael F El-Chami, Angel R Leon, Tammie Quest
BACKGROUND: Little is known about advance directive (AD) utilization among implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients. OBJECTIVE: To define prevalence and predictors of ADs among patients with ICDs METHODS: We identified ICD recipients with ADs at our institution. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of an AD documented up to 1 year after device implant and the secondary endpoint was the cumulative prevalence of an AD. RESULTS: Out of 2,549 patients with ICDs, 701 were followed for at least one year after device implant and among them 164 (23...
February 20, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Heather J Chalfin, Zhaoyong Feng, Bruce J Trock, Alan W Partin
OBJECTIVES: To examine nationwide patterns of lymph node dissection (LND) in men with D'Amico low-risk prostate cancer, including the rate of detected lymph node metastasis and factors associated with the decision to perform LND. Existing guidelines recommend against LND at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) in low-risk men, yet this is still a common practice. METHODS: The 2013 National Cancer Database includes 1,208,180 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004-2013...
February 20, 2017: Urology
Ha Nguyen, Ninh Doan, Michael Gelsomino, Saman Shabani
INTRODUCTION: Subependymoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumors. Due to its scarcity, knowledge relating to survival remains lacking. Consequently, we explore the SEER database to evaluate prognostic / treatment factors associated with intracranial subependymoma. METHODS: With the SEER-18 registry database, information from all patients diagnosed with intracranial subependymoma from 2004 to 2013 were extracted, including age, gender, race, occurrence of surgery, extent of primary surgery, receipt of radiation, tumor size, and follow-up data...
February 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Pei-An Betty Shih
BACKGROUND: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious mental illness characterized by emaciation, an intense fear of gaining weight despite being underweight, and distorted body image. Few treatments reverse the core symptoms in AN such as profound aversion to food and food avoidance. Consequently, AN has a chronic and relapsing course and the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric illness. A more complete understanding of the disease pathogenesis is needed in order to develop better treatments and improve AN outcome...
February 20, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Linda G Park, David W Schopfer, Ning Zhang, Hui Shen, Mary A Whooley
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine: a) the proportion of patients with heart failure (HF) who participated in cardiac rehabilitation (CR); and b) patient characteristics associated with participation. BACKGROUND: CR is linked to reduced mortality and morbidity including improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, psychosocial state, and quality of life in patients with HF. However, little is known about CR utilization among patients with HF. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted using national data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Veterans Health Administration (VA)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Takeshi Kitai, Yong-Hyun Kim, Kathryn Kiefer, Rommel Morales, Allen G Borowski, Justin L Grodin, W H Wilson Tang
BACKGROUND: Venous congestion has become increasingly recognized as a potential contributor to end-organ dysfunction in heart failure. Elevated I-FABP, which is excreted specifically from damaged intestinal epithelial cells, has been found in patients with abdominal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. We hypothesize that elevated intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) levels would identify patients with more advanced heart failure who have venous and intestinal congestion. METHODS: Baseline serum I-FABP levels were measured in 69 acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients admitted to the intensive care unit for invasive hemodynamic monitoring and tailored medical therapy...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
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