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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719884/increases-from-2002-to-2015-in-prescription-opioid-overdose-deaths-in-combination-with-other-substances
#1
Denise B Kandel, Mei-Chen Hu, Pamela Griesler, Melanie Wall
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid (PO) overdose deaths increased sharply over the last decade. Changes in PO deaths in combination with other psychoactive substances may provide a partial explanation. METHODS: PO deaths from the National Multiple-Cause-of-Death Files for 2002-03 (N=15,973) and 2014-15 (N=41,491) were analyzed. We calculated (1) changes in proportions of deaths in combination with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, heroin, alcohol, cocaine between the two periods, and (2) proportions of increase in deaths attributable to each substance among PO and synthetic opioids other than methadone (SO-M) deaths, by age, gender, race/ethnicity...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719631/the-distribution-and-host-range-of-the-banana-fusarium-wilt-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-in-asia
#2
Diane Mostert, Agustin B Molina, Jeff Daniells, Gerda Fourie, Catur Hermanto, Chih-Ping Chao, Emily Fabregar, Vida G Sinohin, Nik Masdek, Raman Thangavelu, Chunyu Li, Ganyun Yi, Lizel Mostert, Altus Viljoen
Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719313/keynote-address-november-2016-zika-virus-disease-in-the-americas-a-storm-in-the-making
#3
Carissa Etienne, Thais Dos Santos, Marcos A Espinal
More than 700,000 cases of Zika virus (ZIKAV) disease have been officially reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) from 48 countries and territories of the Americas. The response led by the PAHO and partners suggests major lessons of this outbreak. A seemingly innocuous pathogen became the new villain, causing fear, economic losses and, most importantly, debilitating birth defects and neurological problems, reaffirming the well-known war principle of never to underestimate one's opponent. The ZIKAV tested public health capacities under the International Health Regulations, highlighting the need for continued investment in health security...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719291/knowledge-and-prevention-practices-among-u-s-pregnant-immigrants-from-zika-virus-outbreak-areas
#4
Abbey B Berenson, Ha N Trinh, Jacqueline M Hirth, Fangjian Guo, Erika L Fuchs, Scott C Weaver
We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719028/sales-performance-and-athletic-outcome-in-young-thoroughbreds-with-pericarditis
#5
K A Sprayberry, N Slovis
BACKGROUND: Pericarditis is a sporadic but important cause of critical illness in horses of all ages. There is limited information on whether Thoroughbred horses that survive pericarditis are able to reach athletic potential. OBJECTIVES: To determine how pericarditis affected horses that had the disease as young animals with regard to selling price in public sales and the ability to race successfully. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
July 18, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#6
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717809/racial-differences-in-misclassification-of-healthy-eating-based-on-food-frequency-questionnaire-and-24-hour-dietary-recalls
#7
B Olendzki, E Procter-Gray, M F Magee, G Youssef, K Kane, L Churchill, J Ockene, W Li
OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternate healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by race, among urban older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling White and Black women aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24-hour recalls...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717807/vitamin-d-status-and-prevalent-early-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-african-americans-and-caucasians-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#8
A E Millen, J Nie, M W Sahli, J A Mares, K J Meyers, B E K Klein, M J LaMonte, P L Lutsey, C A Andrews, R Klein
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D status has been hypothesized to protect against development of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via its anti-inflammatory properties and its possible beneficial influence on blood pressure control. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent early AMD in a community-based cohort. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: This was a secondary data analysis of already existing data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) cohort collected from 1990 to 1995...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717750/fear-of-treatments-surpasses-demographic-and-socioeconomic-factors-in-affecting-patients-with-breast-cancer-in-urban-south-africa
#9
Sarah Rayne, Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Kathryne Wright, Deirdre Kruger, Carol-Ann Benn
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women in South Africa, and often patients present late. There is little understanding of the psychosocial stresses affecting women with breast cancer in Africa. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 263 patients with breast cancer at two sites (one government and one private facility) in Johannesburg. Self-reported levels of fear were recorded on summative scales and their relationship to demographic variables assessed through univariable and multivariable modified Poisson regression...
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717712/egfr-mutations-in-latinos-from-the-united-states-and-latin-america
#10
Ariel Lopez-Chavez, Anish Thomas, Moses O Evbuomwan, Liqiang Xi, Guinevere Chun, Tatiana Vidaurre, Oscar Arrieta, George Oblitas, Ana Belen Oton, Alejandro R Calvo, Arun Rajan, Mark Raffeld, Seth M Steinberg, Lorena Arze-Aimaretti, Giuseppe Giaccone
PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are limited and conflicting reports on the frequency of EGFR mutations in Latinos. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Samples from 642 patients with NSCLC from seven institutions in the United States and Latin America were assessed for EGFR mutations (exons 18 to 21) at Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified central laboratories...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717673/sex-and-race-ethnic-disparities-in-food-security-and-chronic-diseases-in-u-s-older-adults
#11
Joan A Vaccaro, Fatma G Huffman
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among sex, race/ethnicity, and food security with the likelihood of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease for older adults. Method: Complex sample analysis by logistic regression models for chronic diseases were conducted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 to 2012 and 2013 to 2014, for N = 3,871 adults aged ≥55 years. Results: Being female with low food security was associated with lung disease and diabetes...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717258/children-s-perceptions-of-social-resource-inequality
#12
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children's perceptions of social resource inequalities were investigated by measuring spontaneous explanations for race-based disparities in access to societal resources. Fifth graders (N = 139, M = 11.14 years, SD = .61 years) viewed animated vignettes depicting hypothetical resource inequalities between institutions serving children of African-American and European-American background. Children frequently explained disparities in terms of institutions' differing financial resources, revealing awareness that economic inequalities often underlie groups' differential access to societal resources...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716823/father-loss-and-child-telomere-length
#13
Colter Mitchell, Sara McLanahan, Lisa Schneper, Irv Garfinkel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel Notterman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. METHODS: Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities (N = 2420)...
July 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716687/measures-of-ventricular-arterial-coupling-and-incident-heart-failure-preserved-ejection-fraction-hfpef-a-matched-case-control-analysis
#14
Carolyn L Lekavich, Debra J Barksdale, Jia-Rong Wu, Virginia Neelon, Jamie Crandell, Eric J Velazquez
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to detect differences in markers associated with incident heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) when comparing matched case-control groups. BACKGROUND: Evidence continues to demonstrate increasing prevalence, cost and mortality implications of HFpEF, but clearly defined parameters that distinguish between controls and HFpEF have not been established. METHODS: A study cohort of case (incident patients with HFpEF, n=155) and matched control (patients with no prior HF, n=155) groups was retrospectively identified...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716650/the-use-of-prostate-specific-antigen-screening-in-purchased-versus-direct-care-settings-data-from-the-tricare-military-database
#15
Alexander P Cole, Wei Jiang, Stuart R Lipsitz, Peter A Learn, Maxine Sun, Toni K Choueiri, Paul L Nguyen, Adam S Kibel, Mani Menon, Jesse D Sammon, Tracey Koehlmoos, Adil Haider, Quoc-Dien Trinh
PURPOSE: Fee for service (FFS) reimbursement incentives may affect care. We sought to compare odds of PSA screening among former and active duty United States (US) military service members based on receipt of primary care from integrated military health facilities versus community providers reimbursed via FFS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all active duty and retired male service members (40-64) covered by the TRICARE military health benefit in 2010...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716307/should-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-metastatic-to-the-inguinal-lymph-nodes-be-assigned-stage-ivb
#16
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Eloise Chapman-Davis, Melissa K Frey, Thomas A Caputo, Steven S Witkin, Kevin Holcomb
OBJECTIVE: According to the revised FIGO staging system women with ovarian carcinoma and inguinal lymph node (LN) metastases, formerly stage III, are now considered stage IVB. In this study we compare their survival to that of women with stage III and stage IV disease. METHODS: Women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2013). Four groups were formed: group 1 (stage IV due to positive inguinal nodes), group 2 (stage III with positive para-aortic/pelvic nodes), group 3 (stage IV with positive distant nodes) and group 4 (stage IV with distant metastases)...
July 14, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715555/application-of-a-lifestyle-based-tool-to-estimate-premature-cardiovascular-disease-events-in-young-adults-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#17
Holly C Gooding, Hongyan Ning, Matthew W Gillman, Christina Shay, Norrina Allen, David C Goff, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Stephanie Chiuve
Importance: Few tools exist for assessing the risk for early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in young adults. Objective: To assess the performance of the Healthy Heart Score (HHS), a lifestyle-based tool that estimates ASCVD events in older adults, for ASCVD events occurring before 55 years of age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 4893 US adults aged 18 to 30 years from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715553/validation-of-the-children-s-hospital-of-philadelphia-retinopathy-of-prematurity-chop-rop-model
#18
Gil Binenbaum, Gui-Shuang Ying, Lauren A Tomlinson
Importance: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Retinopathy of Prematurity (CHOP ROP) model uses birth weight (BW), gestational age at birth (GA), and weight gain rate to predict the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In a model development study, it predicted all infants requiring treatment, while greatly reducing the number of examinations compared with current screening guidelines. Objective: To validate the CHOP ROP model in a multicenter cohort that is large enough to obtain a precise estimate of the model's sensitivity for treatment-requiring ROP...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715450/african-genetic-ancestry-interacts-with-body-mass-index-to-modify-risk-for-uterine-fibroids
#19
Ayush Giri, Todd L Edwards, Katherine E Hartmann, Eric S Torstenson, Melissa Wellons, Pamela J Schreiner, Digna R Velez Edwards
Race, specifically African ancestry, and obesity are important risk factors for uterine fibroids, and likely interact to provide the right conditions for fibroid growth. However, existing studies largely focus on the main-effects rather than their interaction. Here, we firstly provide evidence for interaction between categories of body mass index (BMI) and reported-race in relation to uterine fibroids. We then investigate whether the association between inferred local European ancestry and fibroid risk is modified by BMI in African American (AA) women in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center bio-repository (BioVU) (539 cases and 794 controls) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA, 264 cases and 173 controls)...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714599/the-utility-of-empirically-assigning-ancestry-groups-in-cross-population-genetic-studies-of-addiction
#20
Roseann E Peterson, Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Bradley T Webb
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given moderate heritability and significant heterogeneity among addiction phenotypes, successful genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are expected to need very large samples. As sample sizes grow, so can genetic diversity leading to challenges in analyzing these data. Methods for empirically assigning individuals to genetically informed ancestry groups are needed. METHODS: We describe a strategy for empirically assigning ancestry groups in ethnically diverse GWAS data including extensions of principal component analysis (PCA) and population matching through minimum Mahalanobis distance...
July 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
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