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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244638/memory-contextualization-the-role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-functional-integration-across-item-and-context-representational-regions
#1
Wei Zhang, Vanessa A van Ast, Floris Klumpers, Karin Roelofs, Erno J Hermans
Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243587/human-subthalamic-nucleus-activity-during-non-motor-decision-making
#2
Baltazar A Zavala, Anthony I Jang, Kareem A Zaghloul
Recent studies have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in decisions that involve inhibiting movements. Many of the decisions that we make in our daily lives, however, do not involve any motor actions. We studied non-motor decision making by recording intraoperative STN and prefrontal cortex (PFC) electrophysiology as participants perform a novel task that required them to decide whether to encode items into working memory. During all encoding trials, beta band (15-30 Hz) activity decreased in the STN and PFC, and this decrease was progressively enhanced as more items were stored into working memory...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243543/a-kainate-receptor-gluk4-deletion-protective-against-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognitive-performance-across-diagnoses-in-the-twinsuk-cohort
#3
Maria Koromina, Miles Flitton, Ian Mellor, Helen Miranda Knight
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and a deletion allele within GluK4 protective against risk for bipolar disorder, in 1642 individuals from the TwinsUK study. METHODS: Cognitive performance was assessed using the National Adult Reading Test, four CANTAB tests (Spatial Working Memory, Paired Associates Learning, Pattern Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time), and two Principal Component Analysis derived factors...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243518/synaesthesia-is-linked-to-more-vivid-and-detailed-content-of-autobiographical-memories-and-less-fading-of-childhood-memories
#4
Taylor Chin, Jamie Ward
People with synaesthesia have enhanced memory on a wide range of laboratory tests of episodic memory, but very little is known about their real-world memory. This study used a standard measure of autobiographical remembering (the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, AMQ) considering four constructs (Recollection, Belief, Impact and Rehearsal) and two time periods (recent memories from adulthood, remote memories from childhood). Synaesthetes reported more Recollection (e.g., sensory detail) and Belief (e.g...
December 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242551/ezh2-phosphorylation-state-determines-its-capacity-to-maintain-cd8-t-memory-precursors-for-antitumor-immunity
#5
Shan He, Yongnian Liu, Lijun Meng, Hongxing Sun, Ying Wang, Yun Ji, Janaki Purushe, Pan Chen, Changhong Li, Jozef Madzo, Jean-Pierre Issa, Jonathan Soboloff, Ran Reshef, Bethany Moore, Luca Gattinoni, Yi Zhang
Memory T cells sustain effector T-cell production while self-renewing in reaction to persistent antigen; yet, excessive expansion reduces memory potential and impairs antitumor immunity. Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to be important for balancing effector and memory differentiation; however, the epigenetic regulator(s) underpinning this process remains unknown. Herein, we show that the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 controls CD8+ T memory precursor formation and antitumor activity. Ezh2 activates Id3 while silencing Id2, Prdm1 and Eomes, promoting the expansion of memory precursor cells and their differentiation into functional memory cells...
December 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242136/anxiolytic-effect-of-cpeb1-knockdown-on-the-amygdala-of-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-pain
#6
Jiao Yue, Xin-Shang Wang, Yan-Yan Guo, Kai-Yin Zheng, Hai-Yan Liu, Li-Ning Hu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety, stress, and fear attached to various sources. However, their pathogenesis is complicated and has not been fully elucidated. The amygdala is a vital brain region that regulates anxiety and mental disorders. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) mediates the extension of the mRNA polyadenylation tail and facilitates the translation of target RNA. CPEB1 is closely related to neuronal diseases, such as Fragile X Syndrome, learning and memory disorders, and chronic pain...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241652/acute-administration-of-roflumilast-enhances-immediate-recall-of-verbal-word-memory-in-healthy-young-adults
#7
M A Van Duinen, A Sambeth, P R A Heckman, S Smit, M Tsai, G Lahu, T Uz, A Blokland, J Prickaerts
The need for new and effective treatments for dementia remains indisputably high. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) have proven efficacy as cognitive enhancers based on their positive effects in numerous preclinical studies. Especially the PDE4 subfamily is of interest due to its expression in the hippocampus, the key structure for memory formation. The current study investigates the memory enhancing effects of the clinically approved PDE4-I roflumilast in a test battery including the Verbal Learning Task (VLT) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) recording...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#8
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239657/age-differences-in-the-temporal-properties-of-proactive-interference-in-working-memory
#9
George Samrani, Lars Bäckman, Jonas Persson
The inability to suppress irrelevant information has been suggested as a primary cause of proactive interference (PI), and this deficit may be enhanced in aging. The current study examines age differences and temporal boundaries of PI, by manipulating lure distances in a verbal 2-back working memory task. Both younger and older adults showed effects of interference for proximal 3- and 4-back lures, and this effect was greater for older adults. Whereas younger adults showed less interference during 4-back compared to 3-back lures, in both reaction times and accuracy, older adults improved only in accuracy...
December 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239631/video-game-training-does-not-enhance-cognitive-ability-a-comprehensive-meta-analytic-investigation
#10
Giovanni Sala, K Semir Tatlidil, Fernand Gobet
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238386/optimized-sopungsunkiwon-a-herbal-formula-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neurotoxicity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#11
Jin Gyu Choi, Sun Yeou Kim, Jong Woo Kim, Myung Sook Oh
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by memory dysfunction, neuronal cell damage, and neuroinflammation. It is believed that AD-related pathology is mostly due to the overproduction of Aβ, especially the oligomeric form (AβO), in the brain. Evidence of the effects of multifunctional medicinal herbs in the treatment of AD has been steadily increasing. Optimized-SopungSunkiwon (OSS), a multiherbal formulation that is composed of six medicinal herbs derived from SopungSunkiwon, is a traditional medicine that is prescribed for neurodegenerative disorders in elderly patients...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237849/experimental-evolution-of-insect-immune-memory-versus-pathogen-resistance
#12
Imroze Khan, Arun Prakash, Deepa Agashe
Under strong pathogen pressure, insects often evolve resistance to infection. Many insects are also protected via immune memory (immune priming), whereby sublethal exposure to a pathogen enhances survival after secondary infection. Theory predicts that immune memory should evolve when the pathogen is highly virulent, or when pathogen exposure is relatively rare. However, there are no empirical tests of these hypotheses, and the adaptive benefits of immune memory relative to direct resistance against a pathogen are poorly understood...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237242/enhanced-cognition-and-dysregulated-hippocampal-synaptic-physiology-in-mice-with-a-heterozygous-deletion-of-psd-95
#13
Alexa E Horner, Catherine L McLaughlin, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant, Maksym V Kopanitsa
PSD-95 is one of the most abundant proteins of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. It functions as the backbone of protein supercomplexes that mediate signalling between membrane glutamate receptors and intracellular pathways. Homozygous deletion of the Dlg4 gene encoding PSD-95 was previously found to cause a profound impairment in operant and Pavlovian conditioning in Dlg4-/- mice studied in touchscreen chambers that precluded evaluation of PSD-95's role in shaping more subtle forms of learning and memory...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236787/efficient-enhancement-of-information-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-presence-of-reward-predicting-stimuli
#14
Camilo J Mininni, César F Caiafa, B Silvano Zanutto, Kuei Y Tseng, Sergio E Lew
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain structure for decision making, behavioural flexibility and working memory. Neurons in PFC encode relevant stimuli through changes in their firing rate, although the metabolic cost of spiking activity puts strong constrains to neural codes based on firing rate modulation. Thus, how PFC neural populations code relevant information in an efficient way is not clearly understood. To address this issue we made single unit recordings in the PFC of rats performing a GO/NOGO discrimination task and analysed how entropy between pairs of neurons changes during cue presentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235395/adjuvant-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-leaves-with-inactivated-rabies-virus-antigen
#15
D Singh, B Jayashankar, K P Mishra, H Tanwar, S N Madhusudana, A Y Belludi, R Tulsawani, S B Singh, L Ganju
CONTEXT: Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as seabuckthorn (SBT), is known for its medicinal and nutritional properties. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of in vivo adjuvant activity of SBT leaf extract (SBTE) with inactivated rabies virus antigen (Rb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss albino mice were immunized with aqueous-alcoholic SBTE (100 mg/kg body weight) or algel (aluminium hydroxide gel) with or without Rb (5% v/v). After priming, booster was administered on day 14...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234725/computerized-cognitive-training-for-older-diabetic-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Rachel Bloom, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Hai Dabush, Lior Bar, Shirel Slater, Yuri Rassovsky, Alex Bahar-Fuchs
Introduction: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of cognitive decline and dementia and form an important target group for dementia risk reduction studies. Despite evidence that computerized cognitive training (CCT) may benefit cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment, whether CCT may benefit cognitive performance or improve disease self-management in older diabetic adults has not been studied to date. In addition, whether adaptive difficulty levels and tailoring of interventions to individuals' cognitive profile are superior to generic training remains to be established...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234460/generalized-enhanced-suffix-array-construction-in-external-memory
#17
Felipe A Louza, Guilherme P Telles, Steve Hoffmann, Cristina D A Ciferri
Background: Suffix arrays, augmented by additional data structures, allow solving efficiently many string processing problems. The external memory construction of the generalized suffix array for a string collection is a fundamental task when the size of the input collection or the data structure exceeds the available internal memory. Results: In this article we present and analyze [Formula: see text] [introduced in CPM (External memory generalized suffix and [Formula: see text] arrays construction...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234406/amelioration-of-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-by-%C3%AE-pinene-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Gil-Yong Lee, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234402/extract-of-fructus-cannabis-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-impairment-induced-by-d-galactose-in-an-aging-rats-model
#19
Ning-Yuan Chen, Cheng-Wu Liu, Wei Lin, Yi Ding, Zhang-Ya Bian, Ling Huang, Hao Huang, Kai-Hui Yu, Si-Bang Chen, Yu Sun, Lei Wei, Jun-Hua Peng, Shang-Ling Pan
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats. To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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