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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035904/improvement-in-cognitive-abilities-following-cabergoline-treatment-in-patients-with-a-prolactin-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#1
Itziar Montalvo, Marta Llorens, Laia Caparrós, Montserrat Pamias, Jordi Torralbas, Olga Giménez-Palop, Assumpta Caixàs, Diego J Palao, Javier Labad
Hyperprolactinaemia may affect sexual and reproductive functioning. However, recent studies suggest that increased prolactin levels may also have negative effects on cognition. We aimed to study whether the reduction in prolactin levels by cabergoline in patients with hyperprolactinaemia is followed by an improvement in cognitive tasks. We studied seven patients with hyperprolactinaemia caused by a prolactinoma that had an indication to start treatment with cabergoline. All patients were assessed twice (baseline and 6-12 months after cabergoline treatment) with a cognitive battery...
October 13, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035572/maintaining-and-enhancing-diversity-of-sampled-protein-conformations-in-robotics-inspired-methods
#2
Jayvee R Abella, Mark Moll, Lydia E Kavraki
The ability to efficiently sample structurally diverse protein conformations allows one to gain a high-level view of a protein's energy landscape. Algorithms from robot motion planning have been used for conformational sampling, and several of these algorithms promote diversity by keeping track of "coverage" in conformational space based on the local sampling density. However, large proteins present special challenges. In particular, larger systems require running many concurrent instances of these algorithms, but these algorithms can quickly become memory intensive because they typically keep previously sampled conformations in memory to maintain coverage estimates...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035500/reliable-multi-state-data-storage-with-low-power-consumption-by-selective-oxidation-of-pyramid-structured-resistive-memory
#3
Youngjin Kim, Hanhyeong Choi, Hyun S Park, Moon Sung Kang, Keun-Young Shin, Sang-Soo Lee, Jong Hyuk Park
Multilevel data storage using resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted significant attention for addressing the challenges associated with the rapid advances in information technologies. However, it is still difficult to secure reliable multilevel resistive switching of RRAM due to the stochastic and multiple formation of conductive filaments (CFs). Herein, we demonstrate that a single CF, derived from selective oxidation by a structured Cu active electrode, can solve the reliability issue. High-quality pyramidal Cu electrodes with a sharp tip are prepared via the template-stripping method...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034310/further-education-improves-cognitive-reserve-and-triggers-improvement-in-selective-cognitive-functions-in-older-adults-the-tasmanian-healthy-brain-project
#4
Megan E Thow, Mathew J Summers, Nichole L Saunders, Jeffery J Summers, Karen Ritchie, James C Vickers
INTRODUCTION: The strong link between early-life education and subsequent reduced risk of dementia suggests that education in later life could enhance cognitive function and may reduce age-related cognitive decline and protect against dementia. METHODS: Episodic memory, working memory, executive function, and language processing performances were assessed annually over 4 years in 359 healthy older adults who attended university for a minimum of 12 months (intervention) and were compared against 100 healthy adult controls...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033805/musical-expertise-increases-top-down-modulation-over-hippocampal-activation-during-familiarity-decisions
#5
Pierre Gagnepain, Baptiste Fauvel, Béatrice Desgranges, Malo Gaubert, Fausto Viader, Francis Eustache, Mathilde Groussard, Hervé Platel
The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top-down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033335/alpha-band-activity-reveals-spontaneous-representations-of-spatial-position-in-visual-working-memory
#6
Joshua J Foster, Emma M Bsales, Russell J Jaffe, Edward Awh
An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031899/synapse-formation-in-the-brain-can-be-enhanced-by-co-administering-three-specific-nutrients
#7
Richard J Wurtman
The memory impairments of early Alzheimer's disease [AD] are thought to result from a deficiency in synapses within the hippocampus and related brain regions. This deficiency could result from an acceleration in synapse turnover - perhaps caused by an endogenous neurotoxin like A-beta oligomers - or from a decrease in the production of the synaptic membrane needed to form new synapses. An AD-associated decrease in synaptogenesis almost certainly does occur, inasmuch as major decreases are also observed in the numbers of hippocampal dendritic spines, the immediate cytologic precursor of glutamatergic synapses...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031703/comparative-approximations-of-criticality-in-a-neural-and-quantum-regime
#8
REVIEW
Jesse Sterling Bettinger
Under a variety of conditions, non-linear systems with many degrees of freedom tend to evolve towards complexity and criticality. Over the last few decades, a steady proliferation of models re: nonlinear and far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics of metastable, many-valued systems arose, serving as attributes of a 'critical' attractor landscape. Building off recent data citing trademark aspects of criticality in the brain-including: power-laws, scale-free (1/f) behavior (scale invariance, or scale independence, critical slowing, and avalanches-it has been conjectured that operating at criticality entails functional advantages such as: optimized neural computation and information processing; memory; large dynamical ranges; long-range communication; and "enhanced ability to react to highly diverse stimuli...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030575/adolescent-ethanol-exposure-enhances-nmda-receptor-mediated-currents-in-hippocampal-neurons-reversal-by-gabapentin
#9
H S Swartzwelder, Maeng-Hee Park, Shawn Acheson
Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure compromises neural function into adulthood. We have reported that astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins, and their target neuronal receptors (α2δ-1) are upregulated in the hippocampus in adulthood after AIE, suggesting aberrant excitatory synaptogenesis and hyperexcitability in memory-related circuits. Gabapentin antagonizes the interaction of thrombospondins (TSPs) with the α2δ-1 receptor, and thus may reverse or ameliorate the effects of AIE on hippocampal function...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030299/enhancing-early-consolidation-of-human-episodic-memory-by-theta-eeg-neurofeedback
#10
Roman Rozengurt, Limor Shtoots, Aviv Sheriff, Ofir Sadka, Daniel A Levy
Consolidation of newly formed memories is readily disrupted, but can it be enhanced? Given the prominent role of hippocampal theta oscillations in memory formation and retrieval, we hypothesized that upregulating theta power during early stages of consolidation might benefit memory stability and persistence. We used EEG neurofeedback to enable participants to selectively increase theta power in their EEG spectra following episodic memory encoding, while other participants engaged in low beta-focused neurofeedback or passively viewed a neutral nature movie...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030286/peptides-acting-as-cognitive-enhancers
#11
Diego Asua, Ghassen Bougamra, María Calleja, Miguel Morales, Shira Knafo
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of three peptides that, by improving synaptic function, enhance learning and memory in laboratory rodents. We summarize their structure, their mechanisms of action, and their effects on synaptic and cognitive function. First we describe FGL, a peptide derived from the neural cell adhesion molecule which improves cognition by the activation of the PKC pathway that triggers an activity-dependent delivery of AMPA receptors to the synapses. Then we describe PTD4-PI3KAc peptide that by activating PI3K signalling pathway it promotes synapse and spine formation and enhances hippocampal dependent memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030082/adx-47273-a-mglu5-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-attenuates-deficits-in-cognitive-flexibility-induced-by-withdrawal-from-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#12
Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Ewa Gibula-Bruzda, Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Piotr Suder, Kinga Gawel, Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Ewa Kedzierska, Wojciech Danysz, Jolanta H Kotlinska
Repeated exposure to and withdrawal from ethanol induces deficits in spatial reversal learning. Data indicate that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These receptors functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activation of one type results in the activation of the other. We examined whether (S)-(4-fluorophenyl)(3-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl (ADX-47273), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGlu5 receptor, attenuates deficits in reversal learning induced by withdrawal (11-13days) from 'binge-like' ethanol input (5...
October 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028973/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-newborn-mva85a-vaccination-and-selective-delayed-bacille-calmette-guerin-bcg-for-infants-of-hiv-infected-mothers-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Elisa Nemes, Anneke C Hesseling, Michele Tameris, Katya Mauff, Katrina Downing, Humphrey Mulenga, Penelope Rose, Marieke van der Zalm, Sharon Mbaba, Danelle Van As, Willem A Hanekom, Gerhard Walzl, Thomas J Scriba, Helen McShane, Mark Hatherill
Background: Vaccination of HIV-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis (TB) vaccination strategy that protects against TB early in life; and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 x10 8 PFU) vs. Candin® control, followed by selective deferred BCG vaccination at 8 weeks of age for HIV-uninfected infants, and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#14
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028156/genetic-background-effects-in-neuroligin-3-mutant-mice-minimal-behavioral-abnormalities-on-c57-background
#15
Thomas C Jaramillo, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G Birnbaum, Craig M Powell
Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al...
October 13, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027871/weak-evidence-for-increased-motivated-forgetting-of-trauma-related-words-in-dissociated-or-traumatised-individuals-in-a-directed-forgetting-experiment
#16
Lawrence Patihis, Patricia J Place
Motivated forgetting is the idea that people can block out, or forget, upsetting or traumatic memories, because there is a motivation to do so. Some researchers have cited directed forgetting studies using trauma-related words as evidence for the theory of motivated forgetting of trauma. In the current article subjects used the list method directed forgetting paradigm with both trauma-related words and positive words. After one list of words was presented subjects were directed to forget the words previously learned, and they then received another list of words...
October 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#17
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027228/high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-orchestrates-responses-to-tissue-damage-via-inflammation-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-and-tissue-repair
#18
REVIEW
Marco E Bianchi, Massimo P Crippa, Angelo A Manfredi, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Patrizia Rovere Querini, Emilie Venereau
A single protein, HMGB1, directs the triggering of inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, and tissue healing after damage. HMGB1 is the best characterized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), proteins that are normally inside the cell but are released after cell death, and allow the immune system to distinguish between antigens that are dangerous or not. Notably, cells undergoing severe stress actively secrete HMGB1 via a dedicated secretion pathway: HMGB1 is relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then to secretory lysosomes or directly to the extracellular space...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026292/the-effects-of-holistic-health-group-interventions-on-improving-the-cognitive-ability-of-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Kim-Wan Young, Petrus Ng, Timothy Kwok, Daphne Cheng
PURPOSE: Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. RESEARCH METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024892/life-review-therapy-enhances-mental-time-travel-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Gui-Fang Chen, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Tao Chen, Xiao-Jing Qin, Jie-Chun Gan, Bin Bi, David L Neumann, David H K Shum, Ya Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Mental Time Travel (MTT) is the ability of individuals to project themselves to the past or to the future. Studies have shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients are impaired in MTT. The present study aimed to examine whether MTT in patients with SZ can be improved through Life Review Therapy. Fifty patients with SZ were randomly assigned to the training (SZ-training) or control (SZ-control) group. Whereas the SZ-training group received four-week Life Review Therapy in addition to conventional treatment, the SZ-control group only received conventional treatment...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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