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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535389/human-memory-brain-state-dependent-effects-of%C3%A2-stimulation
#1
Simon Hanslmayr, Frederic Roux
A new study shows that direct stimulation of memory-relevant brain areas can enhance memory performance, but only when stimulation is applied during brain states associated with poor memory outcome - stimulation during optimal states results in a decrease in memory.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533388/selective-lowering-of-synapsins-induced-by-oligomeric-%C3%AE-synuclein-exacerbates-memory-deficits
#2
Megan E Larson, Susan J Greimel, Fatou Amar, Michael LaCroix, Gabriel Boyle, Mathew A Sherman, Hallie Schley, Camille Miel, Julie A Schneider, Rakez Kayed, Fabio Benfenati, Michael K Lee, David A Bennett, Sylvain E Lesné
Mounting evidence indicates that soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, or α-synuclein (αSyn) might be the major deleterious species for neuronal function in these diseases. Here, we found an abnormal accumulation of oligomeric αSyn species in AD brains by custom ELISA, size-exclusion chromatography, and nondenaturing/denaturing immunoblotting techniques. Importantly, the abundance of αSyn oligomers in human brain tissue correlated with cognitive impairment and reductions in synapsin expression...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533042/-social-and-mood-enhancement-benefits-of-a-cognitive-remediation-workshop
#3
Karine Auffret, Céline Jacolot
A workshop focused on memory aimed at people with degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease can evolve into a social-therapeutic group for people also suffering from mood disorders. Cognitive remediation is therefore orientated towards social-mood mediation.
May 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532665/evaluation-of-the-behavioral-characteristics-of-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-through-operant-conditioning-procedures
#4
Matthew Lewon, Christina M Peters, Pam M Van Ry, Dean J Burkin, Kenneth W Hunter, Linda J Hayes
The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#5
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530412/declines-in-representational-quality-and-strategic-retrieval-processes-contribute-to-age-related-increases-in-false-recognition
#6
Alexandra N Trelle, Richard N Henson, Deborah A E Green, Jon S Simons
In a Yes/No object recognition memory test with similar lures, older adults typically exhibit elevated rates of false recognition. However, the contributions of impaired retrieval, relative to reduced availability of target details, are difficult to disentangle using such a test. The present investigation sought to decouple these factors by comparing performance on a Yes/No (YN) test to that on a Forced Choice (FC) test, which minimizes demands on strategic retrieval processes, enabling a more direct measure of the availability of object details...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#7
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530233/artificial-control-of-the-bias-voltage-dependence-of-tunnelling-anisotropic-magnetoresistance-using-quantization-in-a-single-crystal-ferromagnet
#8
Iriya Muneta, Toshiki Kanaki, Shinobu Ohya, Masaaki Tanaka
A major issue in the development of spintronic memory devices is the reduction of the power consumption for the magnetization reversal. For this purpose, the artificial control of the magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials is of great importance. Here, we demonstrate the control of the carrier-energy dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of the density of states (DOS) using the quantum size effect in a single-crystal ferromagnetic material, GaMnAs. We show that the mainly twofold symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy of DOS, which is attributed to the impurity band, is changed to a fourfold symmetry by enhancing the quantum size effect in the valence band of the GaMnAs quantum wells...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529068/adverse-outcome-pathways-application-to-enhance-mechanistic-understanding-of-neurotoxicity
#9
REVIEW
Anna Bal-Price, M E Meek
Recent developments have prompted the transition of empirically based testing of late stage toxicity in animals for a range of different endpoints including neurotoxicity to more efficient and predictive mechanistically based approaches with greater emphasis on measurable key events early in the progression of disease. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) has been proposed as a simplified organizational construct to contribute to this transition by linking molecular initiating events and earlier (more predictive) key events at lower levels of biological organization to disease outcomes...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#10
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527688/clinical-development-of-a-var2csa-based-placental-malaria-vaccine-pamvac-quantifying-vaccine-antigen-specific-memory-b-t-cell-activity-in-beninese-primigravidae
#12
Komi Gbédandé, Nadine Fievet, Firmine Viwami, Sem Ezinmegnon, Saadou Issifou, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Yannelle Dossou, Kabirou Moutairou, Achille Massougbodji, Nicaise Ndam, Willem Adriaan de Jongh, T Max M Søgaard, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Meral Esen, Benjamin Mordmüller, Philippe Deloron, Adrian J F Luty
BACKGROUND: The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC's clinical development, we quantified naturally acquired vaccine antigen-specific memory B and T cell responses in Beninese primigravidae recruited at the beginning of pregnancy and followed up to delivery and beyond...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526399/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-chronic-antidepressant-drug-treatments-in-the-hippocampal-mitochondria-a-proteomic-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#13
Katarzyna Głombik, Aneta Stachowicz, Ewa Trojan, Rafał Olszanecki, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Chamera, Bogusława Budziszewska, Władysław Lasoń, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for disturbances in the brain mitochondrial proteins and lead to the development of depression in adulthood. On the other hand, little is known about the impact of chronic administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain mitochondria, as a target for the pharmacotherapy of depression. The purpose of our study was to compare the impact of chronic treatment with two antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), imipramine, and an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, fluoxetine, on the mitochondria-enriched subproteome profile in the hippocampus of 3-month-old male rats following a prenatal stress procedure (an animal model of depression)...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525796/beneficial-effects-of-training-in-self-distancing-and-perspective-broadening-for-people-with-a-history-of-recurrent-depression
#14
Emma Travers-Hill, Barnaby D Dunn, Laura Hoppitt, Caitlin Hitchcock, Tim Dalgleish
Cognitive training designed to recalibrate maladaptive aspects of cognitive-affective processing associated with the presence of emotional disorder can deliver clinical benefits. This study examined the ability of an integrated training in self-distancing and perspective broadening (SD-PB) with respect to distressing experiences to deliver such benefits in individuals with a history of recurrent depression (≥3 prior episodes), currently in remission. Relative to an overcoming avoidance (OA) control condition, SD-PB: a) reduced distress to upsetting memories and to newly encountered events, both during training when explicitly instructed to apply SD-PB techniques, and after-training in the absence of explicit instructions; b) enhanced capacity to self-distance from and broaden perspectives on participants' experiences; c) reduced residual symptoms of depression...
May 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#15
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523432/novel-t-cells-with-improved-in-vivo-anti-tumor-activity-generated-by-rna-electroporation
#16
Xiaojun Liu, Shuguang Jiang, Chongyun Fang, Hua Li, Xuhua Zhang, Fuqin Zhang, Carl H June, Yangbing Zhao
The generation of T cells with maximal anti-tumor activities will significantly impact the field of T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. In this report, we found that OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T cells were phenotypically more heterogeneous, with enhanced anti-tumor activity in vitro and when locally administered in a solid tumor mouse model. To further improve the OKT3/IL-2-based T cell manufacturing procedure, we developed a novel T cell stimulation and expansion method in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were electroporated with mRNA encoding a chimeric membrane protein consisting of a single-chain variable fragment against CD3 and the intracellular domains of CD28 and 4-1BB (OKT3-28BB)...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523372/dietary-eicosapentaenoic-acid-normalizes-hippocampal-omega-3-and-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-profile-attenuates-glial-activation-and-regulates-bdnf-function-in-a-rodent-model-of-neuroinflammation-induced-by-central-interleukin-1%C3%AE-administration
#17
Yilong Dong, Min Xu, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523223/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-may-modulate-extinction-memory-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Mascha Van't Wout, Sharon M Longo, Madhavi K Reddy, Noah S Philip, Marguerite T Bowker, Benjamin D Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in fear extinction and recall are core components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from animal and human studies point to a role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in extinction learning and subsequent retention of extinction memories. Given the increasing interest in developing noninvasive brain stimulation protocols for psychopathology treatment, we piloted whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during extinction learning, vs...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522983/a-dynamical-model-of-pitch-memory-provides-an-improved-basis-for-implied-harmony-estimation
#20
Ji Chul Kim
Tonal melody can imply vertical harmony through a sequence of tones. Current methods for automatic chord estimation commonly use chroma-based features extracted from audio signals. However, the implied harmony of unaccompanied melodies can be difficult to estimate on the basis of chroma content in the presence of frequent nonchord tones. Here we present a novel approach to automatic chord estimation based on the human perception of pitch sequences. We use cohesion and inhibition between pitches in auditory short-term memory to differentiate chord tones and nonchord tones in tonal melodies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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