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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655859/rescuing-cognitive-and-emotional-regulatory-skills-to-aid-smoking-prevention-in-at-risk-youth-a-randomized-trial
#1
Michael W Otto, Eugenia I Gorlin, David Rosenfield, Elijah A Patten, Warren K Bickel, Michael J Zvolensky, Stacey N Doan
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation, with disadvantaged teens particularly at risk. In addition, emotional and cognitive dysregulation is associated with an increased risk of smoking and makes it particularly challenging to benefit from standard substance use prevention interventions. The goal of the current study is to investigate the extent to which interventions designed to improve cognitive (working memory) and emotional (distress tolerance) regulatory processes enhance the effectiveness of a standard smoking prevention informational intervention...
April 12, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655858/illuminating-the-evolution-of-iridescence
#2
Thomas E White
Iridescence, a change in hue with viewing or illumination geometry, is a common feature of colour patterns in nature, though its significance remains elusive. Recent studies of floral iridescence reveal its functional versatility in enhancing the detection and discrimination of resources by insect viewers, as well as augmenting higher-level processes of memory and perception. Coupled with a known evolutionary lability, these results suggest intriguing possibilities for how this optical curiosity may act as a key to diversification...
April 11, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653413/influence-of-propafenone-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-various-novel-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#3
Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt, Monika Popławska, Monika Banach, Dorota Wróblewska
BACKGROUND: The main mechanism of action of propafenone (antiarrhythmic drug) involves the inhibition of the fast inward sodium current during phase 0 of the action potential. Sodium channel-blocking activity is also characteristic for some antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, it could be assumed that propafenone may also affect seizures. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of propafenone on the protective effect of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin against the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice...
November 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653257/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-reduce-the-threshold-for-induction-and-stabilization-of-ltp-and-enhance-its-magnitude-via-multiple-mechanisms-in-the-ventral-but-not-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#4
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652479/a-thermal-water-and-near-infrared-light-induced-shape-memory-composite-based-on-polyvinyl-alcohol-and-polyaniline-fibers
#5
Yongkang Bai, Jiwen Zhang, Xin Chen
A multiresponsive shape memory composite was prepared by incorporating polyaniline (PAn) fibers into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), where in situ polymerization assisted by surfactant was used to homogeneously disperse PAn fibers in a PVA matrix. The PAn fibers not only increased physical cross-linking points in the system but also served as photothermal conversion reagents, resulting in excellent water-, thermal-, and near-infrared (NIR) light-induced shape memory properties of the composites, where their light-induced shape recovery ratio and speed could be enhanced via the increase of PAn loading percentage and light power density...
April 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651383/influence-of-encoding-instructions-and-response-bias-on-cross-cultural-differences-in-specific-recognition
#6
Laura E Paige, Selen Amado, Angela H Gutchess
Prior cross-cultural research has reported cultural variations in memory. One study revealed that Americans remembered images with more perceptual detail than East Asians (Millar et al. in Cult Brain 1(2-4):138-157, 2013). However, in a later study, this expected pattern was not replicated, possibly due to differences in encoding instructions (Paige et al. in Cortex 91:250-261, 2017). The present study sought to examine when cultural variation in memory-related decisions occur and the role of instructions. American and East Asian participants viewed images of objects while making a Purchase decision or an Approach decision and later completed a surprise recognition test...
October 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649909/-music-memory-and-improved-swallowing-in-advanced-dementia
#7
Dan Cohen, Stephen G Post, Angela Lo, Robin Lombardo, Brandon Pfeffer
Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#8
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649503/modulating-fluid-intelligence-performance-through-combined-cognitive-training-and-brain-stimulation
#9
Anna-Katharine Brem, Jessamy Norton-Ford Almquist, Karen Mansfield, Franziska Plessow, Francesco Sella, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Umut Orhan, James McKanna, Misha Pavel, Santosh Mathan, Nick Yeung, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Roi Cohen Kadosh, On Behalf Of Honeywell Sharp Team Authors
It is debated whether cognitive training of specific executive functions leads to far transfer effects, such as improvements in fluid intelligence (Gf). Within this context, transcranial direct current stimulation and recently also novel protocols such as transcranial random noise and alternating current stimulation are being investigated with regards to their ability to enhance cognitive training outcomes. We compared the effects of four different transcranial electrical brain stimulation protocols in combination with nine daily computerized training sessions on Gf...
April 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648983/enhancement-of-brain-d-serine-mediates-recovery-of-cognitive-function-after-tbi
#10
Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Barbara Slusher, Dana Atrakchi-Baranes, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Yael Friedman Levi, Efrat Leah Kesner, Alcino J Silva, Anat Biegon, Esther Shohami
Cognitive deficits, especially memory loss, are common and devastating neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The deficits may persist for a long time and may be accompanied by increased risk of developing early onset dementia. Past attempts to reverse the neuropsychological effects of brain injury with glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists failed to show any benefits or worsened the outcome, suggesting activation, rather than blockage, of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) may be useful in the sub-acute period after TBI and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648551/size-dependent-single-electron-transfer-and-semimetal-to-insulator-transitions-in-molecular-metal-oxide-electronics
#11
Angelika Balliou, Mirtat Bouroushian, Antonios M Douvas, George Skoulatakis, Stella Kennou, Nikos Glezos
All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV-Vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films' ability to structurally tune their HOMO-LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643822/working-memory-and-reinforcement-schedule-jointly-determine-reinforcement-learning-in-children-potential-implications-for-behavioral-parent-training
#12
Elien Segers, Tom Beckers, Hilde Geurts, Laurence Claes, Marina Danckaerts, Saskia van der Oord
Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF) extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously) and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643700/evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-ecg-captured-by-cardiochip-through-comparison-of-lead-i-recording-to-a-standard-12-lead-ecg-recording-device
#13
Chi-In Lo, Sheng-Shiung Chang, Jui-Peng Tsai, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Ying-Ju Chen, Ming-Yuan Huang, Chao-Hsiung Lee, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Chung-Lieh Hung, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Edward Lai, Hung-I Yeh, Wen-Ling Chang, Wen-Han Chang
Background: Remote cardiac rhythm monitoring and recording, using hand-carried electrocardiogram (ECG) device had been widely used in telemedicine. The feasibility and accuracy analysis on the data recorded by a new miniature ECG system-on-chip (SoC) system has not been explored before. Methods: This study evaluated the accuracy of the ECG recordings captured by CardioChip - a single-channeled, low-powered, miniature ECG SoC designed for mobile applications; comparing against Philips Pagewriter Trim III - a Food and Drug Administration certified, widely-used standard 12-lead ECG recording device, within Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taiwan...
March 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#14
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643360/ghrelin-is-a-persistent-biomarker-for-chronic-stress-exposure-in-adolescent-rats-and-humans
#15
Muhammad I Ul Akbar Yousufzai, Elia S Harmatz, Mohsin Shah, Muhammad O Malik, Ki A Goosens
Prolonged stressor exposure in adolescence enhances the risk of developing stress-sensitive mental illnesses, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for many years following exposure cessation, but the biological underpinnings of this long-term vulnerability are unknown. We show that severe stressor exposure increased circulating levels of the hormone acyl-ghrelin in adolescent rats for at least 130 days and in adolescent humans for at least 4.5 years. Using a rodent model of longitudinal PTSD vulnerability in which rodents with a history of stressor exposure during adolescence display enhanced fear in response to fear conditioning administered weeks after stressor exposure ends, we show that systemic delivery of a ghrelin receptor antagonist for 4 weeks surrounding stressor exposure (2 weeks during and 2 weeks following) prevented stress-enhanced fear memory...
April 11, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642617/effects-of-lignans-from-schisandra-chinensis-rattan-stems-against-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats-and-neurotoxicity-in-primary-neuronal-cells
#16
Bing-You Yang, Wei Han, Hua Han, Yan Liu, Wei Guan, Xiao-Mao Li, Hai-Xue Kuang
Oxidative stress, which is caused by Amyloid-β deposition in brain, plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we found that lignans from Schisandra chinensis rattan stems (rsSCH-L) could reduce the escape latency and the distance travelled by the Aβ1-42 injected rats while the crossing platform time was enhanced in the Morris water maze test. Further research demonstrated that lignans from rsSCH-L attenuated Aβ1-42 -induced neuronal cell injury by increasing the content of SOD and GSH-Px and decreasing the levels of LDH, ROS, and MDA...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629540/role-of-language-related-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-benign-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#17
Hyeon Jin Kim, Jung Hwa Lee, Chang Hyun Park, Hye Sun Hong, Yun Seo Choi, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) does not always have a benign cognitive outcome. We investigated the relationship between cognitive performance and altered functional connectivity (FC) in the resting-state brain networks of BECTS patients. METHODS: We studied 42 subjects, comprising 19 BECTS patients and 23 healthy controls. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, in addition to verbal and visuospatial memory tests and executive function tests...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628892/the-effect-of-oxygen-enrichment-on-cardiorespiratory-and-neuropsychological-responses-in-workers-with-chronic-intermittent-exposure-to-high-altitude-alma-5-050-m
#18
Fernando A Moraga, Iván López, Alicia Morales, Daniel Soza, Jessica Noack
It is estimated that labor activity at high altitudes in Chile will increase from 60,000 to 120,000 workers by the year 2020. Oxygenation of spaces improves the quality of life for workers at high geographic altitudes (<5,000 m). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a mobile oxygen module system on cardiorespiratory and neuropsychological performance in a population of workers from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, 5,050 m) radiotelescope in the Chajnantor Valley, Chile...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628884/subtle-distinctions-how-attentional-templates-influence-eeg-parameters-of-cognitive-control-in-a-spatial-cuing-paradigm
#19
Christine Mertes, Daniel Schneider
Using event-related potentials (ERPs) of the electroencephalogram, we investigated how cognitive control is altered by the scope of an attentional template currently activated in visual working memory. Participants performed a spatial cuing task where an irrelevant color singleton cue was presented prior to a target array. Blockwise, the target was either a red circle or a gray square and had to be searched within homogenous (gray circles) or heterogeneous non-targets (differently colored circles or various shapes)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627530/an-enriched-environment-restores-hepatitis-b-vaccination-mediated-impairments-in-synaptic-function-through-ifn-%C3%AE-arginase1-signaling
#20
Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Saisai Hu, Yucen Xia, Dan Song, Jiechen Kong, Yang Yang, Yingying Wu, Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Dandan Hu, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
Activation of the neonatal immune system may contribute to deficits in neuronal plasticity. We have reported that neonatal vaccination with a hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) transiently impairs mood status and spatial memory involving a systemic T helper (Th) 2 bias and M1 microglial activation. Here, an EE induced microglial anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, as evidenced by selectively enhanced expression of the Arginase1 gene (Arg-1) in the hippocampus. Interestingly, knock-down of the Arg-1 gene prevented the effects of EE on restoring the dendritic spine density...
April 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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