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Transracial Adoption

Xian Zhang, Ellen E Pinderhughes
Parents raising children adopted from a different racial/ethnic group usually engage in cultural socialization-providing activities in adoptees' birth culture-hoping to instill pride and help adoptees develop a positive identity. Adoptive parents engage in a wide variety of socialization activities, yet adult adoptees have reported not having deep enough exposure from their parents. The present study explored the depth of cultural socialization in transracial adoptive families. Informed by Pinderhughes' Ethnic-Racial Socialization model, this study developed a continuum examining the depth in cultural socialization with three indicators: (1) the depth of cultural activities, (2) parents' motivation for cultural socialization, and (3) parental cultural attitudes...
March 13, 2018: Family Process
Alison W Hu, Xiang Zhou, Richard M Lee
The relationship between ethnic socialization by parents, peers, and ethnic identity development was examined over a 7-year time span in a sample of 116 internationally adopted Korean American adolescents. Parent report data was collected in 2007 (Time 1 [T1]) when the adopted child was between 7 and 13 years old and again in 2014 at ages 13 to 20 years old (Time 2 [T2]). Adolescent report data also was collected in 2014. We examined differences in parent and adolescent reports of parental ethnic socialization at T2, changes in parent reports of ethnic socialization from T1 to T2, and the relationship among ethnic socialization by parents at T1 and T2, ethnic socialization by peers at T2, and ethnic identity exploration and resolution at T2...
November 2017: Developmental Psychology
Harold D Grotevant, Albert Yh Lo
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Tony Xing Tan, Brittany Jordan-Arthur, Jeffrey S Garafano, Laura Curran
We investigated 109 (79.8% female; 76% White, and 83.5% Heterosexual) mental health trainees' explicit and implicit attitudes toward heterosexual, lesbian, and gay White couples adopting and raising Black children. To determine explicit attitudes, we used a vignette depicting a Black child ready for adoption and three types of equally qualified White families who were headed by a heterosexual couple, gay couple, or lesbian couple. The trainees were asked to indicate which type of family they preferred to adopt the child...
2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Tara Arnold, Sopagna Eap Braje, Debra Kawahara, Tara Shuman
Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Kimberly J Langrehr, Anita Jones Thomas, Sydney K Morgan
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study is to test a recently established model of racial-ethnic socialization (Langrehr, 2014) among 2 samples of White transracially adoptive parents and to assess whether the proposed model functions similarly after accounting for adopted child race. METHOD: Based on a modified version of the Racial Bias Preparation Scale (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the 3-factor model (i...
July 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Rosa Rosnati, Ellen E Pinderhughes, Amanda L Baden, Harold D Grotevant, Richard M Lee, Jayashree Mohanty
The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host culture are important socialization contexts that engage transracial adoptees in transactional processes that promote ethnic identity development. New directions in research were identified, including developmental processes in navigating ethnic and other identities, similarities and differences in ethnic identity between ITRAs and immigrants, the effectiveness of interventions targeting ethnic identity in ITRAs, and the impact of discrimination on ethnic identity construction and the role of social and national contexts...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Karin J Garber, Quade Y S French, Harold D Grotevant
The Adoption Mentoring Partnership (AMP) matches preadolescent adoptees with adopted college students, prioritizing matches of the same ethnic background. As part of AMP, participants actively discuss issues of ethnicity and adoption with a cohort of mentors over a period of 1 to 3 years in mentor group meetings (MGMs). This study focuses on mentors' perceptions of ethnic identity processes within the context of adoption during their participation in AMP. Thematic analysis is used to analyze two interviews from each of 12 internationally and transracially adopted mentors (8 females, 4 males; average age = 20...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Laura Ferrari, Rosa Rosnati, Claudia Manzi, Verònica Benet-Martínez
The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently research carried out on ethnic minorities has highlighted that the relation between ethnic identity and well-being could be influenced by Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) (Benet-Martínez et al...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Jayashree Mohanty
Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's () and Brodzinsky's () propositions of a balanced approach to adoption and culture issues, this study examines the curvilinear relationship between ethnic identity and psychological well-being of international adoptees (i.e., psychological well-being will be high when ethnic identity is moderate instead of either low or high)...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Ellen E Pinderhughes, Xian Zhang, Susanne Agerbak
Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about self-label). The sample comprised 44 U.S.-based parents and their daughters ages 6 to 9 who were adopted from China. Correlation analyses revealed that parents' role variables and CS behaviors were related, and children's ethnic self-label was related to family ethnic identity and CS behaviors...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Ellen E Pinderhughes, Rosa Rosnati
This special issue focuses on the construction of ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs) in the context of their families and community. These studies represent an emerging focus on identity development in families where parents, as members of the dominant culture, face the task of helping children who are members of minority groups, develop a positive identity. Because the process of identity formation is developmental, the six articles study explore identity from middle childhood through emerging adulthood and feature diverse ITRAs at different ages and adopted into the United States and Italy, as well as different sample sizes and methodologies, including two community-based interventions...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Kayla N Anderson, Martha A Rueter, Richard M Lee
Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea (N = 111 families, 222 adolescents)...
2015: Journal of Family Communication
Emma R Hamilton, Diana R Samek, Margaret Keyes, Matthew K McGue, William G Iacono
It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee's ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment...
2015: Adoption Quarterly
Joyce P Lee, Richard M Lee, Alison W Hu, Oh Myo Kim
Despite the growing practice of international adoption over the past 60 years, the racial and ethnic experiences of adopted youth are not well known. This study examined the moderating role of ethnic identity in the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and adjustment among transracially, transnationally adopted Korean American adolescents (N = 136). Building on self-categorization theory and past empirical research on Asian Americans, it was hypothesized that ethnic identity would exacerbate negative outcomes associated with discrimination...
June 2015: Asian American Journal of Psychology
Laura Ferrari, Sonia Ranieri, Daniela Barni, Rosa Rosnati
Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i...
December 2015: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Kimberly J Langrehr
This study examined the moderating role of transracially adoptive parents' cross-racial friendships in the relationship between their color-blind attitudes and views toward cultural and racial socialization. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and the Johnson-Neyman technique, it was hypothesized that parents' color-blind attitudes would significantly account for 3 different dimensions of socialization beliefs (i.e., prejudice awareness, ethnic pride, and egalitarian socialization) and that self-reported cross-racial friendships would moderate the effects of color-blind attitudes...
October 2014: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Maureen Riley-Behringer, Victor Groza, Wendy Tieman, Femmie Juffer
A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues...
April 2014: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Suki Ali
Shortly after coming to power in Britain, the Conservative-Liberal Democratic alliance placed family life at the heart of their political agenda, and set out their plans to reform adoption. The paper draws upon debates about the reforms and considers them in articulation with concerns about health of the nation expressed in political pronouncements on 'broken Britain' and the failures of 'state multiculturalism'. The paper considers the debates about domestic (transracial) and intercountry adoption, and uses feminist postcolonial perspectives to argue that we can only understand what are expressed as national issues within a transnational and postcolonial framework which illuminate the processes of state and institutional race-making...
March 2014: British Journal of Sociology
Oh Myo Kim, Reed Reichwald, Richard M Lee
Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views...
November 2012: Journal of Adolescent Research
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