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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090292/a-new-look-at-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-postcapillary-pathophysiology-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#1
Arvind Sehgal, Andra Malikiwi, Eldho Paul, Kenneth Tan, Samuel Menahem
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular function are the focus of cardiovascular effects of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We assessed cardiac indexes reflecting systemic afterload and pulmonary venous back pressure as pathophysiologic factors. Cardiac parameters were measured by conventional echocardiography in 20 preterm infants with severe BPD and compared with those of 10 preterm infants with no BPD and 20 healthy term infants. In infants with severe BPD, PH was noted in 5 (25%) by tricuspid regurgitation Doppler jet ≥2...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090255/clinical-utility-of-echocardiography-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dsyplasia
#2
Young Earl Choi, Hwa Jin Cho, Eun Song Song, In Seok Jeong, Namsik Yoon, Young Youn Choi, Jae Sook Ma, Young Kuk Cho
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may result in chronic pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Various echocardiographic assessments of RV dysfunction have been used to determine whether echocardiographic measurements of premature infants with BPD could provide sensitive measures of RV function that correlates with BPD severity. METHODS: Twenty-eight control subjects without BPD (non BPD group), 28 patients with mild BPD, 11 patients with moderate BPD, and six patients with severe BPD underwent echocardiograms with standard measurement such as ejection fraction by M-mode, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, myocardial performance index (MPI) derived from pulse Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measurements...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090250/early-detection-for-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-without-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
EDITORIAL
Jung-Woo Son
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#4
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081574/gstp1-and-cyp2b6-genetic-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-neonates
#5
Sophia Zachaki, Aggeliki Daraki, Elena Polycarpou, Chrysa Stavropoulou, Kalliopi N Manola, Stavroula Gavrili
Objectives Antioxidant response plays a key role in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. The glutathione-S-tranferases pi 1 (GSTP1) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) detoxification enzymes protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the A(313)G GSTP1 and G(516)T CYP2B6 inactivating polymorphisms could be associated with BPD susceptibility. Study Design To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study enrolled 138 premature neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age; of the 138, 46 developed BPD and 92 did not develop BPD...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079864/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-pulmonary-hypertension-a-meta-analysis
#6
G Al-Ghanem, P Shah, S Thomas, L Banfield, S El Helou, C Fusch, A Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complication of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) but the true impact of PH in patients with BPD remains unclear. We sought to systematically review and meta-analyze incidence of PH in BPD and compare clinical outcomes of BPD patients with PH to those without PH in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CINAHL were searched from January 2000 through December 2015. Cohort, case-control and randomized studies were included...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067624/modelling-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-mice-how-much-oxygen-is-enough
#8
Claudio Nardiello, Ivana Mižíková, Diogo M Silva, Jordi Ruiz-Camp, Konstantin Mayer, István Vadász, Susanne Herold, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
Progress in developing new therapies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is sometimes complicated by the lack of a standardised animal model. Our objective was to develop a robust hyperoxia‑based mouse model of BPD that recapitulated the pathological perturbations to lung structure noted in infants with BPD. Newborn mouse pups were exposed to a varying fraction of oxygen in the inspired air (FiO2) and a varying window of hyperoxia exposure, after which lung structure was assessed by design‑based stereology with systemic uniform random sampling...
December 14, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063223/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-for-infants-under-prolonged-ventilation
#9
Juyoung Lee, Han-Suk Kim, Young Hwa Jung, Chang Won Choi, Yong Hoon Jun
BACKGROUND: Severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often leads to prolonged mechanical ventilation lasting several months. Cyanotic episodes frequently occur in these patients, which necessitate long-term sedation and/or intermittent muscle paralysis. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) might provide precisely the amount of support that these patients need without sedation. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of preterm infants who underwent a tracheostomy and required mechanical ventilation for more than 6 months during a period of 6 years...
January 7, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062913/understanding-the-developmental-pathways-pulmonary-fibroblasts-may-follow-during-alveolar-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Stephen McGowan
Although pulmonary alveolar interstitial fibroblasts are less specialized than their epithelial and endothelial neighbors, they play essential roles during development and in response to lung injury. At birth, they must adapt to the sudden mechanical changes imposed by the onset of respiration and to a higher ambient oxygen concentration. In diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and interstitial fibrosis, their adaptive responses are overwhelmed leading to compromised gas-exchange function. Thus, although fibroblasts do not directly participate in gas-exchange, they are essential for creating and maintaining an optimal environment at the alveolar epithelial-endothelial interface...
January 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046188/comparative-effectiveness-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-treatment-vs-no-treatment-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants
#11
Jonathan L Slaughter, Patricia B Reagan, Thomas B Newman, Mark A Klebanoff
Importance: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with increased mortality and worsened respiratory outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in preterm infants. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are efficacious in closing PDA, but the effectiveness of NSAID-mediated PDA closure in improving mortality and preventing BPD is unclear. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of NSAID treatment for PDA in reducing mortality and moderate/severe BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046032/inflammatory-mediators-in-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-trial-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide
#12
Mandy Laube, Elena Amann, Ulrike Uhlig, Yang Yang, Hans W Fuchs, Michael Zemlin, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Rolf F Maier, Helmut D Hummler, Stefan Uhlig, Ulrich H Thome
BACKGROUND: Ventilated preterm infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators in their tracheal aspirates (TA). In animal models of BPD, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation, but data for human preterm infants is missing. METHODS: Within a European multicenter trial of NO inhalation for preterm infants to prevent BPD (EUNO), TA was collected to determine the effects of iNO on pulmonary inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045772/nutritional-practices-and-growth-in-premature-infants-after-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#13
Grace C Lin, Daniel T Robinson, Steven Olsen, Kristina M Reber, Mohannad Moallem, Robert DiGeronimo, Cecilia Mulroy, Ankur Datta, Karna Murthy
OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional provisions received by infants with surgical NEC and the associated effects on short-term growth. STUDY DESIGN: Through the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Database we identified infants born ≤32 weeks' gestation with surgical NEC from 5 regional neonatal intensive care units over 4 years. Excluded infants had isolated intestinal perforation and died <14 days post-operatively. Infants were stratified by their median parenteral protein dose (low (LP) or high (HP) protein) over the first post-operative week...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045472/inhaled-nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-preterm-infants
#14
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure and the potential risks of iNO differ substantially in preterm infants, necessitating specific study in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or other serious brain injury and on adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013306/inhibition-of-rac1-signaling-downregulates-inflammasome-activation-and-attenuates-lung-injury-in-neonatal-rats-exposed-to-hyperoxia
#15
Julia K Hummler, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Ruben Vaidya, Ronald Zambrano, Siwei Luo, Shaoyi Chen, Nadine Kerr, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Robert W Keane, W Dalton Dietrich, Eduardo Bancalari, Karen C Young, Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory injury, particularly the production of active interleukin (IL)-1β plays a major role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The release of active IL-1β is controlled by posttranscriptional modifications of its proform (pro-IL-1β) through the inflammasome. Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that regulate the inflammatory process. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that Rac1 signaling increases inflammasome activation that results in damaging inflammation, and that the inhibition of Rac1 signaling prevents lung injury, by inhibiting inflammasome activation in a newborn rat model of BPD induced by hyperoxia...
December 24, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007513/-delayed-umbilical-cord-clamping-in-preterm-infants-born-before-37%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
O Dicky, V Ehlinger, B Guyard-Boileau, C Assouline, C Arnaud, C Casper
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Many international studies have demonstrated that delayed umbilical cord clamping reduces neonatal morbidity. However, in France, delayed umbilical cord clamping is still not performed in many neonatal units. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of developing a protocol of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the maternity ward of the Toulouse university hospital and to evaluate the impact of this new protocol on neonatal mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study including 123 preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation between June 2012 and June 2013 and hospitalized at birth...
December 19, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005062/effects-of-delivery-room-quality-improvement-on-premature-infant-outcomes
#17
W Lapcharoensap, M V Bennett, R J Powers, N N Finer, L P Halamek, J B Gould, P J Sharek, H C Lee
OBJECTIVE: Delivery room management interventions have been successfully implemented via collaborative quality improvement (QI) projects. However, it is unknown whether these successes translate to reductions in neonatal morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective pre-post intervention study of three nonrandomized hospital groups within the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. A collaborative QI model (Collaborative QI) was compared with a single-site QI model (NICU QI) and a non-participant population when implementing evidence-based delivery room practices...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992937/parenteral-fish-oil-lipid-emulsions-in-the-prevention-of-severe-retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Sakeer Vayalthrikkovil, Rani A Bashir, Yacov Rabi, Harish Amin, Jill-Marie Spence, Helen Lee Robertson, Abhay Lodha
Objective Omega-3 fatty acids are vital for brain and retinal maturation. It is not clear if early use of ω-3 fatty acids in the form of fish-oil lipid emulsions (FLEs) prevents retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate whether early administration of parenteral FLEs reduces ROP requiring laser therapy or severe ROP ≥stage 3 in preterm infants. Methods A literature search was performed to identify studies comparing parenteral FLEs with soybean-based lipid emulsions (SLEs) in preventing ROP...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989587/cellular-and-humoral-biomarkers-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#19
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
The pathogenesis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is multifactorial and the clinical phenotype of BPD is extremely variable. Predicting BPD is difficult, as it is a disease with a clinical operational definition but many clinical phenotypes and endotypes. Most biomarkers studied over the years have low predictive accuracy, and none are currently used in routine clinical care or shown to be useful for predicting longer-term respiratory outcome. Targeted cellular and humoral biomarkers and novel systems biology 'omic' based approaches including genomic and microbiomic analyses are described in this review...
December 15, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987395/randomised-controlled-trial-of-sustained-lung-inflation-for-resuscitation-of-preterm-infants-in-the-delivery-room
#20
Paveewan Jiravisitkul, Sasivimol Rattanasiri, Pracha Nuntnarumit
AIM: To compare the effects of sustained lung inflation (SLI) vs. standard resuscitation on physiologic responses of preterm infants during resuscitation. METHODS: Preterm infants (25-32 weeks gestational age) requiring positive-pressure ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure were randomly assigned to either the SLI group (SLI at 25cmH2O for 15s) or Non-SLI group (standard resuscitation alone). The heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), oxygen requirement, and intubation rate in the delivery room were evaluated...
February 2017: Resuscitation
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