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L-theanine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899506/green-tea-effects-on-cognition-mood-and-human-brain-function-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Edele Mancini, Christoph Beglinger, Jürgen Drewe, Davide Zanchi, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. PURPOSE: To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812313/current-and-potential-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-anxiety-symptoms-and-disorders-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-structured-review
#2
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, David G Kingdon, David S Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Between 30% and 62% of patients with schizophrenia present with co-morbid anxiety disorders that are associated with increased overall burden. Our aim was to summarize current and potential interventions for anxiety in schizophrenia. DESIGN: Structured review, summarizing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions used to reduce anxiety in schizophrenia and psychosis. RESULTS: Antipsychotics have been shown to reduce anxiety, increase anxiety, or have no effect...
August 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812027/l-theanine-administration-modulates-the-absorption-of-dietary-nutrients-and-expression-of-transporters-and-receptors-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-rats
#3
Qiongxian Yan, Haiou Tong, Shaoxun Tang, Zhiliang Tan, Xuefeng Han, Chuanshe Zhou
L-theanine has various advantageous functions for human health; whether or not it could mediate the nutrients absorption is unknown yet. The effects of L-theanine on intestinal nutrients absorption were investigated using rats ingesting L-theanine solution (0, 50, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) per day for two weeks. The decline of insulin secretion and glucose concentration in the serum was observed by L-theanine. Urea and high-density lipoprotein were also reduced by 50 mg/kg L-theanine. Jejunal and ileac basic amino acids transporters SLC7a1 and SLC7a9, neutral SLC1a5 and SLC16a10, and acidic SLC1a1 expression were upregulated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796499/studies-on-the-biochemical-formation-pathway-of-the-amino-acid-l-theanine-in-tea-camellia-sinensis-and-other-plants
#4
Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Xiaoqin Wang, Yinyin Liao, Lanting Zeng, Fang Dong, Ziyin Yang
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water. The flavor of tea is conferred by certain metabolites, especially l-theanine, in C. sinensis. To determine why more l-theanine accumulates in C. sinensis than in other plants, we compare l-theanine contents between C. sinensis and other plant species (Camellia nitidissima, Camellia japonica, Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Solanum lycopersicum) and use a stable isotope labeling approach to elucidate its biosynthetic route. We quantify relevant intermediates and metabolites by mass spectrometry...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640307/healthy-properties-of-green-and-white-teas-an-update
#5
S Pastoriza, M Mesías, C Cabrera, J A Rufián-Henares
Green tea has been consumed for centuries in Japan, China and Morocco. White tea, which is considered a variety of green tea, is mostly consumed in China and is very appreciated for its flavor. Currently the consumption of both types of tea has been extended to the western countries even as a functional ingredient. A group of polyphenols called catechins stands out among their bioactive components, the most abundant being the (-) epigallocatechin gallate, with high antioxidant power. Teas also contain other phenolic compounds such as gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic or cinnamic acids, quercetin and proanthocyanidols, caffeine, theophylline, l-theanine and minerals such as fluorine, manganese or chromium...
August 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624333/l-theanine-prevent-quinolinic-acid-induced-motor-deficit-and-striatal-neurotoxicity-reduction-in-oxido-nitrosative-stress-and-restoration-of-striatal-neurotransmitters-level
#6
Sumit Jamwal, Shamsher Singh, Jaskamal Singh Gill, Puneet Kumar
L-theanine has been documented to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study was anticipated to investigate the effect of L-theanine against quinolinic acid induced motor deficits, oxido-nitrosative stress, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitters alteration in rats. Rats were stereotaxically injected QA (200nmol/2µl saline; intrastriatal); bilaterally on 0 day and L-theanine (25 & 50mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 21 days starting from day 1 of QA injection...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597057/an-l-glutamine-transporter-isoform-for-neurogenesis-facilitated-by-l-theanine
#7
REVIEW
Yukio Yoneda
L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration of the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and relevant downstream proteins...
June 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585285/the-synergistic-potential-of-various-teas-herbs-and-therapeutic-drugs-in-health-improvement-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Florence Malongane, Lyndy J McGaw, Fhatuwani N Mudau
Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains l-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511005/characterization-of-l-theanine-excitatory-actions-on-hippocampal-neurons-toward-the-generation-of-novel-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-modulators-based-on-its-backbone
#9
Fatiha Sebih, Matthieu Rousset, Salima Bellahouel, Marc Rolland, Marie Celeste de Jesus Ferreira, Janique Guiramand, Catherine Cohen-Solal, Gérard Barbanel, Thierry Cens, Mohammed Abouazza, Adrien Tassou, Maud Gratuze, Céline Meusnier, Pierre Charnet, Michel Vignes, Valérie Rolland
l-Theanine (or l-γ-N-ethyl-glutamine) is the major amino acid found in Camellia sinensis. It has received much attention because of its pleiotropic physiological and pharmacological activities leading to health benefits in humans, especially. We describe here a new, easy, efficient, and environmentally friendly chemical synthesis of l-theanine and l-γ-N-propyl-Gln and their corresponding d-isomers. l-Theanine, and its derivatives obtained so far, exhibited partial coagonistic action at N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, with no detectable agonist effect at other glutamate receptors, on cultured hippocampal neurons...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439281/l-theanine-content-and-related-gene-expression-novel-insights-into-theanine-biosynthesis-and-hydrolysis-among-different-tea-plant-camellia-sinensis-l-tissues-and-cultivars
#10
Zhi-Wei Liu, Zhi-Jun Wu, Hui Li, Yong-Xin Wang, Jing Zhuang
L-Theanine content has tissues and cultivars specificity in tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.), the correlations of theanine metabolic related genes expression profiles with theanine contents were explored in this study. L-theanine contents in the bud and 1st leaf, 2nd leaf, 3rd leaf, old leaf, stem, and lateral root were determined by HPLC from three C. sinensis cultivars, namely 'Huangjinya', 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yingshuang', respectively. The theanine contents in leaves and root of 'Huangjinya' were the highest, followed by 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yingshuang'...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391425/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-drugs-for-treating-behavioural-insomnia-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-methodological-quality-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Shweta Anand, Henry Tong, Frank M C Besag, Esther W Chan, Samuele Cortese, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365292/evolving-transpeptidase-and-hydrolytic-variants-of-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-from-bacillus-licheniformis-by-targeted-mutations-of-conserved-residue-arg109-and-their-biotechnological-relevance
#12
Shruti Bindal, Sujata Sharma, Tej P Singh, Rani Gupta
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) catalyzes the transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety from donor compounds such as l-glutamine (Gln) and glutathione (GSH) to an acceptor. During the biosynthesis of various γ-glutamyl-containing compounds using GGT enzyme, auto-transpeptidation reaction leads to the formation of unwanted byproducts. Therefore, in order to alter the auto-transpeptidase activity of the GGT enzyme, the binding affinity of Gln should be modified. Structural studies of the Bacillus licheniformis GGT (BlGT) complexed with the glutamic acid has shown that glutamic acid has strong ionic interactions through its α-carboxlic group with the guanidine moiety of Arg109...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056735/effect-of-green-tea-phytochemicals-on-mood-and-cognition
#13
Christina Dietz, Matthijs Dekker
BACKGROUND: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance...
January 5, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044450/caffeine-and-theanine-exert-opposite-effects-on-attention-under-emotional-arousal
#14
Grace E Giles, Caroline R Mahoney, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor, Robin B Kanarek
Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908701/inhibitory-effects-of-l-theanine-on-airway-inflammation-in-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-asthma
#15
Yong Pil Hwang, Sun Woo Jin, Jae Ho Choi, Chul Yung Choi, Hyung Gyun Kim, Se Jong Kim, Yongan Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Young Chul Chung, Hye Gwang Jeong
l-theanine, a water-soluble amino acid isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis), has anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the anti-allergic effect of l-theanine and its underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of l-theanine on asthmatic responses, particularly airway inflammation and oxidative stress modulation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of asthma. Treatment with l-theanine dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)...
January 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698535/l-theanine-protects-against-excess-dopamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-presence-of-astrocytes
#16
Mika Takeshima, Ikuko Miyazaki, Shinki Murakami, Taizo Kita, Masato Asanuma
l-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), a component of green tea, is considered to have regulatory and neuroprotective roles in the brain. The present study was designed to determine the effect of l-theanine on excess dopamine-induced neurotoxicity in both cell culture and animal experiments. The primary cultured mesencephalic neurons or co-cultures of mesencephalic neurons and striatal astrocytes were pretreated with l-theanine for 72 h, and then treated with excess dopamine for further 24 h. The cell viability of dopamine neurons and levels of glutathione were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664666/preparation-of-sers-active-substrates-based-on-graphene-oxide-silver-nanocomposites-for-rapid-zdetection-of-l-theanine
#17
Huajun Zheng, Dejiang Ni, Zhi Yu, Pei Liang
A kind of graphene oxide/silver (GO/Ag) nanocomposites with high Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity were fabricated via a facile and green liquid phase reduction method. The synthesized materials were characterized in detail using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. In this method, the GO sheets worked as a holder which makes silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregate to a particular morphology, and under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the surface of GO were obtained, which could generate more "hot spots" of SERS...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649883/l-theanine-attenuates-cadmium-induced-neurotoxicity-through-the-inhibition-of-oxidative-damage-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation
#18
Peiling Ben, Zhengping Zhang, Yanyan Zhu, Aiying Xiong, Yanhong Gao, Jianyun Mu, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Cadmium (Cd) has long been known to induce neurological degenerative disorders. We studied effects of l-theanine, one of the major amino acid components in green tea, on Cd-induced brain injury in mice. Male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with l-theanine (100 or 200mg/kg/day) or saline and after one hour these mice were orally administrated with CdCl2 (3.75-6mg/kg). The treatment was conducted for 8 weeks. l-Theanine significantly reduced Cd level in the mouse brain and plasma. Cd-induced neuronal cell death in the mouse cortex and hippocampus were apparently inhibited by l-theanine treatment...
September 17, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623718/new-phytochemicals-as-potential-human-anti-aging-compounds-reality-promise-and-challenges
#19
Rúbia C G Corrêa, Rosane M Peralta, Charles W I Haminiuk, Giselle Maria Maciel, Adelar Bracht, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin, and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds...
September 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612630/theanine-from-tea-and-its-semi-synthetic-derivative-tbrc-suppress-human-cervical-cancer-growth-and-migration-by-inhibiting-egfr-met-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#20
Jiannan Liu, Yuping Sun, Huarong Zhang, Dexin Ji, Fei Wu, Huihui Tian, Kun Liu, Ying Zhang, Benhao Wu, Guoying Zhang
Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. Theanine from tea and its derivatives show some anticancer activities. However, the role of theanine and its derivatives against human cervical cancer and the molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we aim to investigate the anticancer activities and underlying mechanisms of theanine and a theanine derivative, ethyl 6-bromocoumarin-3- carboxylyl L-theanine (TBrC), against human cervical cancer. In vitro and in vivo assays for cancer cell growth and migration have confirmed the inhibition of the cell growth and migration by TBrC and theanine in highly-metastatic human cervical cancer...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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