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Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dehong Liu, Huixia Zhou, Lifei Ma, Xiaoguang Zhou, Hualin Cao, Tian Tao, Xiaolong Luo, Shaojun Chen
OBJECTIVE: The choice of different laparoscopic approaches of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in children remains controversial. We present comparison of different approaches of LP in children and critical analysis of 11-year experiences in a single-surgeon. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 1750 Patients (1889 sides) who underwent LP between 2003 and 2014 were reviewed. The diagnosis and outcomes of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) were reviewed based on clinical and imaging data...
October 17, 2016: Urology
Katarzyna Górska, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Małgorzata Proboszcz, Rafał Krenke
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) seems a promising asthma biomarker. In earlier studies, mainly the serum concentration of TSLP was investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the TSLP concentration measured by two different ELISA kits in the serum, induced sputum, and exhaled breath condensate in asthma, COPD, and control subjects. The study included 24 asthmatics, 36 patients with COPD, and 12 controls. TSLP concentration was measured with the use of R&D and EIAab commercial ELISA kits. The results obtained with the EIAab kit were 3 to even 45-fold higher than those measured with the R&D kit...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Steven J Van Dyken, Jesse C Nussbaum, Jinwoo Lee, Ari B Molofsky, Hong-Erh Liang, Joshua L Pollack, Rachel E Gate, Genevieve E Haliburton, Chun J Ye, Alexander Marson, David J Erle, Richard M Locksley
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and CD4(+) type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) are defined by their similar effector cytokines, which together mediate the features of allergic immunity. We found that tissue ILC2s and TH2 cells differentiated independently but shared overlapping effector function programs that were mediated by exposure to the tissue-derived cytokines interleukin 25 (IL-25), IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Loss of these three tissue signals did not affect lymph node priming, but abrogated the terminal differentiation of effector TH2 cells and adaptive lung inflammation in a T cell-intrinsic manner...
October 17, 2016: Nature Immunology
Eun-Ju Choi, Trishna Debnath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Bae Ryu, Sang-Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions and has been used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaf was investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were used for cytokines and MAPKinase assay. In the in vivo study, M. oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MO) was topically applied to BALB/c mice with Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract)- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)...
October 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Julie A Poposki, Aiko I Klingler, Whitney W Stevens, Anju T Peters, Kathryn E Hulse, Leslie C Grammer, Robert P Schleimer, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie S Smith, Douglas M Sidle, David B Conley, Bruce K Tan, Robert C Kern, Atsushi Kato
RATIONALE: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is known to be elevated and truncated in nasal polyps (NPs) of chronic rhinosinusitis and might play a significant role in type 2 inflammation in this disease. However, neither the structure nor the role of the truncated products of TSLP has been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms of truncation of TSLP in NPs and the function of the truncated products. METHODS: We incubated recombinant human TSLP with NP extracts, and determined the protein sequence of the truncated forms of TSLP using Edman protein sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Leon A Sokulsky, Adam M Collison, Scott Nightingale, Anna Le Fevre, Elizabeth Percival, Malcolm R Starkey, Philip M Hansbro, Paul S Foster, Joerg Mattes
INTRODUCTION: Food antigens are common inflammatory triggers in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) promotes eosinophilic inflammation through the upregulation of Midline (MID)-1 and subsequent downregulation of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) but the role of this pathway in EoE that is experimentally induced by repeated food antigen challenges has not been investigated. METHODS: Esophageal mucosal biopsies were collected from children with EoE and controls and assessed for TRAIL and MID-1 protein and mRNA transcript levels...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Magdalena Paplińska-Goryca, Patrycja Nejman-Gryz, Katarzyna Górska, Katarzyna Białek-Gosk, Joanna Hermanowicz-Salamon, Rafał Krenke
Asthma and COPD are the most common obstructive lung diseases characterized by inflammation in the lower airways which contribute to airflow limitation. Different inflammatory mediators are thought to play a key role in these diseases. This study was conducted in 13 patients with asthma, 12 patients with COPD, and 13 control subjects. The expression of mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, CXCL8, TSLP, IL-33, IL-25, IL-17, ECP, mast cell tryptase, CCL24, and CCL26 was assessed in induced sputum cells by real time PCR. We found that CXCL8 was strongly related to the neutrophil percentage but differed significantly in COPD and asthma patients...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A Heratizadeh, T Werfel
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multi-factorial and complex. Consequently, clinical signs and symptoms vary strongly depending on individually relevant trigger factors and the stage of the disease. So far, treatment of AD was commonly limited to topical treatment or, in more severe cases, to systemic drugs mostly approved for other indications than AD. However, emerging data on new anti-inflammatory agents have been published in the recent years. As these new substances specifically focus on immune responses in AD, these are partially considered as possible "break-through" in the treatment of AD...
October 13, 2016: Allergy
Mi-Young Son, Young-Dae Kim, Binna Seol, Mi-Ok Lee, Hee-Jun Na, Bin Yoo, Jae-Suk Chang, Yee Sook Cho
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory and multisystemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Due to the lack of a specific test for BD, its diagnosis is very difficult, and therapeutic options are limited. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which provides inaccessible disease-relevant cell types, opens a new era for disease treatment. Here, we generated BD iPSCs from patient somatic cells and differentiated them into hematopoietic precursor cells (BD iPSC-HPCs) as BD model cells...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Jae Hyon Park, Dong Yeon Jeong, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Proinflammatory cytokines are thought to modulate pathogeneses of various inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which has been studied in various allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), has been less considered to be involved in IBDs. However, mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) induced by various cytokines including TSLP were reported to cause polarization of T cell toward Th2 response, the differentiation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), and secretion of IgA by B cells...
October 1, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Ishan Goswami, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Ryan G Morrison, Irving C Allen, Rafael V Davalos, Scott S Verbridge, Lissett R Bickford
Low-level electric fields have been demonstrated to induce spatial re-distribution of cell membrane receptors when applied for minutes or hours. However, there is limited literature on the influence on cell signaling with short transient high-amplitude pulses typically used in irreversible electroporation (IRE) for cancer treatment. Moreover, literature on signaling pertaining to immune cell trafficking after IRE is conflicting. We hypothesized that pulse parameters (field strength and exposure time) influence cell signaling and subsequently impact immune-cell trafficking...
September 25, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Fleurieke Verhagen, Jonas Kuiper, Stefan Nierkens, S M Imhof, Timothy Radstake, Joke de Boer
OBJECTIVE: In this report we describe, for the first time, the activation of the peripheral immune compartment in a patient with a CRB1 linked retinal degenerative disease, masquerading as intermediate uveitis. METHODS: To monitor the immune system during systemic immunosuppressive treatment, given for the initial diagnosis of intermediate uveitis, blood samples were taken before and during therapy, for analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-subsets and circulating immune mediators...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Mingyuan Han, Jun Young Hong, Suraj Jaipalli, Charu Rajput, Jing Lei, Joanna L Hinde, Qiang Chen, Natalie M Hershenson, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
Early-life wheezing-associated infections with rhinovirus (RV) have been associated with asthma development in children. We have shown that RV infection of six day-old mice induces mucous metaplasia and airways hyperresponsiveness which is dependent on IL-13, IL-25 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Infection of immature mice fails to induce lung IFN-γ expression, in contrast to mature 8 week-old mice with a robust IFN-γ response, consistent with the notion that deficient IFN-γ production in immature mice permits RV-induced type 2 immune responses...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Naomi Takahashi, Makoto Sugaya, Hiraku Suga, Tomonori Oka, Makiko Kawaguchi, Tomomitsu Miyagaki, Hideki Fujita, Shinichi Sato
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) activates dendritic cells to induce Th2-mediated inflammation. Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein produced by fibroblasts, induces chronic inflammation by stimulating TSLP production. Recently, a reinforcing cycle linking Th2-type immune responses with periostin-induced keratinocyte activation has been proposed in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of TSLP and periostin in the development of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), where Th2 cytokines and chemokines are also dominant...
September 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Fiorella Di Claudio, Cecilia Muglia, Paola Smaldini, María Lucía Orsini Delgado, Fernando Trejo, Raúl Grigera, Guillermo Docena
Intestinal epithelial cell culture is important for biological, functional and immunological studies. Since enterocytes have a short in vivo life span due to anoikis, we aimed to establish a novel and reproducible method to prolong the survival of mouse and human cells. Cells were isolated following a standard procedure, and cultured on ordered-cow's collagen membranes. A prolonged cell life span was achieved; cells covered the complete surface of bio-membranes and showed a classical enterocyte morphology with high expression of enzymes supporting the possibility of cryopreservation...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cristina Ghirelli, Benjamin Sadacca, Fabien Reyal, Raphaël Zollinger, Paula Michea, Philémon Sirven, Lucia Pattarini, Carolina Martínez-Cingolani, Maude Guillot-Delost, André Nicolas, Alix Scholer-Dahirel, Vassili Soumelis
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that primes dendritic cells for Th2 induction. It has been implicated in different types of allergic diseases. Recent work suggested that TSLP could play an important role in the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression, in particular in breast cancer. In this study we systematically assessed the production of TSLP at the mRNA and protein levels in several human breast cancer cell lines, large-scale public transcriptomics data sets, and primary human breast tumors...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
Maude Guillot-Delost, Lia Guilleré, Frédérique Berger, Aurore Ventre, Paula Michea, Philémon Sirven, Lucia Pattarini, Alix Scholer-Dahirel, Fatima-Zahra Kebir, Michel Huerre, Olfa Chouchane-Mlik, Emmanuelle Lappartient, José Rodriguez, Thomas Jouffroy, Jerzy Klijanienko, André Nicolas, Xavier Sastre-Garau, Sofia Honorio, Véronique Mosseri, Nelly Le Peltier, Marie-Paule Sablin, Christophe Le Tourneau, Éric Tartour, Cécile Badoual, Vassili Soumelis
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL)-7-like cytokine expressed by epithelial cells during allergic inflammation, and activating dendritic cells (DC). Its expression and functional role in cancer remain controversial. We conducted retrospective (n = 89), and prospective studies including patients with untreated primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We found that TSLP was overexpressed by HNSCC tumor cells, and associated with a highly differentiated status. However, no significant difference in overall and recurrence-free survival was found between patients bearing a tumor with high and low TSLP levels, respectively...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Kazunari Sugita, Cezmi A Akdis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of biological therapies has rapidly progressed during the last few years, and major advances were reported for the treatment of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, food allergy, and asthma. Here, we review biologicals targeting the type 2 immune response involving Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, natural killer T cells, mast cells, basophils, and epithelial cells, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Hong-Tao Li, Zhuang-Gui Chen, Hui Liu, Jin Ye, Xiao-Ling Zou, Yan-Hong Wang, Hai-Ling Yang, Ping Meng, Tian-Tuo Zhang
PURPOSE: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a critical regulator of immune responses associated with Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammation. Intranasal administration of oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG motifs (CpG-ODNs) might improve lower airway outcomes of combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS), but the inherent mechanisms of CpG-ODNs are not well defined. This study investigated whether CpG-ODNs treated to upper airway could reduce lower airway TSLP expression as well as whether this reduction could contribute to the alleviation of lower allergic inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) in CARAS mice...
August 2016: Experimental Lung Research
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