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Lipotechoic acid

Elisabeth Müller, Panagiotis F Christopoulos, Sanjib Halder, Anna Lunde, Kahsai Beraki, Martin Speth, Inger Øynebråten, Alexandre Corthay
Tumor-associated macrophages may either promote or suppress tumor growth depending on their activation status. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been identified as a key factor for inducing tumoricidal M1 phenotype in macrophages. However, it remains unclear whether IFN-γ is sufficient or if additional stimuli are required. Here, we tested IFN-γ and a panel of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists for the ability to activate murine macrophages toward a tumoricidal M1 phenotype. The following TLR ligands were used: TLR1/TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4, TLR2/TLR6 agonist lipotechoic acid, TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR5 agonist flagellin, TLR7 agonist CL264, and TLR9 agonist CpG...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Scott Alper, Laura A Warg, Lesly De Arras, Brenna R Flatley, Elizabeth J Davidson, Jenni Adams, Keith Smith, Christine L Wohlford-Lenane, Paul B McCray, Brent S Pedersen, David A Schwartz, Ivana V Yang
Host variation in Toll-like receptors and other innate immune signaling molecules alters infection susceptibility. However, only a portion of the variability observed in the innate immune response is accounted for by known genes in these pathways. Thus, the identification of additional genes that regulate the response to Gram positive bacteria is warranted. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from 43 inbred mouse strains were stimulated with lipotechoic acid (LTA), a major component of the Gram positive bacterial cell wall...
September 2016: Genetics
Liaqat Ali, Meike Spiess, Dominique Wobser, Marta Rodriguez, Hubert E Blum, Türkân Sakιnç
Most bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to disease pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system and are also involved in inhibiting leukocyte killing. In the present study, we identified a gene in Enterococcus faecium U0317 with homologies to the polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CapD that is made up of 336 amino acids and putatively catalyzes N-linked glycosylation. A capD deletion mutant was constructed and complemented by homologous recombination that was confirmed by PCR and sequencing...
January 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
S Thapa, E Nagy, M F Abdul-Careem
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognized by the TLRs resulting in induction of host innate immune responses. One of the PAMPs that binds to TLR2 and cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 is lipotechoic acid (LTA), which activates downstream signals culminating in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether in ovo LTA delivery leads to the induction of antiviral responses against post-hatch infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection...
April 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Patrícia Terra Alves, Patrícia Tiemi Fujimura, Léa Duarte da Silva Morais, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
The cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) is a key molecule of the innate immunity. This pattern recognition receptor binds mainly to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipotechoic acid (LTA), arachidonic acid, and thus induces the releases various cytokines, as a defense mechanism. Several studies suggest that different regions of the amino-terminal portion of the molecule may be involved in the LPS binding; however, controversial results on the recognition sequence still persist. In this work, functional epitopes of the CD14 molecule were mapped through Phage Display by using a 7-mer conformational constrained random peptide library against a monoclonal antibody anti-soluble CD14-fraction ST and a polyclonal anti-CD14...
November 2014: Immunobiology
Eliran Moshe Reuven, Mohammad Ali, Etai Rotem, Roland Schwarzer, Roland Schwarzter, Andrea Gramatica, Anthony H Futerman, Yechiel Shai
HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models...
August 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Jian Jing, Ivana V Yang, Lucy Hui, Jay A Patel, Christopher M Evans, Rytis Prikeris, Lester Kobzik, Brian P O'Connor, David A Schwartz
Macrophages play a key role in host defense against microbes, in part, through phagocytosis. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a scavenger receptor on the cell surface of macrophages that mediates opsonin-independent phagocytosis. The goal of our study is to investigate the role of MARCO in LPS or lipotechoic acid-induced macrophage tolerance. Although it has been established that expression of MARCO and phagocytosis is increased in tolerant macrophages, the transcriptional regulation and biological role of MARCO in tolerant macrophages have not been investigated...
June 15, 2013: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Di Wang, Pei-Ling Xiao, Hua-Xin Duan, Ming Zhou, Jin Liu, Wei Li, Ke-Lin Luo, Jian-Jun Chen, Jin-Yue Hu
The innate immune system coordinates the inflammatory response to pathogens. To do so, its cells must discriminate self from non-self utilizing receptors that identify molecules synthesized exclusively by microbes. Toll- like receptors have a crucial role in the detection of microbial infection in mammals and insects. In mammals, they have evolved to recognize conserved products unique to microbial metabolism. These include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipotechoic acids, and peptidoglycans (PGN). We show here that TLRs, including TLR2, are expressed on the THP-1 human leukemia cell line...
2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Omri Faingold, Tomer Cohen, Yechiel Shai
To thrive in the human body, HIV fuses to its target cell and evades the immune response via several mechanisms. The fusion cascade is initiated by the fusion peptide (FP), which is located at the N-terminal of gp41, the transmembrane protein of HIV. Recently, it has been shown that the HIV-1 FP, particularly its 5-13 amino acid region (FP(5-13)), suppresses T-cell activation and interacts with the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. Specific amino acid motifs often contribute to such interactions in TMDs of membrane proteins...
September 28, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Paul H Wooley, Zheng Song, Andrew Harrison
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the biocompatibility profiles of hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplements from avian and non-mammalian sources. Inflammatory and immune reactions were assessed in models of both clinically relevant and stringent immunological exposure conditions. Experiments were conducted to evaluate tissue reactions and immunological responses and assess antibody formation with the capacity to bind directly to and cross-react with the different viscosupplements. Mice were exposed to viscosupplements using the air pouch inflammation model and specific immunization using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)...
April 2012: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
L Stevceva
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responsible for detecting invading pathogens. About 13 TLRs are currently known to be expressed (see Table 1). TLR2 detects lipotechoic acid and bacterial lipoproteins, TLR4 recognizes LPS, TLR5, flagellin and TLR3 detects double-stranded RNA. The unmethylated CPG DNA of bacteria and viruses is detected by TLR9. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded RNA of viruses. TLR 11 in mice recognizes profillin from Toxoplasma gondii. Binding to TLRs expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) can trigger adaptive immune responses and DCs thus serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity...
2011: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Paul F Lindholm, Kyle Annen, Glenn Ramsey
The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion...
February 2011: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Paul F Lindholm, Kyle Annen, Glenn Ramsey
The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion...
August 10, 2010: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Jessica R Nerren, Haiqi He, Kenneth Genovese, Michael H Kogut
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune response of mammalian and avian species. While most mammalian TLRs have been well characterized, the chicken-specific TLR15 has not been extensively studied. We recently demonstrated that TLR15 is differentially expressed between Salmonella-susceptible-and-resistant chickens, indicating a potential role in the innate immune response to infection with Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to gain better insight into the nature of the ligand for TLR15 by characterizing gene expression patterns of TLR15 by heterophils in response to numerous bacterial-derived TLR agonists LPS, flagellin, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, lipotechoic acid (LTA), peptidoglycan (PGN), and Pam3CSK4 (PAM), stimulation with live Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE-used as a positive control), chicken isolates of Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus gallinarum (EG), the equine-specific pathogen Rhodococcus equi, and stimulation with heat-killed, and formalin-killed SE, EC, and EG...
July 2010: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jeremy A Mount, Niel A Karrow, Jeff L Caswell, Herman J Boermans, Ken E Leslie
During intramammary infections pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) induce an inflammatory response, recognized clinically as mastitis. Recognition of PAMPs by mammary cells leads to the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. These cytokines augment the secretion of various chemokines that are responsible for directing the host cellular immune response, and consequently the outcome of infection. Previous research has shown that gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria elicit different types of innate immune responses...
January 2009: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Song-yi Yao, Mohammed Soutto, Subramaniam Sriram
We examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipotechoic acid (LTA) on the regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha on the MO3.13 cells, a human oligodendroglial cell line. Our study shows that MO3.13 cells express the toll like receptors (TLR's) but do not increase cellular levels of HIF-1 alpha following exposure to bacterial cell wall products. When MO3.13 cells were preconditioned by desferrioxamine (DFO) or cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and then treated with either LPS or LTA, HIF-1 alpha levels were higher than that induced by DFO or CoCl(2) alone...
August 30, 2008: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Archana S Gandhe, Serene H John, Javaregowda Nagaraju
Insect immune system comprises of both humoral and cellular defenses. Nodulation is one of the major, yet very poorly understood cellular responses against microbial infections in insects. Through screening for novel immune genes from an Indian saturniid silkmoth Antheraea mylitta, we identified a protein up-regulated in hemolymph within minutes upon bacterial challenge. We have shown here, for first time, the involvement of this novel protein in mediating nodulation response against bacteria and hence designated it as Noduler...
November 15, 2007: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
M Y K Leung, C Liu, J C M Koon, K P Fung
Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or polysaccharide in nature. The receptors for these exogeneous BRMs are pattern recognition receptors. The binding of exogeneous BRMs to pattern recognition receptors triggers immune response...
June 15, 2006: Immunology Letters
Annika Weber, Allen T Weber, Thomas L McDonald, Marilynn A Larson
Mastitis is one of the most costly diseases of agriculturally important animals and is a common problem for lactating cows. Current methods used to detect clinical and especially subclinical mastitis are either inadequate or problematic. Pathogens such as the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus or the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli typically cause mastitis. E. coli induces clinical mastitis, whereas, S. aureus causes a subclinical, chronic infection of the mammary gland. In this study we report the differential expression and secretion of mammary-derived serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) by bovine mammary epithelial cells following stimulation with the S...
January 15, 2006: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
P N Madianos, Y A Bobetsis, D F Kinane
OBJECTIVES: The primary aetiologic factor of periodontal disease is the bacterial biofilm. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria possess a plethora of structural or secreted components that may cause direct destruction to periodontal tissues or stimulate host cells to activate a wide range of inflammatory responses. These responses are intended to eliminate the microbial challenge, but may often cause further tissue damage. METHODS: This review has been divided into three parts: (a) bacterial virulence factors, which includes basic information on bacterial virulence factors, and the principle inflammatory responses that host cells elicit against these factors, (b) main receptors and signalling pathways, which includes basic information about the main receptors that interact with the bacterial virulence factors, the nature of these interactions, and the activated signalling pathways that lead to inflammatory responses, and (c) initiation of inflammation, which includes a model by which the virulence factors may interact with host cells and lead to inflammatory responses in the gingiva...
2005: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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