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Hospital acquired infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917174/-disinfection-of-injection-ports-a-systematic-overview-of-optimal-scrub-time
#1
Lars Breimer, Håkan Geijer, Lars Berggren
Central venous catheter bloodstream infections are an important cause of hospital-acquired infection with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. The incidence varies between countries and even hospitals. Needleless connector hubs are used on virtually all intravascular devices and colonization of these is considered the cause of much of the postinsertion catheter-related infections through breaks in aseptic technique and failure to disinfect properly. This systematic review evaluated 165 search hits on hub disinfection practices with particular emphasis on the time of scrubbing the connector for 15 sec but also the impact of measures of education and compliance...
June 15, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914961/activity-of-telavancin-against-s-aureus-isolated-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients-including-those-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-ceftaroline
#2
Melanie Roch, Maria Celeste Varela, Agustina Taglialegna, Warren E Rose, Adriana E Rosato
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- associated S...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913550/phylotyping-based-virulence-associated-genes-and-drug-susceptibility-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-urinary-tract-infection-patients
#3
Ahmad Farajzadah Sheikh, Sajad Aslani, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Mansour Amin, Hamed Goodarzi, Nabi Jomehzadeh, Reza Ranjbar, Mina Moradzadeh, Samireh Azarpira, Mohammad Moradi, Mohamad Hashemzadeh
Different E.coli phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) through possess four functional groups; (I) adhesins , (II) microcins , (III) toxins , and (IV) capsule can be caused urinary tract infections. Special phylogenetic group with high virulence content become a worldwide health concern. Resistance to antimicrobial agents increasingly complicates the management of extraintestinal infections due to E.coli , which are a major source of illness, death, and increased healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determination of virulence content and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of different Uropathogenic E...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913479/prioritizing-and-modelling-of-putative-drug-target-proteins-of-candida-albicans-by-systems-biology-approach
#4
Tariq Ismail, Nighat Fatima, Syed Aun Muhammad, Syed Saoud Zaidi, Nisar Rehman, Izhar Hussain, Najam Us Sahr Tariq, Imran Amirzada, Abdul Mannan
Candida albicans (Candida albicans) is one of the major sources of nosocomial infections in humans which may prove fatal in 30% of cases. The hospital acquired infection is very difficult to treat affectively due to the presence of drug resistant pathogenic strains, therefore there is a need to find alternative drug targets to cure this infection. In silico and computational level frame work was used to prioritize and establish antifungal drug targets of Candida albicans. The identification of putative drug targets was based on acquiring 5090 completely annotated genes of Candida albicans from available databases which were categorized into essential and non-essential genes...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912846/dissemination-of-the-methicillin-resistance-staphylococcus-aureus-pediatric-clone-st5-t002-iv-pvl-as-a-major-cause-of-community-associated-staphylococcal-infections-in-bedouin-children-southern-israel
#5
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912033/analysis-of-healthcare-institutional-costs-of-pediatric-home-parenteral-nutrition-central-line-infections
#6
Bram P Raphael, Christina Hazenkamp, Mihail Samnaliev, Al Ozonoff
BACKGROUND: While previous literature suggests home parenteral nutrition (HPN) dependent children experience frequent complications like community acquired central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), few studies have characterized the cost. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate institutional cost of community-acquired CLABSI in pediatric HPN patients. METHODS: This is a single center retrospective review of institutional costs for HPN patients with community-acquired CLABSI at a tertiary care children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911761/antibiotic-exposure-in-the-community-and-resistance-patterns-of-escherichia-coli-community-acquired-bloodstream-infection
#7
Bat-Sheva Gottesman, Pnina Shitrit, Michal Katzir, Michal Chowers
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance in the community results in greater use of empiric broad spectrum antibiotics for patients at hospital admission. As a measure of antibiotic stewardship it is important to identify a patient population that can receive narrow spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate resistance patterns of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection (BSI) from strictly community-acquired infection and the impact of recent antibiotic use on this resistance...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911753/consecutive-measures-of-crp-correlate-with-length-of-hospital-stay-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Raymond Farah, Rola Khamisy-Farah, Nicola Makhoul
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is crucial to its proper management and to combating antibiotic resistance. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to distinguish pneumonia from other pathological conditions and can be used to control the severity of infection during admission. OBJECTIVES: To investigate an association between consecutive measurements of CRP and the severity of CAP in hospitalized patients. METHODS: A total of 500 patients with CAP were admitted to the hospital...
June 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911488/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-and-infection-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-university-hospital-in-china
#9
Fu Qiao, Wenzhi Huang, Lin Cai, Zhiyong Zong, Weijia Yin
Objective This study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and during the ICU stay in mainland China. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in a 50-bed general ICU of a 4300-bed teaching hospital in China from 2011 to 2013. Nasal swabs for MRSA detection were obtained upon ICU admission and at discharge for patients having stayed in the ICU for longer than 3 days...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910564/early-results-of-fecal-microbial-transplantation-protocol-implementation-at-a-community-based-university-hospital
#10
Rodrigo Duarte-Chavez, Thomas R Wojda, Thomas B Zanders, Berhanu Geme, Gloria Fioravanti, Stanislaw P Stawicki
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a serious and increasingly prevalent healthcare-associated infection. The pathogenesis of CD infection (CDI) involves the acquisition of CD with a concurrent disruption of the native gut flora. Antibiotics are a major risk although other contributing factors have also been identified. Clinical management combines discontinuation of the offending antibiotic, initiation of CD-specific antibiotic therapy, probiotic agent use, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and surgery as the "last resort" option...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910547/diagnosing-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-do-the-guidelines-help
#11
REVIEW
Sai Saran, Namrata S Rao, Afzal Azim
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in hospitalized patients in medical and surgical wards, but it is still commonly underdiagnosed in critically ill patients despite a higher device usage rate. The most commonly employed diagnostic criteria for such diagnosis come from the Infectious Disease Society of America and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health Safety Network surveillance definition. It is surprising that no separate diagnostic criteria of CAUTI exist, for the critically ill patients - though these patients are of a different class of patients' altogether, due to decreased immunity, existence on multiple organ supports, and invasive lines, and an inability to communicate with a clinician...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909051/early-prophylactic-antibiotics-for-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-a-nationwide-database-in-japan
#12
Kazuhiko Nakaharai, Kojiro Morita, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies evaluating the clinical benefits of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have generated inconsistent results due to heterogeneities among the study settings. We determined if early prophylactic antibiotics improved the outcomes of SAP patients using a study designed to overcome these previous methodological weaknesses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SAP patients discharged between July 2010 and March 2016, using a Japanese nationwide inpatient database...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909005/accuracy-of-sensititre-yeastone-echinocandins-epidemiological-cut-off-values-for-identification-of-fks-mutant-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-a-ten-year-national-survey-of-the-fungal-infection-network-of-switzerland-funginos
#13
A Kritikos, D Neofytos, N Khanna, P W Schreiber, K Boggian, J Bille, J Schrenzel, K Mühlethaler, R Zbinden, T Bruderer, D Goldenberger, G Pfyffer, A Conen, C Van Delden, S Zimmerli, D Sanglard, D Bachmann, O Marchetti, F Lamoth
OBJECTIVES: Echinocandins represent the first-line treatment of candidemia. Acquired echinocandin resistance is mainly observed among Candida albicans and glabrata and is associated with FKS hotspot mutations. The commercial Sensititre YeastOneTM (SYO) kit is widely used for antifungal susceptibility testing, but interpretive clinical breakpoints are not well defined. We determined echinocandins epidemiological cut-off values (ECV) for C. albicans/glabrata tested by SYO and assessed their ability to identify FKS mutants in a national survey of candidemia...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908251/management-and-outcomes-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-at-a-south-african-referral-hospital-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Nicola Steinhaus, Mohammed Al-Talib, Prudence Ive, Tom Boyles, Colleen Bamford, Mary-Ann Davies, Marc Mendelson, Sean Wasserman
OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence exists on the management and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of South African patients with SAB, and explore the factors associated with complicated infection and death. METHOD: A prospective observational study of patients over the age of 13 years admitted to a South African referral hospital with SAB. RESULTS: One hundred SAB infection episodes occurring in 98 patients were included...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907877/electroporation-mediated-delivery-of-fer-gene-enhances-innate-immune-response-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-pneumonia
#15
Vladislav Dolgachev, Sreehari Panicker, Sanjay Balijepalli, Lane Kelly McCandless, Yue Yin, Samantha Swamy, M V Suresh, Matthew J Delano, Mark R Hemmila, Krishnan Raghavendran, David Machado-Aranda
Previously, we reported that electroporation-mediated (EP) delivery of the FER gene improved survival in a combined trauma-pneumonia model. The mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. In this paper, we performed a pneumonia model in C57/BL6 mice with 500 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae. After inoculation, a plasmid encoding human FER was delivered by EP into the lung (PNA/pFER-EP). Survival of FER-treated vs. controls (PNA; PNA/EP-pcDNA) was recorded. In parallel cohorts, bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were harvested at 24 and 72 h with markers of infection measured...
June 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907198/chlorhexidine-bathing-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#16
Lan N Bui, Joshua T Swan, Beverly A Shirkey, Randall J Olsen, Scott W Long, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common causative pathogen for hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit. This study evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine bathing every other day in preventing hospital-acquired C. difficile infection (CDI) using data from the CHlorhexidine Gluconate BATHing (CHG-BATH) randomized trial. METHODS: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients acquiring CDIs among patients at risk for incident CDIs. Infections detected >48 h after randomization were classified as incident CDIs...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907162/schistosomiasis-in-immigrants-refugees-and-travellers-in-an-italian-referral-centre-for-tropical-diseases
#17
Valentina Marchese, Anna Beltrame, Andrea Angheben, Geraldo Badona Monteiro, Giovanni Giorli, Francesca Perandin, Dora Buonfrate, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases. If unrecognised and untreated, the chronic infection can lead to irreversible complications. METHODS: Retrospective observational study aimed at describing clinical history, laboratory findings and imaging presentation of imported schistosomiasis diagnosed at the Centre for Tropical Diseases, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital of Negrar, Verona, Italy from 2010 to 2014. The aim of our study was to assess differences in demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory data and ultrasound findings between immigrants/visiting friends and relatives (VFR) from endemic countries (endemic group) and expatriates/travellers (non-endemic group)...
June 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898575/vibrio-vulnificus-infection-a-persistent-threat-to-public-health
#18
Na Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim
Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause serious, potentially fatal infections. V. vulnificus causes three distinct syndromes: an overwhelming primary septicemia caused by consuming contaminated seafood, wound infections acquired when an open wound is exposed to contaminated warm seawater, and gastrointestinal tract-limited infections. Case-fatality rates are higher than 50% for primary septicemia, and death typically occurs within 72 hours of hospitalization. Risk factors for V. vulnificus infection include chronic liver disease, alcoholism, and hematological disorders...
June 15, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898483/nosokomiale-scabies-ausbruch-bei-personal-einer-universit%C3%A3-tsklinik
#19
Birgit Ross, Stefan Esser, Heike Engelberg, Andreas Körber
INTRODUCTION:  Outbreaks of scabies are common in community facilities, but rare in hospitals. We report the outbreak of scabies infestations in health care workers in a tertiary care hospital. DESCRIPTION OF THE OUTBREAK:  Five staff members developed a scabies infestation, confirmed by a dermatologist. The scabies was acquired obviously while treating a severe ill ICU patient, no other source of the infection could be detected. THERAPY:  All staff members were treated with Permethrine and Ivermectine...
June 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898010/helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-family-members-of-patients-with-gastroduodenal-symptoms-a-cross-sectional-analytical-study
#20
Ayse Palanduz, Levent Erdem, Birsen Durmaz Cetin, Nuran Gülgün Ozcan
BACKGROUND: Primary Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is acquired predominantly in childhood in the family setting. We aimed to investigate the presence of intrafamilial concurrent H. pylori infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Fifty adult patients with gastroduodenal symptoms who underwent gastroscopy (index parents), their spouses and their children were enrolled in the study...
June 4, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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