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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235431/using-targeted-solution-tools-as-an-initiative-to-improve-hand-hygiene-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#2
J A Al-Tawfiq, M Treble, R Abdrabalnabi, C Okeahialam, S Khazindar, S Myers
The Joint Commission Centre for Transforming Healthcare's Web-based Targeted Solutions Tool (TST) for improving hand hygiene was implemented to elucidate contributing factors to low compliance rates of hand hygiene. Monitoring of compliance was done by trained unknown and known observers and rates of hospital-acquired infections were tracked and correlated against the changes in hand hygiene compliance. In total, 5669 of hand hygiene observations were recorded by the secret observers. The compliance rate increased from 75·4% at baseline (May-August 2014) to 88·6% during the intervention (13 months) and the control periods (P < 0·0001)...
December 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234216/recommendations-from-the-2016-guidelines-for-the-management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-or-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#3
Samir T Kumar, Arsheena Yassin, Tanaya Bhowmick, Deepali Dixit
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continue to represent the most common nosocomial-associated infections, resulting in significant attributable mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and financial burden.1 The updated Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines provide guidance on the diagnosis and management of nonimmunocompromised hosts with HAP and VAP.
December 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234194/an-insight-into-antibiotic-resistance-to-bacterial-infection-in-chronic-liver-disease
#4
Mayank Jain, Joy Varghese, Tom Michael, Chandan Kumar Kedarishetty, Balajee G, Subramanian Swaminathan, Jayanthi Venkataraman
Background: End stage liver disease leads to immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection. There has been a rise in antibiotic resistant infections in these patients. There is scanty data f from India or idea regarding the same. Aim of the study: The present study was undertaken to determine the type of infection acquired and the prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary referral center in South India. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, all consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection were enrolled...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230717/utility-of-2-pyridine-aldoxime-methyl-chloride-2-pam-for-acute-organophosphate-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229634/genomic-insights-into-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-a-tunisian-teaching-hospital
#6
Nadia Jaidane, Rémy A Bonnin, Wejdene Mansour, Delphine Girlich, Elodie Creton, Garance Colleton, Cherifa Chaouch, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Thierry Naas
The emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CoRKp) is a public health concern since this antibiotic has become the last line of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negatives. In this study, we have investigated the molecular basis of colistin-resistance in 13 MDR Kp isolated from 12 patients in a teaching hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the molecular mechanism of colistin-resistance and to identify the resistome of these CoRKp It revealed a genome of ca...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228237/co-infections-in-hospitalized-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-what-does-this-mean-for-the-clinician
#8
Sheldon L Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#9
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225798/30-day-readmission-antibiotics-costs-and-costs-of-delay-to-adequate-treatment-of-enterobacteriaceae-uti-pneumonia-and-sepsis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Kate Sulham, Weihong Fan, Andrew F Shorr
Background: Enterobacteriaceae are common pathogens in pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infection (UTI). Though rare, carbapenem resistance (CRE) among these organisms complicates efforts to ensure adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy. In turn this negatively impacts such outcomes as mortality and hospital costs. We explored proportion of total costs represented by antibiotics, 30-day readmission rates, and per-day costs of inadequate antimicrobial coverage among patients with Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia, sepsis and/or UTI in the context of inappropriate (IET) vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225753/study-of-bacterial-flora-associated-with-mobile-phones-of-healthcare-workers-and-non-healthcare-workers
#11
Raghavendra Rao Morubagal, Sowmya Govindanahalli Shivappa, Rashmi Padmanabha Mahale, Sumana Mhadevaiah Neelambike
Background and Objectives: Despite improvements in modern diagnosis and therapies, hospital acquired infections remain a leading problem of global health systems. Healthcare workers mobile phones is a reservoir for potential pathogens. Despite the high possibility of being contaminated, mobile phones are rarely clean and are often touched during or after examination of patients and handling of specimens without proper hand washing. The main objective of the present study was to isolate, identify different types of bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity from mobile phones of healthcare workers and non-health-care workers...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#12
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223936/-relationship-between-crowding-and-community-acquired-skin-and-soft-tissues-infections
#13
Marcelo A Beltrán, Horacio J García Del Corro, Mónica Couso, María D Gallo, Antonio Lettieri, Patricia V Barna
The association of the spread of community infections with poverty and overcrowding is well known. In our hospital, located in José C. Paz, we assist sporadic cases of post-cesarean infections caused by community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CaMRSA). In a prospective study of families treated at our hospital, we investigated the relationship between a history of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and extreme overcrowding defined as households with unsatisfied basic needs type 3 (NBI 3)...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#14
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217093/risk-factors-for-the-appearance-of-secondary-foci-of-infection-in-children-with-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-cohort-study-2010-2016
#15
M Guadalupe Perez, Soledad Martiren, Florencia Escarra, Vanesa Reijtman, Alejandra Mastroianni, Ana Varela-Baino, Carola Cedillo, M Eva Garcia, Moira Taicz, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteraemia is a common cause of hospitalisation in children. The occurrence of secondary foci (SF) of SA infection is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for SF of infection in children with community-acquired SA bacteraemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort. All children aged from 30 days to 16 years admitted to a paediatric referral hospital between January 2010 and December 2016 for community-acquired infections, with SA isolated in blood cultures, were included...
December 4, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215475/an-effective-bundled-approach-reduces-surgical-site-infections-in-a-high-outlier-colorectal-unit
#16
Emre Gorgun, Ahmet Rencuzogullari, Volkan Ozben, Luca Stocchi, Thomas Fraser, Cigdem Benlice, Tracy Hull
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infection after colorectal surgery, increasing morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of preventive measures on colorectal surgical site infection rates in a high-volume institution that performs inherent high-risk procedures. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a high-volume, specialized colorectal surgery department...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215330/quantifying-hospital-acquired-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-in-dutch-hospitals
#17
Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Suzan P van Mens, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Marc J M Bonten
BACKGROUND Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are emerging worldwide. Contact precautions are recommended for known ESBL-E carriers to control the spread of ESBL-E within hospitals. OBJECTIVE This study quantified the acquisition of ESBL-E rectal carriage among patients in Dutch hospitals, given the application of contact precautions. METHODS Data were used from 2 cluster-randomized studies on isolation strategies for ESBL-E: (1) the SoM study, performed in 14 Dutch hospitals from 2011 through 2014 and (2) the R-GNOSIS study, for which data were limited to those collected in a Dutch hospital in 2014...
December 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214004/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-antigen-positivity-among-hiv-infected-patient-with-cd4-cell-count-less-than-100-of-imam-khomeini-hospital-tehran-iran
#18
Mahboobeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Saeed Kalantari, Mahin Jamshidi-Makiani, Esfandiar Shojaei, Ladan Abbasian, Mehrnaz Rasoulinezhad, Katayoun Tayeri
Background and Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the main opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the present and increasingly availability of specific treatment for cryptococcosis, the mortality rate of this infection is still high, particularly in patients with advanced immunsupression and advanced cryptococcal diseases. Materials and Methods: This Prospective Cohort study was conducted at Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213999/genetic-and-phenotypic-study-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-patients-and-health-care-workers-in-mansoura-university-hospital-egypt
#19
Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Maysaa Elsayed Zaki, Mohamed Farag Kamel
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is common pathogen that is associated with many hospital acquired infections. The virulence of S. aureus is identified with resistance to antibiotics especially to methicillin. Therefore the aims of the present study were to detect the carrier rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among health care Workers (HCWs) and patients and to compare use of specific chromogenic agar for MRSA culture with PCR for detection of MRSA genes...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#20
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
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