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Bharat Bhushan, S K Tomar, Arun Chauhan
An appropriate selection of Lactobacillus strain (probiotic/starter/functional) on the basis of its techno-functional characteristics is required before developing a novel fermented functional food. We compared vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin) producing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, BHM10 and BCF20, for functional (vitamin over-production, genomic insight to B12 structural genes, and probiotic attributes) and technological [milks (skim and soy) fermentation and B12 bio-fortification] characteristics. Addition of B12 precursors (5-amonolevulinate and dimethylbenzimidazole) to cobalamin-free fermentation medium increased vitamin production in BHM10, BCF20, and DSM20016 (a positive standard) by 3...
October 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hirohiko Nakae, Ayumi Tsuda, Takashi Matsuoka, Tetsuya Mine, Yasuhiro Koga
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the structure of the gastric microbiota in functional dyspepsia (FD) and its role in the pathophysiology. DESIGN: We compared the basic physiological properties of the gastric fluid (GF) and the structure of the microbiota in the GF of 44 healthy control (HC) participants and 44 patients with FD. We then treated the patients with FD with a yogurt containing a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 (LG21 yogurt) and investigated the effects on the bacteriological parameters and symptoms to examine the relationship between them...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Mansour Amin, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Mohammad Alhassan Hamidi, Mahin Najafian, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh
BACKGROUND: More than 50 different species of bacteria may live in a woman's vagina, with lactobacilli being the predominant microorganism found in healthy adult females. Lactobacilli are relevant as a barrier to infection and are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens, owing to competitive adherence to adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and their capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the inhibitory capability of Lactobacillus metabolites against Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Emilie Cauchie, Mathieu Gand, Gilles Kergourlay, Bernard Taminiau, Laurent Delhalle, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In order to control food losses and wastage, monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of some microorganisms which can lead to spoilage. Knowledge of this diversity can be greatly improved by using a metagenetic approach based on high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which enables a much higher resolution than culture-based methods. Moreover, the Jameson effect, a phenomenon described by Jameson in 1962, is often used to classify bacterial strains within an ecosystem...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xiangfeng Meng, Tjaard Pijning, Justyna M Dobruchowska, Huifang Yin, Gerrit J Gerwig, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
The glucansucrase GTFA of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 produces an α-glucan (reuteran) with a large amount of alternating (α1 → 4) and (α1 → 6) linkages. The mechanism of alternating linkage formation by this reuteransucrase has remained unclear. GTFO of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 shows a high sequence similarity (80%) with GTFA of L. reuteri 121; it also synthesizes an α-glucan with (α1 → 4) and (α1 → 6) linkages, but with a clearly different ratio compared to GTFA...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
J L Chen, P Zheng, C Zhang, B Yu, J He, J Yu, J Q Luo, X B Mao, Z Q Huang, D W Chen
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid (BA) on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. Ninety weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: a basal diet (CON), the basal diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1) and 5000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). At the end of days 14 and 42, six pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect plasma and intestinal samples. Results showed that BA supplementation not only improved final body weight, daily growth and feed conversion ratio from days 15 to 42 and days 1 to 42, but also decreased the activity of plasma diamine oxidase (day 42) and the pH values of jejunal contents (day 14) (p < 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Zhipeng Li, Hui Jin, So Young Oh, Geun Eog Ji
Previous researchers have documented that probiotic bacteria can have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and improve metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effects of the probiotic bacteria are suggested to be strain dependent. In this study, two candidate lactobacteria strains, Lactobacillus casei IBS041, Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 and two bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI, were individually administered to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks. B...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Paul M Arnaboldi, Mariya Sambir, Christina D'Arco, Lauren A Peters, Jos F M L Seegers, Lloyd Mayer, Alison A McCormick, Raymond J Dattwyler
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Ludmila Khailova, Christine H Baird, Aubri A Rush, Christopher Barnes, Paul E Wischmeyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent clinical trials and in vivo models demonstrate probiotic administration can reduce occurrence and improve outcome of pneumonia and sepsis, both major clinical challenges worldwide. Potential probiotic benefits include maintenance of gut epithelial barrier homeostasis and prevention of downstream organ dysfunction due to systemic inflammation. However, mechanism(s) of probiotic-mediated protection against pneumonia remain poorly understood. This study evaluated potential mechanistic targets in the maintenance of gut barrier homeostasis following Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treatment in a mouse model of pneumonia...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Mehri Jamilian, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zahra Vahedpoor, Ali Salmani, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Jafari, Shahrzad Hashemi Dizaji, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Limited data is available on the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. The current study was carried out to determine the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 60 pregnant women aged 18-37 years. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30) received multispecies probiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) and group B (n = 30) received placebo from 9 weeks of gestation for a duration of 12 weeks...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Abdel-Naser Elzouki
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic bacteria capable of colonizing the colonic mucosa. The most common probiotics include strains of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria, which are part of the normal gastrointestinal microbiota. Initial studies of selected probiotic species have suggested potential efficacy in several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (particularly pouchitis), antibiotic-related diarrhea, Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis, infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Teresa Graziano, Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Elisabetta Raiteri, Mario Del Piano, Luca Mogna
GOALS: To investigate the possible use of Lactobacillus strains in the prophylaxis and/or adjuvant therapy of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis and other vaginal infections sustained by Candida yeasts. BACKGROUND: The incidence of Candida infections has substantially increased in recent years. Treatment of vaginal infections with lactobacilli has a long tradition, starting with Döderlein's description of the vaginal microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the activity of serially diluted fluconazole and miconazole (from 3 ng/mL to 1 mg/mL) against Candida strains...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Serena Allesina, Marco Pane, Teresa Graziano, Mario Del Piano, Luca Mogna
GOALS: This study was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of Lactobacillus fermentum LF5 (DSM 32277) to inhibit in vitro different Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis to weigh its potential effectiveness even in mixed vaginal infections. BACKGROUND: A wide female population is suffering from various vulvovaginal infections. These diseases are often associated with a decrease in the concentration of Lactobacilli in the vagina. Mixed vaginal infections represent >20% of women with vulvovaginal infection...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Alessia Cicenia, Floriana Santangelo, Lucrezia Gambardella, Lucia Pallotta, Valerio Iebba, Annunziata Scirocco, Massimo Marignani, Guglielmo Tellan, Marilia Carabotti, Enrico Stefano Corazziari, Serena Schippa, Carola Severi
BACKGROUND: Some beneficial effects of probiotics may be due to secreted probiotic-derived factors, identified as "postbiotic" mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supernatants harvested from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) cultures (ATCC53103 strain) protect colonic human smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myogenic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LGG was grown in de Man, Rogosa, Share medium at 37°C and samples were collected in middle and late exponential, stationary, and overnight phases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Luca Mogna, Francesca Deidda, Stefania Nicola, Angela Amoruso, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna
GOALS: To determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans against Klebsiella pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Klebsiella is ubiquitous in nature and may colonize the skin, the pharynx, or the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Despite the widespread use of antibiotic molecules with a broad spectrum in hospitalized patients, an increased overall load of klebsiellae as well as the subsequent development of multidrug-resistant strains able to synthesize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase have been registered...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yingying Hong, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Jiayi Zhang, Clayton K Collings, Ketaki Bhide, Kyle Schmidt, Paul D Ebner
Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of phage therapy in reducing foodborne pathogen carriage in food animals. Fewer studies have focused on host reactions, especially in terms of phage-mediated acute immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Here we administered E. coli O157:H7 phages in low (single dose of 10(5) PFU) or high (single dose of 10(7) PFU) quantities to mice. While there were time points at which cytokine levels in different treatment groups differed from one another, all cytokine levels remained within normal ranges for mice regardless of treatment...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
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