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Christa Kietz, Vilma Pollari, Annika Meinander
As several diseases have been linked to dysbiosis of the human intestinal microflora, manipulation of the microbiota has emerged as an exciting new strategy for potentially treating and preventing diseases. However, the human microbiota consists of a plethora of different species, and distinguishing the impact of a specific bacterial species on human health is challenging. In tackling this challenge, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, with its far simpler microbial composition, has emerged as a powerful model for unraveling host-microbe interactions...
June 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Asa Hatami, Chunni Zhu, Aroa Relaño-Gines, Chris Elias, Arpine Galstyan, Michael Jun, Ginger Milne, Charles R Cantor, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Mikhail S Shchepinov
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease which has no effective treatment and is characterized by psychiatric disorders, motor alterations, and dementia, with the cognitive deficits representing a devastating aspect of the disorder. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products are found in mouse models and patients with HD, suggesting that strategies to reduce LPO may be beneficial in HD. In contrast to traditional antioxidants, substituting hydrogen with deuterium at bis-allylic sites in polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFA) decreases the rate-limiting initiation step of PUFA autoxidation, a strategy that has shown benefits in other neurodegenerative diseases...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Journal
Seong Cheol Hong, Dhiraj P Murale, Se-Young Jang, Md Mamunul Haque, Minah Seo, Seok Lee, Deok Ha Woo, Junghoon Kwon, Chang-Seon Song, Yun Kyung Kim, Jun-Seok Lee
Avian Influenza (AI) caused an annual epidemic outbreak that led to destroying tens of millions of poultry worldwide. Current gold standard AI diagnosis method is an embryonic egg-based hemagglutination assay followed by immunoblotting or PCR sequencing to confirm subtypes. It requires, however, specialized facilities to handle egg inoculation and incubation, and the subtyping methods relied on costly reagents. Here, we demonstrated the first differential sensing approach to distinguish AI subtypes using series of cell lines and fluorescent sensor...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Hirra Hussain, David I Fisher, Robert G Roth, W Mark Abbott, Manuel Alejandro Carballo-Amador, Jim Warwicker, Alan J Dickson
Due in part to the needs of the biopharmaceutical industry, there has been an increased drive to generate high quality recombinant proteins in large amounts. However, achieving high yields can be a challenge as the novelty and increased complexity of new targets often makes them 'difficult-to-express'. This study aimed to define the molecular features that restrict the production of a model 'difficult-to-express' recombinant protein, Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Building from experimental data, computational approaches were used to rationalise the re-design of this recombinant target to generate a chimera with enhanced secretion...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
Emily J Rogalski, Becky Khayum
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical neurodegenerative dementia syndrome characterized by deficits in spoken and written word retrieval, word usage, and/or word comprehension. Currently, there are no effective treatments to reverse or halt the underlying disease process; however, speech-language therapy may be helpful. The Communication Bridge Care Model was developed to address the unique communication and quality of life needs of individuals living with PPA. The core elements include person-centered care with dyadic instruction for disease education, and counseling, along with tailored levels of impairment- and compensatory-based communication strategy training...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Aimee Mooney, Naomi Beale, Melanie Fried-Oken
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious language deterioration. This young-onset disorder leaves adults with reduced communication skills for participation in social activities. There is limited evidence regarding group treatment for individuals with PPA, though the principles of chronic aphasia groups can be applied to this clinical population. We developed a PPA group treatment model incorporating compensatory strategies from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), communication partner training from aphasia rehabilitation, and systematic instruction from dementia management...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Natalie Douglas, Jennifer Brush, Michelle Bourgeois
The current mandate for person-centered care throughout the health care system, and especially in the nursing home industry, requires that speech-language pathologists ensure that the services they provide to elders with dementia are skilled, person centered, and relevant to positive overall health outcomes. Guidelines developed by the Association Montessori International Advisory Board for Montessori for Aging and Dementia are one avenue toward such skilled and person-centered services. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with practical strategies for guiding their assessment, goal writing, and intervention plans to meet the expectations of a person-centered approach to services for elders with dementia, using the Montessori approach as a philosophical guide...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Alyssa Lanzi, Sarah E Wallace, Michelle S Bourgeois
Individuals with mild memory impairments often rely on external memory aids (EMAs) to compensate for impaired cognitive abilities and to support independent completion of activities of daily living. These strategies are evidence based; however, professionals have limited knowledge regarding individual preferences and guidance on how to incorporate a person-centered approach into the EMA development phase. The purpose of the current study was to qualitatively investigate individuals' preferences and experiences as they relate to EMAs...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Waldemar Schreiner, Sofiia Gavrychenkova, Wojciech Dudek, Sebastian Lettmaier, Ralf Rieker, Rainer Fietkau, Horia Sirbu
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of so called "salvage" resections after definitive chemoradiation vs. curative resections after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (IT-resection) in patients with stage IIIA/B locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer have rarely been compared. The aim of our study was to compare perioperative results, postoperative and recurrence-free survival and to identify relevant prognostic survival factors for both therapy strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 2008 and May 2017, 43 patients underwent pulmonary resection following induction therapy (group 1) and 14 patients underwent salvage resection after definitive chemoradiation (group 2)...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Rejane Reich, Eneida Rejane Rabelo-Silva, Simone Marques Dos Santos, Miriam de Abreu Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To map the production of knowledge on vascular access complications in patients undergoing percutaneous procedures in hemodynamic laboratories. METHODS: Scoping review study. The search strategy was developed in three stages, considering the period from July 2005 to July 2015 in the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases. The collected data were analyzed and summarized in a narrative form. RESULTS: One-hundred twenty-eight publications that made it possible to map the contexts of study of complications, occurrence according to access routes, as well as an understanding of diagnosis and clinical management, were included...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Kênia Lara Silva, Roseni Rosângela de Sena, Wesley Souza Castro
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the dehospitalisation process at a general public hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil, from the perspective of managers, health workers, users and their families. METHODS: This is a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study based on the principles of methodological and theoretical dialectics. The participants were 24 hospital health workers and 15 companions of users going through the process of dehospitalisation. Data were collected from April to June 2015 using semi-structured interviews and a field journal records and subsequently subjected to content analysis...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Frédéric Debellut, Nathaniel Hendrix, Justin R Ortiz, Philipp Lambach, Kathleen M Neuzil, Niranjan Bhat, Clint Pecenka
Immunization of pregnant women against seasonal influenza remains limited in low- and lower-middle-income countries despite being recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO/PATH Maternal Influenza Immunization Project was created to identify and address obstacles to delivering influenza vaccines to pregnant women in low resource setting. To gain a better understanding of potential demand from this target group, we developed a model simulating pregnant women populations eligible for vaccination during antenatal care (ANC) services in all low- and lower-middle-income countries...
2018: PloS One
Dekel Abeles, Roy Amit, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
BACKGROUND: During visual exploration or free-view, gaze positioning is largely determined by the tendency to maximize visual saliency: more salient locations are more likely to be fixated. However, when visual input is completely irrelevant for performance, such as with non-visual tasks, this saliency maximization strategy may be less advantageous and potentially even disruptive for task-performance. Here, we examined whether visual saliency remains a strong driving force in determining gaze positions even in non-visual tasks...
2018: PloS One
Kathrin Heinitz, Timo Lorenz, Daniel Schulze, Julia Schorlemmer
Increasing individual subjective well-being has various positive outcomes, knowledge about its antecedents and the mediators of this relationship can therefore help to increase subjective well-being and the accompanying positive effects. The more future oriented facets of psychological capital, i.e. optimism, hope and self-efficacy have been shown in several studies to be positively related to subjective well-being and negatively to ill-being. Furthermore, recent studies suggest coping strategies as mediators for these relationships...
2018: PloS One
David L Carey, Kay M Crossley, Rod Whiteley, Andrea Mosler, Kok-Leong Ong, Justin Crow, Meg E Morris
PURPOSE: To evaluate common modelling strategies in training load and injury risk research when modelling continuous variables and interpreting continuous risk estimates; and present improved modelling strategies. METHOD: Workload data were pooled from Australian football (n=2,550) and soccer (n=23,742) populations to create a representative sample of acute:chronic workload ratio observations for team sports. Injuries were simulated in the data using three pre-defined risk profiles (U-shaped, flat and S-shaped)...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christos I Ioannou, Martin K Klämpfl, Babett H Lobinger, Markus Raab, Eckart Altenmüller
PURPOSE: Similar to musician's focal dystonia a task-specific phenomenon, known as yips has also been reported in professional athletes. Yips is usually described as focal dystonia, or choking under pressure, or as lying on a continuum between both. Based on the common occupational conditions across musicians and athletes, the present exploratory study aimed to investigate whether musicians diagnosed with focal dystonia and golfers affected with yips, can be similarly sub-classified based on their psychological profiles...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Elizabeth Fiske
BACKGROUND: Working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be both rewarding and stressful. Stressors can outweigh satisfiers, leading to job dissatisfaction and turnover. Nurse retention remains a problem, particularly for nurses within the first year of employment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine current nurse stressors, satisfiers, and coping processes in the NICU. METHODS: Seventy-two neonatal nurses from 3 Magnet facilities in North Carolina completed the ICU Stressors Survey, the Ways of Coping Scale, demographic data questions, and free-text questions in Qualtrics, a secure online survey system...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Andrew R Jagim, Trevor A Dominy, Clayton L Camic, Glenn Wright, Scott Doberstein, Margaret T Jones, Jonathan M Oliver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jennifer Gunberg Ross, Brittany Beckmann, Christina Goumas
The millennial generation shows a strong preference for informatics and technology-rich educational environments. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to understand baccalaureate nursing students' perceptions of the use of Facebook as a platform to present patient case study data. After following a simulated patient on Facebook and developing a teaching plan based on data collected from the patient's Facebook page, undergraduate nursing students completed a survey to determine their perceptions of this teaching strategy...
June 21, 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
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