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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549354/the-facespan-the-perceptual-span-for-face-recognition
#1
Michael Papinutto, Junpeng Lao, Meike Ramon, Roberto Caldara, Sébastien Miellet
In reading, the perceptual span is a well-established concept that refers to the amount of information that can be read in a single fixation. Surprisingly, despite extensive empirical interest in determining the perceptual strategies deployed to process faces and an ongoing debate regarding the factors or mechanism(s) underlying efficient face processing, the perceptual span for faces-the Facespan-remains undetermined. To address this issue, we applied the gaze-contingent Spotlight technique implemented in an old-new face recognition paradigm...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549297/diabetes-care-provider-perceptions-on-family-challenges-of-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#2
Maria J Redondo, Chishinga S Callender, Caroline Gonynor, Dora Cantu, Karen W Cullen, Barbara Anderson, Debbe Thompson
Pediatric healthcare providers' perspectives on barriers to diabetes self-management among youth with type 1 diabetes and strategies to overcome them were explored qualitatively. Family conflict about diabetes care was viewed as a common problem, addressable by behavioral interventions to improve communication and promote family teamwork in diabetes management responsibilities.
May 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549285/environmental-response-to-long-term-mariculture-activities-in-the-weihai-coastal-area-china
#3
Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Ying Liu, Jide Song, Yongyu Zhang
The environmental impacts of rapid expansion of mariculture have garnered worldwide attention. China is currently one of the largest countries to engage in this practice. In this study, a representative mariculture zone, the Weihai coastal area in China, was explored to determine the temporal variations in regional nutrients, N/P ratio, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and cellular abundance of diatoms and dinoflagellates in response to the rapid growth in mariculture activities between 2006 and 2014...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549274/mechanisms-and-risk-of-cumulative-impacts-to-coastal-ecosystem-services-an-expert-elicitation-approach
#4
Gerald G Singh, Jim Sinner, Joanne Ellis, Milind Kandlikar, Benjamin S Halpern, Terre Satterfield, Kai M A Chan
Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549270/the-effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-the-immune-system
#5
REVIEW
Martha M C Elwenspoek, Annette Kuehn, Claude P Muller, Jonathan D Turner
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549212/synthesis-of-four-monoterpene-derived-organosulfates-and-their-quantification-in-atmospheric-aerosol-samples
#6
Yuchen Wang, Jingyun Ren, X H Hilda Huang, Rongbiao Tong, Jian Zhen Yu
Monoterpenes, a major class of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to produce oxidation products that further react with sulfate to form organosulfates. The accurate quantification of monoterpene-derived organosulfates (OSs) is necessary for quantifying this controllable aerosol source; however, it has been hampered by a lack of authentic standards. Here we report a unified synthesis strategy starting from the respective monoterpene through Upjohn dihydroxylation or Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation followed by mono-sulfation with sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549210/selecting-sugarcane-genotypes-by-the-selection-index-reveals-high-gain-for-technological-quality-traits
#7
L A Silva, P E Teodoro, L A Peixoto, C Assis, K Gasparini, M H P Barbosa, L L Bhering
Sugarcane (Saccharum sp) is one of the most promising crops and researchers have sought for renewable alternative energy sources to reduce CO2 emission. The study of strategies, which allow breeders in the selection of superior genotypes for many traits simultaneously, is important. Therefore, the objectives of this study were: i) to apply path analysis to better understand the relationship between the lignocellulosic traits and technological quality traits with total recoverable sugars (TRS) and ii) to use several multivariate selection indexes to predict the genetic gain and to select superior genotypes in the sugarcane breeding...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549206/assessment-of-allelic-diversity-among-drought-resistant-cotton-genotypes-using-microsatellite-markers
#8
A Javaid, F S Awan, F M Azhar, I A Khan
Drought, in conjunction with high temperature, is an important environmental constraint to cotton production. Development of cotton varieties with increased tolerance against adverse environmental conditions has been proposed as effective strategy for ensuring reliable yields. In the present study, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to estimate genetic divergence among 22 cotton genotypes for drought stress tolerance. Genetic diversity is a prerequisite for developing drought resistant cotton genotypes...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549173/incidental-mosquitocidal-effect-of-an-ivermectin-mass-drug-administration-on-anopheles-farauti-conducted-for-scabies-control-in-the-solomon-islands
#9
Christian Kositz, Jeptah Talina, Jason Diau, Rowena Asugeni, Cheryl Whitehorn, David Mabey, Carlos Chaccour, Michael Marks
Background: The Solomon Islands is targeting elimination of malaria by 2030. The dominant vector is the predominantly exophagic, exophilic Anopheles farauti sensu strictu. This biting behaviour limits the efficacy of conventional vector control tools and highlights the need for new strategies. When administered to humans ivermectin has been shown to have a mosquitocidal effect. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is an emerging strategy in the control of scabies. In this study we explored any incidental effect of ivermectin MDA conducted for scabies control on mosquitoes...
May 26, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549170/are-multidimensional-pain-inventory-coping-strategy-profiles-associated-with-long-term-spinal-cord-stimulation-effectiveness
#10
Mery Paroli, Olivia Bernini, Giuliano De Carolis, Lara Tollapi, Franca Bondi, Antonella Martini, Alessandro Dario, Adriana Paolicchi
Introduction.:  It is acknowledged that the way patients cope with pain may influence treatment outcome. In particular, psychological factors are deemed important when considering patients for suitability for spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Objective.:  The aim of the study is to observe how pre-implantation psychological characteristics impact the effectiveness of SCS for chronic pain. Methods.:  The analysis comprised data from 137 patients who underwent an SCS implant...
May 26, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549131/a-novel-cortical-target-to-enhance-hand-motor-output-in-humans-with-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Jinyi Long, Paolo Federico, Monica A Perez
A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549119/systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-of-myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy-in-patients-with-ischaemic-heart-disease-a-report-from-the-cardiovascular-committee-of-the-european-association-of-nuclear-medicine-endorsed-by-the-european-association-of-cardiovascular
#12
Elin Trägårdh, Siok Swan Tan, Jan Bucerius, Alessia Gimelli, Oliver Gaemperli, Oliver Lindner, Denis Agostini, Christopher Übleis, Roberto Sciagrà, Riemer H Slart, S Richard Underwood, Fabien Hyafil, Marcus Hacker, Hein J Verberne
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these tests should be cost-effective and should lead to improved clinical outcome. We have reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of MPS in different circumstances: (i) the diagnosis and management of CAD; (ii) comparison with exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and other imaging tests; (iii) as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), (iv) the impact of appropriate use criteria; (v) acute chest pain, and (vi) screening of asymptomatic patients with type-2 diabetes...
May 26, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549113/restrictive-enlargement-of-the-pulmonary-annulus-at-repair-of-tetralogy-of-fallot-a-comparative-10-year-follow-up-study%C3%A2
#13
Jana Logoteta, Lars Dullin, Jan Hinnerk Hansen, Carsten Rickers, Mona Salehi Ravesh, Abdullah Al Bulushi, Ines Kristo, Philip Wegner, Michael Schumacher, Tim Attmann, Jens Scheewe, Hans-Heiner Kramer
OBJECTIVES: Since 1996, our centre performs restrictive enlargement of the pulmonary annulus at surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. A transannular patch is only used if the z-score of the pulmonary annulus is smaller than -2. We sought to determine whether this strategy reduces pulmonary insufficiency (PI) and reoperation rate compared to a nationwide contemporary cohort that has not been operated using a uniform strategy. METHODS: Eighty-seven tetralogy of Fallot patients were included in the study (Group 1)...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549061/central-hypothyroidism-a-neglected-thyroid-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Giulia Rodari, Claudia Giavoli, Andrea Lania
Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548996/distal-junctional-failure-following-pediatric-spinal-fusion
#15
Lorena V Floccari, Alvin W Su, Amy L McIntosh, Karl Rathjen, William J Shaughnessy, A Noelle Larson
BACKGROUND: Adjacent segment pathology is a known complication after spinal fusion, but little has been reported on junctional failure. A series of adolescent patients presented with acute distal junctional failure (DJF). We sought to determine any common features of these patients to develop a prevention strategy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of pediatric patients who developed DJF after instrumented spinal fusion performed at 2 institutions from 1999 to 2013...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548995/invasive-fungal-infections-following-liver-transplantation
#16
Rachel Hogen, Kiran Dhanireddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review outlines the microbiology, presentation, prophylactic strategies, resistance patterns, and consequences of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been an increase in the proportion of non-albicans Candida causing IFIs. The biomarkers galactomannan and β-D-glucan should not be routinely used in the diagnosis of IFIs in OLT recipients due to their limited accuracy...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548992/gut-microbiota-and-host-defense-in-critical-illness
#17
Max C Jacobs, Bastiaan W Haak, Floor Hugenholtz, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to discuss emerging evidence in the field of microbiome-dependent roles in host defense during critical illness with a focus on lung, kidney, and brain inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiota of critical ill patients is characterized by lower diversity, lower abundances of key commensal genera, and in some cases overgrowth by one bacterial genera, a state otherwise known as dysbiosis. Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota-derived components can reach the circulatory system from the gut and modulate immune homeostasis...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#18
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548968/aldose-reductase-interacts-with-akt1-to-augment-hepatic-akt-mtor-signaling-and-promote-hepatocarcinogenesis
#19
Jia-Xing Zhao, Ya-Wei Yuan, Cheng-Fu Cai, Dong-Yan Shen, Mao-Li Chen, Feng Ye, Yan-Jun Mi, Qi-Cong Luo, Wang-Yu Cai, Wei Zhang, Ying Long, Yong Zeng, Guo-Dong Ye, Shu-Yu Yang
Marked up-regulation of aldose reductase (AR) is reportedly associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated how aberrantly overexpressed AR might promote oncogenic transformation in liver cells and tissues. We found that overexpressed AR interacted with the kinase domain of AKT1 to increase AKT/mTOR signaling. In both cultured liver cancer cells and liver tissues in DEN-induced transgenic HCC model mice, we observed that AR overexpression-induced AKT/mTOR signaling tended to enhance lactate formation and hepatic inflammation to enhance hepatocarcinogenesis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548957/involvement-of-p38-%C3%AE-trcp-tristetraprolin-tnf%C3%AE-axis-in-radiation-pneumonitis
#20
Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Shirish Shukla, Paramita Ray, Rohit Mehra, Mukesh K Nyati, Theodore S Lawrence, Dipankar Ray
Early release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) during radiotherapy of thoracic cancers plays an important role in radiation pneumonitis, whose inhibition may provide lung radioprotection. We previously reported radiation inactivates Tristetraprolin (TTP), a negative regulator of TNF-α synthesis, which correlated with increased TNF-α release. However, the molecular events involved in radiation-induced TTP inactivation remain unclear. To determine if eliminating Ttp in mice resulted in a phenotypic response to radiation, Ttp-null mice lungs were exposed to a single dose of 15 Gy, and TNF-α release and lung inflammation were analyzed at different time points post-irradiation...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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