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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668008/the-secular-trend-and-network-effects-on-height-of-male-japanese-students-from-1955-to-2015
#1
Dominik Bents, Detlef Groth, Takashi Satake
Introduction : Body height is influenced by biological factors such as genetics, nutrition and health, but also by the social network, and environmental and economical factors. During centuries, the Japanese society has developed on islands. This setting provides ideal natural conditions for studying the influence of social networks on human height. Material and methods : We investigated body height of male Japanese students aged 17.5 years obtained in 47 prefectures, from the Japanese school health survey of the years 1955, 1975, 1995, and 2015...
April 18, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667483/global-epidemiology-of-serogroup-b-meningococcal-disease-and-opportunities-for-prevention-with-novel-recombinant-protein-vaccines
#2
Rodolfo Villena, Marco Aurelio P Safadi, María Teresa Valenzuela, Juan P Torres, Adam Finn, Miguel O'Ryan
Meningococcal disease (MD) is a major cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide, with a high case fatality rate and frequent sequelae. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W, X and Y are responsible for most of these life-threatening infections, and its unpredictable epidemiology can cause outbreaks in communities, with significant health, social and economic impact. Currently, serogroup B is the main cause of MD in Europe and North America and one of the most prevalent serogroups in Latin America. Mass vaccination strategies using polysaccharide vaccines have been deployed since the 1970s and the use of conjugate vaccines has controlled endemic and epidemic disease caused by serogroups A, C, W and Y and more recently serogroup B using geographically-specific outer membrane vesicle based vaccines...
April 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667464/end-user-evaluation-of-a-kneeling-wheelchair-with-on-the-fly-adjustable-seating-functions
#3
Johanne Mattie, Angie Wong, Danny Leland, Jaimie Borisoff
A "kneeling" ultralight wheelchair prototype has been developed that allows users to adjust seat position "on the fly" for different activities throughout the day. The wheelchair includes independent adjustment functions for rear seat height, front seat height ("kneeling") and backrest angle.  Aim: This work aimed to gather feedback about the wheelchair's functionality and performance through end user evaluation trials.  Methods: Eight manual wheelchair users evaluated the prototype Kneeling Wheelchair for a range of activities...
April 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667314/the-diary-of-a-nonagenarian-centenarian-woman-with-dementia-memory-loss-life-changes-and-community-care-in-japan
#4
Sayuri Suwa, Saori Otani, Mayuko Tsujimura, Kotoko Nogawa, Yoko Shiya
AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences and thoughts of a nonagenarian-centenarian woman with dementia living alone, through detailed analysis of her unsolicited diary. DATA SOURCE: After receiving consent from Aki (a pseudonym), her family and caregivers, copies of her diaries, hand-written in Japanese, were provided for analysis. METHODS: The content of the diaries was broadly organized into themes and qualitative content analysis carried out for each theme along a sequential timeline...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667203/to-explore-the-efficacy-of-community-rehabilitation-for-facilitating-daily-function-among-patients-with-mental-illness
#5
Jui-Fen Cheng, Chung-Ying Chen, Mei-Chu Lin, Xuan-Yi Huang
PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy of community rehabilitation for facilitating daily function among patients with mental illness. DESIGN AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used. Two hundred and sixty-four participants completed a daily living function scale questionnaire and provided disease-related information. FINDINGS: Community rehabilitation was shown to be efficient in helping to stabilize mental illness and enhance daily function...
April 17, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666024/social-determinants-of-self-reported-health-for-canada-s-indigenous-peoples-a-public-health-approach
#6
R Bethune, N Absher, M Obiagwu, T Qarmout, M Steeves, M Yaghoubi, R Tikoo, M Szafron, C Dell, M Farag
OBJECTIVE: In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. METHODS: Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada...
April 14, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664674/associations-between-neighborhood-walkability-and-incident-and-ongoing-asthma-in-children
#7
Elinor Simons, Sharon D Dell, Rahim Moineddin, Teresa To
RATIONALE: Childhood asthma has shown variable associations with children's physical activity. Neighborhood walkability captures community features that promote walking and is protective against some chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between home neighborhood walkability and incident and ongoing childhood asthma. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used prospectively-collected administrative healthcare data for the province of Ontario housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
April 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664610/bioprinting-living-biofilms-through-optogenetic-manipulation
#8
Yajia Huang, Aiguo Xia, Guang Yang, Fan Jin
In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h...
April 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664579/chronic-intra-oral-pain-and-depressive-symptoms-in-japanese-community-dwelling-elderly-a-longitudinal-study
#9
L Hanindriyo, A Yoshihara, T Takiguchi, H Miyazaki
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of major depressive disorder in the elderly ranges from 0.2 to 14.1/100 person-years, and the incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms is 6.8/100 person-years. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal relationship between chronic intra oral pain and depressive symptom in Japanese elderly. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: 3-year cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 212 community-dwelling seniors (129 men, 83 women) aged 77 years residing in the city of Niigata, Japan in 2005...
April 17, 2018: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664190/child-marriage-in-the-united-states-how-common-is-the-practice-and-which-children-are-at-greatest-risk
#10
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
CONTEXT: Marriage before the age of 18, commonly referred to as child marriage, is legal under varying conditions across the United States. The prevalence of child marriage among recent cohorts is unknown. METHODS: American Community Survey data for 2010-2014 were used to estimate the average national and state-level proportions of children who had ever been married. Prevalence was calculated by gender, race and ethnicity, and birthplace, and the living arrangements of currently married children were examined...
April 17, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662673/epidemiology-and-management-of-healthcare-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-non-neutropenic-immunosuppressed-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Nursel Calik Basaran, Sibel Ascioglu
Advancements in medicine have led to a considerable increase in the proportion of patients living with severe chronic diseases, malignancies, and HIV infections. Most of these conditions are associated with acquired immune-deficient states and treatment-related immunosuppression. Although infections as a result of neutropenia have long been recognized and strategies for management were developed, non-neutropenic immunosuppression has been overlooked. Recently, community-acquired infections in patients with frequent, significant exposure to healthcare settings and procedures have been classified as 'healthcare-associated infections' since they are more similar to hospital-acquired infections...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662526/factors-predicting-length-of-stay-in-an-adolescent-psychiatric-unit-south-bronx-ny-a-short-report
#12
Muhammad Zeshan, Ahmed Waqas, Sadiq Naveed, Hamzah Ghulam, Pankaj Manocha
Objective: Mental health disorders account for around 1.8 million inpatient community hospital stays in the U.S.A. Our study aims to highlight the factors impacting the length of stay at a community hospital in the U.S.A. Methods: We reviewed 300 randomly selected charts to examine the factors impacting the length of stay in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric unit in 2011 and 2015. All data were analyzed in SPSS v. 20 with multiple regression analysis. Results: Longer length of stay among adolescents was associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, co-occurring medical comorbidities, not living with biological parents, history of mental illness, legal problems, substance use in the family, seclusion, restraints during current admission, and schizophrenia...
April 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662145/the-ecology-and-diversity-of-microbial-eukaryotes-in-geothermal-springs
#13
Angela M Oliverio, Jean F Power, Alex Washburne, S Craig Cary, Matthew B Stott, Noah Fierer
Decades of research into the Bacteria and Archaea living in geothermal spring ecosystems have yielded great insight into the diversity of life and organismal adaptations to extreme environmental conditions. Surprisingly, while microbial eukaryotes (protists) are also ubiquitous in many environments, their diversity across geothermal springs has mostly been ignored. We used high-throughput sequencing to illuminate the diversity and structure of microbial eukaryotic communities found in 160 geothermal springs with broad ranges in temperature and pH across the Taupō Volcanic Zone in New Zealand...
April 16, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662130/application-of-improved-approach-to-evaluate-a-community-intervention-to-reduce-exposure-of-young-children-living-in-farmworker-households-to-organophosphate-pesticides
#14
William C Griffith, Eric M Vigoren, Marissa N Smith, Tomomi Workman, Beti Thompson, Gloria D Coronado, Elaine M Faustman
The take-home pathway is a significant source of organophosphate pesticide exposure for young children (3-5 years old) living with an adult farmworker. This avoidable exposure pathway is an important target for intervention. We selected 24 agricultural communities in the Yakima Valley of Washington State and randomly assigned them to receive an educational intervention (n = 12) to reduce children's pesticide exposure or usual care (n = 12). We assessed exposure to pesticides in nearly 200 adults and children during the pre and post-intervention periods by measuring metabolites in urine...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661505/training-cardiothoracic-surgeons-of-the-future-the-uk-experience
#15
Louise Kenny, Karen Booth, Kathrin Freystaetter, Greta Wood, Gary Reynolds, Sridhar Rathinam, Narain Moorjani
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess targeted simulation courses, including live animal operating, as complementary training tools with regard to 2 key surgical skills in early cardiothoracic surgeon training. METHODS: Twenty UK surgical trainees (equivalent to cardiothoracic surgery resident physicians in the United States) in their first year of residency training were evaluated. Assessment of skills in pulmonary wedge resection and cardiopulmonary bypass were undertaken before and after 2 boot camp-style courses, including live animal operating (boot camp 1 and boot camp 2)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661194/association-of-neighborhood-greenness-with-self-perceived-stress-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-older-u-s-adults
#16
Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen H Suh
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environment, such as green vegetation, has been shown to play a role in coping with stress and mental ill health. Yet, epidemiological evidence of the association between greenness and mental health is inconsistent. METHODS: We examined whether living in green space is associated with self-perceived stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 4118; aged 57-85 years) in the United States...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661136/effects-of-a-community-health-promotion-program-on-social-factors-in-a-vulnerable-older-adult-population-residing-in-social-housing
#17
Gina Agarwal, Madison Brydges
BACKGROUND: Supporting older adults' health and wellbeing in the community is an important policy goal that can be supported by health promotion. Despite widespread acceptance of the biopsychosocial model of health and its relation to health, many health promotion programs fail to realize this model in program design. Further, there is limited evidence to support program design targeting social determinants of health such as social isolation or connectedness. To fill this gap, we aimed to understand older adult's experiences participating in cardiovascular health promotion program in a subsidized residential building to capture unintended 'spin-off' psychosocial effects...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660858/peer-counselling-improves-breastfeeding-practices-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-urban-bangladesh
#18
Gulshan Ara, Mansura Khanam, Nowshin Papri, Baitun Nahar, Md Ahshanul Haque, Iqbal Kabir, Michael J Dibley
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of peer counselling on early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates for mother-infant pairs living in urban slums, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 350 mother-infant pairs from selected slums between September 2014 and July 2016. The women assigned to intervention group received peer counselling from locally recruited, trained community female volunteers starting in third trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery; control group received no intervention...
April 16, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660815/scaling-down-a-deworming-program-among-school-age-children-after-a-thirty-year-successful-intervention-in-the-bolivian-chaco
#19
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, David Rojo, Herlan Gamboa, Ana Liz Villagrán, Yolanda Vallejos, Marianne Strohmeyer, Mimmo Roselli, Simona Gabrielli, Gabriella Cancrini, Joaquín Monasterio, Paul Castellanos, Grover Adolfo Paredes, Sdenka Maury, Adolfo Zárate, Rodolfo Rocabado, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
OBJECTIVE: Preventive chemotherapy is the WHO-recommended control method for soil-transmitted helminthiases. In the Bolivian Chaco, 6-monthly single-dose mebendazole delivery to school-age children achieved a dramatic decrease in soil-transmitted helminthiases prevalence between 1987 and 2013. Consequently, in September 2016, preventive chemotherapy delivery was interrupted in 9 rural communities. In compliance with WHO recommendations, we intensified surveillance to monitor soil-transmitted helminthiases prevalence and detect potential changes that would require interventions...
April 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659819/mindfulness-based-lifestyle-programs-for-the-self-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-australia
#20
Brooke E Vandenberg, Jenny Advocat, Craig Hassed, Jennifer Hester, Joanne Enticott, Grant Russell
Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function...
April 11, 2018: Health Promotion International
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