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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457726/a-robust-oil-in-oil-emulsion-for-the-nonaqueous-encapsulation-of-hydrophilic-payloads
#1
Xiaocun Lu, Joshua S Katz, Adam Schmitt, Jeffrey S Moore
Compartmentalized structures widely exist in cellular systems (organelles) and perform essential functions in smart composite materials (microcapsules, vasculatures, and micelles) to provide localized functionality and enhance materials compatibility. An entirely water-free compartmentalization system is of significant value to the materials community as nonaqueous conditions are critical to packaging microcapsules with water-free hydrophilic payloads while avoiding energy-intensive drying steps. Few nonaqueous encapsulation techniques are known, especially when considering just the scalable processes that operate in batch mode...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457307/iron-and-infection-an-investigation-of-the-optimal-iron-hypothesis-in-lima-peru
#2
Achsah F Dorsey, Amanda L Thompson, Ronald E Kleinman, Christopher P Duggan, Mary E Penny
OBJECTIVES: This article explores the optimal iron hypothesis through secondary data analysis of the association between hemoglobin levels and morbidity among children living in Canto Grande, a peri-urban community located on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. METHODS: Risk ratios were used to test whether lower iron status, assessed using the HemoCue B-Hemoglobin System, was associated with an increased relative risk of morbidity symptoms compared to iron replete status, controlling for infant age, sex, weight for height z-score, maternal education, and repeated measures in 515 infants aged 6-12 months...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457297/the-impact-of-bacteriophages-on-phyllosphere-bacterial-abundance-and-composition
#3
Norma M Morella, Annika L Gomez, Grant Wang, Michelle S Leung, Britt Koskella
Interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage viruses (phages) are known to influence pathogen growth and virulence, microbial diversity, and even biogeochemical cycling. Lytic phages in particular infect and lyse their host cells, and can therefore have significant effects on cell densities as well as competitive dynamics within microbial communities. Despite the known impacts of lytic phages on the ecology and evolution of bacteria in free-living communities, little is known about the role of lytic phages in host-associated microbiomes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#4
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456337/evaluation-of-predictive-factors-influencing-community-reintegration-in-adult-patients-with-stroke
#5
Olajide Ayinla Olawale, Jibrin Sammani Usman, Kayode Israel Oke, Oladunni Caroline Osundiya
Objectives: Patients with stroke are faced with gait, balance, and fall difficulties which could impact on their community reintegration. In Nigeria, community reintegration after stroke has been understudied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictors of community reintegration in adult patients with stroke. Materials and Methods: Participants were 91 adult patients with stroke. Gait variables, balance self-efficacy, community balance/mobility, and fall self-efficacy were assessed using Rivermead Mobility Index, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Community Balance and Mobility Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale-International respectively...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455471/world-traumatic-dental-injury-prevalence-and-incidence-a-meta-analysis-one-billion-living-people-have-had-traumatic-dental-injuries
#6
Stefano Petti, Ulf Glendor, Lars Andersson
Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) account for a considerable proportion of bodily injuries. Nevertheless, global TDI frequency is unknown, probably because TDI diagnosis is not standardized. This study estimated world TDI frequency. A literature search (publication years 1996-2016) was aimed at covering as many countries, communities, ethnic groups as possible, thus achieving high generalizability. In particular, nonspecific keywords, no language restrictions and large databanks were used. Observational studies reporting proportions of individuals with at least one TDI (prevalence) and who developed TDI (incidence rate) were considered...
February 18, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455058/physical-activity-combined-with-resistance-training-reduces-symptoms-of-frailty-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Koutatsu Nagaia, Toshiaki Miyamato, Akio Okamae, Akira Tamaki, Hiroyuki Fujioka, Yosuke Wada, Yuki Uchiyama, Ken Shinmura, Kazuhisa Domen
INTRODUCTION: Increased physical activity (PA) is a crucial factor in the prevention of physical deterioration, and resistance training (RT) is also a common and effective intervention for older adults. However, the effects of PA as an adjunct to RT on frailty status remains unclear; therefore, we clarified the effect of a PA intervention with feedback, as an adjunct to resistance strength training, on the physical and mental outcomes of frail older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed a randomized controlled trial...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454980/cumulative-incidence-of-suicidal-ideation-and-associated-factors-among-adults-living-in-temporary-housing-during-the-three-years-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#8
Qingyi Xu, Maiko Fukasawa, Norito Kawakami, Toshiaki Baba, Kiyomi Sakata, Ruriko Suzuki, Hiroaki Tomita, Harumi Nemoto, Seiji Yasumura, Hirooki Yabe, Naoko Horikoshi, Maki Umeda, Yuriko Suzuki, Haruki Shimoda, Hisateru Tachimori, Tadashi Takeshima, Evelyn J Bromet
BACKGROUND: The effect of disasters on suicidality is not known. We aimed to retrospectively determine the cumulative incidence of suicidal ideation during the 3 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake among residents in temporary housing without prior suicidal ideation, as compared to the general population. Moreover, we aimed to identify the risk factors for the onset of suicidal ideation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face interviews was conducted 3 years after the earthquake with adult community residents in disaster-affected areas and a control area using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454821/mortality-in-single-fathers-compared-with-single-mothers-and-partnered-parents-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Simone Vigod, Cindy Lau, John Cairney, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Single parent families, including families headed by single fathers, are becoming increasingly common around the world. Previous evidence suggests that single parenthood is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased mortality; however, most studies have focused on single mothers, with little known about the health of single fathers. This study aimed to examine mortality in a large population-based sample of Canadian single fathers compared with single mothers and partnered fathers and mothers...
February 14, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454078/looking-for-capacities-rather-than-vulnerabilities-the-moderating-effect-of-health-assets-on-the-associations-between-adverse-social-position-and-health
#10
Mathieu Roy, Mélanie Levasseur, Isabelle Doré, France St-Hilaire, Bernard Michallet, Yves Couturier, Danielle Maltais, Bengt Lindström, Mélissa Généreux
To increase capacities and control over health, it is necessary to foster assets (i.e. factors enhancing abilities of individuals or communities). Acting as a buffer, assets build foundations for overcoming adverse conditions and improving health. However, little is known about the distribution of assets and their associations with social position and health. In this study, we documented the distribution of health assets and examined whether these assets moderate associations between adverse social position and self-reported health...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453529/toxicity-assessment-in-the-nanoparticle-era
#11
Valeria De Matteis, Rosaria Rinaldi
The wide use of engineered nanomaterials in many fields, ranging from biomedical, agriculture, environment, cosmetic, urged the scientific community to understand the processes behind their potential toxicity, in order to develop new strategies for human safety. As a matter of fact, there is a big discrepancy between the increased classes of nanoparticles and the consequent applications versus their toxicity assessment. Nanotoxicology is defined as the science that studies the effects of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures in living organisms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453436/rural-urban-differences-in-access-to-hospital-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-how-far-is-the-closest-one
#12
Peiyin Hung, Michelle M Casey, Katy B Kozhimannil, Pinar Karaca-Mandic, Ira S Moscovice
OBJECTIVES: To quantify drive distances to hospital obstetric services and advanced neonatal care and to examine such disparities by residential rurality and insurance type. STUDY DESIGN: Data for all-payer maternal childbirth hospitalizations in 2002 (N = 661,240) and 2013 (N = 634,807) from nine geographically dispersed states were linked with the American Hospital Association annual surveys to identify maternal residence zip codes and the addresses of hospitals with obstetric services or advanced neonatal care...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453274/select-and-resequence-reveals-relative-fitness-of-bacteria-in-symbiotic-and-free-living-environments
#13
Liana T Burghardt, Brendan Epstein, Joseph Guhlin, Matt S Nelson, Margaret R Taylor, Nevin D Young, Michael J Sadowsky, Peter Tiffin
Assays to accurately estimate relative fitness of bacteria growing in multistrain communities can advance our understanding of how selection shapes diversity within a lineage. Here, we present a variant of the "evolve and resequence" approach both to estimate relative fitness and to identify genetic variants responsible for fitness variation of symbiotic bacteria in free-living and host environments. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by characterizing selection by two plant hosts and in two free-living environments (sterilized soil and liquid media) acting on synthetic communities of the facultatively symbiotic bacterium Ensifer meliloti We find ( i ) selection that hosts exert on rhizobial communities depends on competition among strains, ( ii ) selection is stronger inside hosts than in either free-living environment, and ( iii ) a positive host-dependent relationship between relative strain fitness in multistrain communities and host benefits provided by strains in single-strain experiments...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453266/the-gills-of-reef-fish-support-a-distinct-microbiome-influenced-by-host-specific-factors
#14
Zoe A Pratte, Marc Besson, Rebecca D Hollman, Frank J Stewart
Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452052/agency-and-fatalism-in-older-appalachian-women-s-information-seeking-about-gynecological-cancer
#15
Emma C Potter, Katherine R Allen, Karen A Roberto
Researchers consider older women in rural Appalachia to have low levels of agency and high levels of fatalism regarding decision making about cancer treatment. Using the life course perspective, we examined older women's agency with information seeking about gynecological cancer. Semistructured interviews with 20 White women living in central Appalachia revealed four trajectories: Surrendering Control, Accepting Death, Self-Care, and Advocacy, each with its own forms of agency. Some women experienced personal transformation, increased self-efficacy, and a passion for community empowerment...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Women & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451002/healing-stories-an-expressive-narrative-intervention-for-strengthening-resilience-and-survival-skills-in-school-aged-child-victims-of-war-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#16
Guido Veronese, Gianpiero Barola
Within a preventive framework, we outline a school-based intervention aimed at strengthening skills of survival and psychological functioning in children who have experienced war and political violence in the Gaza Strip. In accordance with a socio-ecological perspective on wellbeing and resilience, the pilot study aimed at evaluating the outcomes of a psychosocial narrative school-based intervention with a group of school-aged children in the aftermath of war. The intervention was oriented at empowering positive emotions, life satisfaction, and optimism in children as protective factors in preventing posttraumatic reactions after war...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450736/health-and-quality-of-life-differ-between-community-living-older-people-with-and-without-remaining-teeth-who-recently-received-formal-home-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
A R Hoeksema, L L Peters, G M Raghoebar, H J A Meijer, A Vissink, A Visser
OBJECTIVE: To assess oral health, health, and quality of life (QoL) of care-dependent community-living older people with and without remaining teeth who recently received formal home care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional observational study, community-living older people (≥ 65 years), who recently (< 6 months) received formal home care, were interviewed with validated questionnaires and underwent an oral examination. Oral health, general health, medicines usage, frailty (Groningen Frailty Indicator), cognition (Minimal Mental State Examination), QoL (RAND 36), and oral health-related QoL (Oral Health Impact Profile-14) were assessed...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449969/stigma-and-self-management-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-the-impact-of-chronic-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Jasmine Heath Hearn, Sen Selvarajah, Paul Kennedy, Julian Taylor
Study Design: Qualitative, phenomenological design. Objectives: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction and urinary tract infection (UTI) are common secondary consequences to neurological damage to the spinal cord. This study sought to establish the impact of chronic, recurrent UTIs on people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Community sample, United Kingdom. Methods: Twelve participants with SCI, aged between 28 and 68 years, who had experienced at least three recurrent UTI events within the previous 12 months were recruited...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449905/searching-for-silver-linings-is-perceived-medical-discrimination-weaker-in-segregated-areas
#19
Joseph Gibbons, Tse-Chuan Yang
An ongoing obstacle in dealing with minority health disparities is discriminatory behavior from healthcare practitioners, also known as medical discrimination. It is not clear, however, if the effects of medical discriminations onto health are constant across space. For example, there is evidence to suspect minorities in racially segregated neighborhoods suffer less from discrimination compared to those living elsewhere. To determine the presence of spatial heterogeneity underlying medical discrimination, we implement logistic geographically weighted regression (GWR) using individual data in the city of Philadelphia from the 2006 and 2008 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Surveys...
March 2018: Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449496/patient-reported-outcomes-resource-use-and-social-participation-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-treated-with-biologics-in-alberta-experience-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-patients
#20
Cheryl Barnabe, Louise Crane, Tyler White, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Gilaad G Kaplan, Liam Martin, Walter P Maksymowych
OBJECTIVE: To characterize patient-reported outcomes, resource use, and social participation during the course of biologic therapy for indigenous and non-indigenous patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients initiating biologic therapy (2004 to 2012) were characterized longitudinally for patient-reported outcomes including physical function measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire, EQ-5D, well-being [Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and visual analog scales for pain, fatigue, sleep, stiffness, and patient's global assessment...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
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