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Community living

A Stevens, M E Gilder, P Moo, A Hashmi, S E T Toe, B B Doh, S Nosten, K Chotivanich, Shawn Somerset, Rose McGready
OBJECTIVES: Preconception folic acid (PFA) taken at least 3 months before conception can decrease the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) by approximately 46%. NTDs contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality in migrant and refugee populations on the Thailand-Myanmar border (incidence 1.57/1000 live births). This audit aimed to assess uptake of PFA among migrant and refugee women, evaluate knowledge about PFA among local healthcare workers and implement a participatory community intervention to increase PFA uptake and decrease NTD incidence in this population...
June 20, 2018: Public Health
Tianqi Zhang, Marnie E Shaw, Erin I Walsh, Perminder S Sachdev, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher blood glucose and brain atrophy and functional deficits, however, little is known about the association between blood glucose, striatal volume and striatal function despite sensori-motor deficits being reported in diabetes. This study investigated the relationship between blood glucose levels, striatal volume and fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort of cognitively healthy individuals living in the community with normal or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes...
June 7, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Thiago Cardoso Vale, Maira Tonidandel Barbosa, Elisa de Paula França Resende, Débora Palma Maia, Mauro César Quintão Cunningham, Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães, João Carlos Barbosa Machado, Antônio Lucio Teixeira, Francisco Cardoso, Paulo Caramelli
INTRODUCTION: Parkinsonism is one of the most prevalent neurological syndromes in the elderly. There are only a few epidemiological studies focusing on parkinsonism in oldest-old individuals, particularly in Latin America. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of parkinsonism in subjects aged 75 + years living in the community. METHODS: The Pietà study is a population-based investigation on brain aging conducted in Caeté, southeast Brazil...
June 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Omar A Oyarzabal, Dana Osman, Manfred Rohde, Robert Grützmann, Michael Vieth
Culture-independent studies have identified DNA of bacterial pathogens in the gallbladder under pathological conditions, yet reports on the isolation of corresponding live bacteria are rare. Thus, it is unclear which pathogens, or pathogen communities, can colonize the gallbladder and cause disease. Using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, culture techniques, phylogenetic analysis, urease assays and Western blotting, we investigated the presence of live bacterial communities in the gallbladder of a cholecystitis patient after cholecystectomy...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C Thompson, D Smith, S Cummins
In the UK, food poverty has been associated with conditions such as obesity, malnutrition, hypertension, iron deficiency, and impaired liver function. Food banks, the primary response to food poverty on the ground, typically rely on community referral and distribution systems that involve health and social care professionals and local authority public health teams. The perspectives of these key stakeholders remain underexplored. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the health and wellbeing challenges of food poverty and food banking in London...
May 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Balázs E Helga, Christoph A O Schmid, Ioana Feher, Dorina Podar, Paul-Marian Szatmari, Olivian Marincaş, Zoltan R Balázs, Peter Schröder
Current physical or chemical methods used for remediation of soils contaminated with hexachlocyclohexane (HCH), leave behind significant levels of pollutants. Given the compound's volatility and persistence in the environment, sites contaminated with HCH remain a concern for the population living in nearby areas. By making use of both the recovery capacity and the pollutant uptake ability of spontaneously growing vegetation, our study aimed to identify native plant species able to cover and moreover take up the HCH left at a former lindane production unit in Turda, Romania...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Portia Johnson, Yvonne Wesley, Lynda Arnold, Lois Greene
This article conveys the authors' perspectives and insights gained during the development and implementation of their experience with a community-based intervention designed to address obesity among Black women. The reader gets a look at the authors' personal weight struggles, as the intervention they designed to help others transformed their lives as well as the participants. The authors also shared their perspectives on the impact of religion and spirituality on healthy lifestyles.
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Jacintha Ellers, Matty P Berg, André T C Dias, Simone Fontana, Astra Ooms, Marco Moretti
It has been widely recognized that species show extensive variation in form and function. Based on species' attributes, they can be positioned along major axes of variation, which are often defined by life-history traits, such as number of offspring, age at maturity or generation time. Less emphasis has been given in this respect to tolerance traits, especially to resistance to abiotic stress conditions, which often determine community (dis)assembly and distribution. Soil fauna species distribution is governed to a large extent by environmental conditions that filter communities according to functional traits, such as abiotic stress tolerance, morphology and body size...
July 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
S Quercia, F Freccero, C Castagnetti, M Soverini, S Turroni, E Biagi, S Rampelli, A Lanci, J Mariella, E Chinellato, P Brigidi, M Candela
BACKGROUND: Even if horses strictly depend on the gut microbiota for energy homeostasis, only a few molecular studies have focused on its characterisation and none on the perinatal gut microbial colonisation process. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perinatal colonisation process of the foal gut microbial ecosystem and the temporal dynamics of the ecosystem assembly during the first days of life. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS: Thirteen Standardbred mare-foal pairs were included in the study...
June 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Vikas Gangadhar Rao, Jyothi Bhat, Rajiv Yadav, Ravendra Kumar Sharma, Malaisamy Muniyandi
Background: To determine the socio-economic risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Saharia tribal community in Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Methods: PTB cases detected during the year 2013-14 through a community active TB prevalence survey in the Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh were included in the study. For each case, three controls were selected randomly among the non-cases from the same village and the data on socio-economic risk factors were collected...
June 20, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pronab Ganguly, Abdrabo Soliman, Ahmed A Moustafa
Individuals with schizophrenia lead a poor quality of life, due to poor medical attention, homelessness, unemployment, financial constraints, lack of education, and poor social skills. Thus, a review of factors associated with the holistic management of schizophrenia is of paramount importance. The objective of this review is to improve the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia, by addressing the factors related to the needs of the patients and present them in a unified manner. Although medications play a role, other factors that lead to a successful holistic management of schizophrenia include addressing the following: financial management, independent community living, independent living skill, relationship, friendship, entertainment, regular exercise for weight gained due to medication administration, co-morbid health issues, and day-care programmes for independent living...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Marsha Michie, Megan Allyse
PURPOSE: In considering gene modification technologies, the priorities of patient communities must be a central consideration. The purpose of this study is to assess views of families with Down syndrome (DS) regarding potential genome-based interventions. METHODS: We constructed an anonymous online survey for family members of people with DS. Participants were asked to agree or disagree with scenarios describing hypothetical interventions to silence or significantly alter the physical and cognitive effects of a trisomy 21, and also with scenarios depicting currently available physical interventions...
June 21, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Susitha Wanigaratne, Pamela Uppal, Manvir Bhangoo, Alia Januwalla, Deepa Singal, Marcelo L Urquia
BACKGROUND: Son-biased sex ratios at birth (M:F), an extreme manifestation of son preference, are predominately found in East and South Asia. Studies have examined sex ratios among first-generation migrants from these regions, but few have examined second-generation descendants. Our objective was to determine whether son-biased sex ratios persist among second-generation mothers with South Asian ethnicity in Ontario, Canada. METHODOLOGY: A surname algorithm identified a population-based cohort of mothers with South Asian ethnicity who gave birth in Ontario between 1993 and 2014 (n=59 659)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Ann Marie Carroll, Tracey Clancy, Chandandeep Kaur Bal, Shams Lalani, Leanne Woo
The purpose of this article, co-authored by instructors and students, is to highlight student learning and a student-developed model of Community Development that occurred through a service-based clinical placement. As part of their clinical community practicum, a group of second year nursing students were partnered with a group of seniors living in an inner city community. By deconstructing and categorizing ongoing student involvement with this community, students were able to make linkages to the many concepts that together form a community development approach to care, leading to the creation of a model of community development (the Community Health Advancement Model) to guide their evaluation...
May 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Michael L Thomas, Emily B H Treichler, Andrew Bismark, Alexandra L Shiluk, Melissa Tarasenko, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Joyce Sprock, Lauren Cardoso, Kristine Tiernan, Gregory A Light
Poor treatment engagement is an enduring problem in the care of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that targeted cognitive training (TCT) improves cognition and functional outcomes, but this time-consuming intervention might reduce patients' engagement in other treatment activities when implemented in real-world settings. This is especially true of residential care programs which encourage patients to engage in group therapies, self-care, and a wide variety of structured social, work, and other rehabilitation activities...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Donna M Wilson, Ye Shen, Gail Low
ABSTRACTThis study investigated concerns regarding the extensive use of hospitals by older people and subsequent long wait lists. We analysed complete individual-anonymous, 2014-2015 inpatient hospital data for all Canadian provinces and territories (except Quebec). People aged 65 and older accounted for 37.0 per cent of all hospital episodes and 41.5 per cent of all admissions to intensive or coronary care units. Similarly, of all admitted individuals, 32.8 per cent were older. The data also revealed only 14...
June 22, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Fredrick Dermawan Purba, Joke A M Hunfeld, Titi Sahidah Fitriana, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Sawitri S Sadarjoen, Jan J V Busschbach, Jan Passchier
BACKGROUND: People living on the banks of polluted rivers with yearly flooding lived in impoverished and physically unhealthy circumstances. However, they were reluctant to move or be relocated to other locations where better living conditions were available. This study aimed to investigate the health status, quality of life (QoL), happiness, and life satisfaction of the people who were living on the banks of one of the main rivers in Jakarta, Indonesia, the Ciliwung. METHODS: Respondents were 17 years and older and recruited from the Bukit Duri community (n = 204)...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Robin A Ray, Louise Young, Daniel Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades medical schools have increased rural practice learning opportunities for students in an effort to improve recruitment to the rural workforce. James Cook University's (JCU) medical school was established in northern Australia in 2000 with a specific focus on meeting the health needs of people in rural and remote areas. As part of a longitudinal study this paper explores the situational and motivational learning factors contributing to the development of JCU's medical students' understanding of and approaches to rural medical practice...
June 22, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Timothy Letsa, Charles Lwanga Noora, George Khumalo Kuma, Ernest Asiedu, Gideon Kye-Duodu, Edwin Afari, Osei Afreh Kuffour, Joseph Opare, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Donne Kofi Ameme, Emmanuel G Bachan, Kofi Issah, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, Moses Aikins, Ernest Kenu
BACKGROUND: Meningitis, a disease of the Central Nervous System is described as inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It is characterised by fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, photophobia, altered consciousness, convulsion/seizures and coma. In December, 2015, twelve suspected cases of meningitis were reported in Tain district in Brong Ahafo region (BAR). Subsequently, dozens of suspected cases were hospitalized in five district hospitals in BAR...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Narottam Saha, Alberto Rodriguez-Ramirez, Ai Duc Nguyen, Tara R Clark, Jian-Xin Zhao, Gregory E Webb
Extensive catchment modification since European settlement on the eastern coast of Australia results in poor coastal water quality, which poses a major threat for near shore coral communities in the iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Long lived inshore corals have the potential to provide long-term temporal records of changing water quality both pre- and post-anthropogenic modification. However, water quality proxies require more study and validation of the robustness of coral-hosted geochemical proxies for a specific site is critical...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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