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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549063/food-addiction-and-obesity-unnecessary-medicalization-of-hedonic-overeating
#1
REVIEW
Graham Finlayson
The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549001/contribution-of-natural-language-processing-in-predicting-rehospitalization-risk
#2
Christopher Norman, Thu Van Nguyen, Aurélie Névéol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546307/the-right-lateral-cerebellum-represents-linguistic-predictability
#3
Elise Lesage, Peter C Hansen, R Chris Miall
Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content.We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538516/left-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-the-presupplementary-motor-area-and-primary-language-areas
#4
William Lou, Kyung K Peck, Nicole Brennan, Arka Mallela, Andrei Holodny
An abundance of evidence points to the role of a presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in human language. This study explores the pre-SMA resting state connectivity network and the nature of its connections to known language areas. We tested the hypothesis that by seeding the pre-SMA, one would be able to establish language laterality to known cortical and subcortical language areas. We analyzed data from 30 right-handed healthy controls and performed the resting state functional MRI. A seed-based analysis using a manually drawn pre-SMA region of interest template was applied...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536551/dissociating-effects-of-scrambling-and-topicalization-within-the-left-frontal-and-temporal-language-areas-an-fmri-study-in-kaqchikel-maya
#5
Shinri Ohta, Masatoshi Koizumi, Kuniyoshi L Sakai
Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529113/integrating-natural-language-processing-expertise-with-patient-safety-event-review-committees-to-improve-the-analysis-of-medication-events
#6
Allan Fong, Nicole Harriott, Donna M Walters, Hanan Foley, Richard Morrissey, Raj R Ratwani
OBJECTIVES: Many healthcare providers have implemented patient safety event reporting systems to better understand and improve patient safety. Reviewing and analyzing these reports is often time consuming and resource intensive because of both the quantity of reports and length of free-text descriptions in the reports. METHODS: Natural language processing (NLP) experts collaborated with clinical experts on a patient safety committee to assist in the identification and analysis of medication related patient safety events...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524623/upper-gastrointestinal-complications-following-ablation-therapy-for-atrial-fibrillation
#7
S-Y Park, M Camilleri, D Packer, K Monahan
BACKGROUND: Following ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias, patients may develop upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms. The vagus nerve is close to the atria and may be affected by ablating energy. AIM: To identify structural or functional complications in UGI tract following ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinical outcomes and association with vagal dysfunction. METHODS: Using natural language processing of electronic medical records and an AF ablation database of 5380 patients treated during 17 years, we identified 40 patients with UGI complications...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516309/assessing-the-process-of-retirement-a-cross-cultural-review-of-available-measures
#8
Julia C Rafalski, Jack H Noone, Kate O'Loughlin, Alexsandro L de Andrade
Retirement research is now expanding beyond the post-World War II baby boomers' retirement attitudes and plans to include the nature of their workforce exit and how successfully they adjust to their new life. These elements are collectively known as the process of retirement. However, there is insufficient research in developing countries to inform the management of their ageing populations regarding this process. This review aims to facilitate national and cross-cultural research in developing and non-English speaking countries by reviewing the existing measures of the retirement process published in English and Portuguese...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512275/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-pregnant-women-regarding-oral-health-status-and-treatment-needs-following-oral-health-education-in-pune-district-of-maharashtra-a-longitudinal-hospital-based-study
#9
Roshani M Chawla, Sahana H Shetiya, Deepti R Agarwal, Pranjan Mitra, Nikhil A Bomble, D Satya Narayana
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a natural process that may create some changes in different parts of the body including the oral cavity. These changes will lead to oral diseases if enough and timely care of oral cavity is not taken. Women may experience increased gingivitis or pregnancy gingivitis beginning in the second or third month of pregnancy that increases in severity throughout the duration of pregnancy. To motivate the patient toward oral health and implement the needed prophylactic measures, a longitudinal study was planned to observe the effect of oral health education during pregnancy on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and treatment needs (TNs) of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508775/semantic-technologies-for-re-use-of-clinical-routine-data
#10
Markus Kreuzthaler, Catalina Martínez-Costa, Peter Kaiser, Stefan Schulz
Routine patient data in electronic patient records are only partly structured, and an even smaller segment is coded, mainly for administrative purposes. Large parts are only available as free text. Transforming this content into a structured and semantically explicit form is a prerequisite for querying and information extraction. The core of the system architecture presented in this paper is based on SAP HANA in-memory database technology using the SAP Connected Health platform for data integration as well as for clinical data warehousing...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508772/concept-based-retrieval-from-critical-incident-reports
#11
Kerstin Denecke
BACKGROUND: Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) are used as a means to collect anonymously entered information of incidents that occurred for example in a hospital. Analyzing this information helps to identify among others problems in the workflow, in the infrastructure or in processes. OBJECTIVES: The entire potential of these sources of experiential knowledge remains often unconsidered since retrieval of relevant reports and their analysis is difficult and time-consuming, and the reporting systems often do not provide support for these tasks...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508716/neural-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-fixation-duration-during-natural-reading
#12
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#13
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506958/enhancing-comparative-effectiveness-research-with-automated-pediatric-pneumonia-detection-in-a-multi-institutional-clinical-repository-a-phis-pilot-study
#14
Stephane Meystre, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Joel Tieder, Jeffrey Simmons, Rajendu Srivastava, Samir Shah
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506904/ordinal-convolutional-neural-networks-for-predicting-rdoc-positive-valence-psychiatric-symptom-severity-scores
#15
Anthony Rios, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) provided a set of 1000 neuropsychiatric notes to participants as part of a competition to predict psychiatric symptom severity scores. This paper summarizes our methods, results, and experiences based on our participation in the second track of the shared task. OBJECTIVE: Classical methods of text classification usually fall into one of three problem types: binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505743/complementary-mode-analyses-between-sub-and-superdiffusion
#16
Takuya Saito, Takahiro Sakaue
Several subdiffusive stochastic processes in nature, e.g., the motion of a tagged monomer in polymers, the height fluctuation of interfaces, particle dynamics in single-file diffusion, etc., can be described rigorously or approximately by the superposition of various modes whose relaxation times are broadly distributed. In this paper, we propose a mode analysis generating superdiffusion, which is paired with or complementary to subdiffusion. The key point in our discussion lies in the identification of a pair of conjugated variables, which undergo sub- and superdiffusion, respectively...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505027/automated-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-state-of-the-art
#17
Meander E Sips, Marc J M Bonten, Maaike S M van Mourik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent advances in the field of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with a focus on data sources and the development of semiautomated or fully automated algorithms. RECENT FINDINGS: The availability of high-quality data in electronic health records and a well-designed information technology (IT) infrastructure to access these data are indispensable for successful implementation of automated HAI surveillance...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#18
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#19
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499298/-cochlear-implant-state-of-the-art
#20
Thomas Lenarz
Cochlear implants are the treatment of choice for the auditory rehabilitation of patients with sensory deafness. They restore the missing function of inner hair cells by transforming the acoustic signal into electrical stimuli for activation of auditory nerve fibers. Due to the very fast technology development cochlear implants provide open-set speech understanding in the majority of patients including the use of the telephone. Children can achieve a near to normal speech and language development provided their deafness is detected early after onset and implantation is performed quickly thereafter...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
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