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Natural language processing

Amit Persad, Eleni Stroulia, Sarah Forgie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Iraj Salimikia, Hamid Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Mehrnoosh Salek
BACKGROUND: Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi
Openly available online sources can be very valuable for executing in silico case-control epidemiological studies. Adjustment of confounding factors to isolate the association between an observing factor and disease is essential for such studies. However, such information is not always readily available online. This paper suggests natural language processing methods for extracting socio-demographic information from content openly available online. Feasibility of the suggested method is demonstrated by performing a case-control study focusing on the association between age, gender, and income level and lung cancer risk...
February 2016: ... IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics. IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
A Rumshisky, M Ghassemi, T Naumann, P Szolovits, V M Castro, T H McCoy, R H Perlis
The ability to predict psychiatric readmission would facilitate the development of interventions to reduce this risk, a major driver of psychiatric health-care costs. The symptoms or characteristics of illness course necessary to develop reliable predictors are not available in coded billing data, but may be present in narrative electronic health record (EHR) discharge summaries. We identified a cohort of individuals admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit between 1994 and 2012 with a principal diagnosis of major depressive disorder, and extracted inpatient psychiatric discharge narrative notes...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Benjamin L Cook, Ana M Progovac, Pei Chen, Brian Mullin, Sherry Hou, Enrique Baca-Garcia
Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila, Minna Huotilainen
The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Anthony P Nunes, Jing Yang, Larry Radican, Samuel S Engel, Karen Kurtyka, Kaan Tunceli, Shengsheng Yu, Kristy Iglay, Michael C Doherty, David D Dore
AIMS: Accurate measures of hypoglycemia within electronic health records (EHR) can facilitate clinical population management and research. We quantify the occurrence of serious and mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia in a large EHR database in the US, comparing estimates based only on structured data to those from structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of clinical notes. METHODS: This cohort study included patients with type 2 diabetes identified from January 2009 through March 2014...
September 21, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Brian Hare
The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human selfdomestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Jey Han Lau, Alexander Clark, Shalom Lappin
The question of whether humans represent grammatical knowledge as a binary condition on membership in a set of well-formed sentences, or as a probabilistic property has been the subject of debate among linguists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists for many decades. Acceptability judgments present a serious problem for both classical binary and probabilistic theories of grammaticality. These judgements are gradient in nature, and so cannot be directly accommodated in a binary formal grammar. However, it is also not possible to simply reduce acceptability to probability...
October 12, 2016: Cognitive Science
Alex Graves, Greg Wayne, Malcolm Reynolds, Tim Harley, Ivo Danihelka, Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska, Sergio Gómez Colmenarejo, Edward Grefenstette, Tiago Ramalho, John Agapiou, Adrià Puigdomènech Badia, Karl Moritz Hermann, Yori Zwols, Georg Ostrovski, Adam Cain, Helen King, Christopher Summerfield, Phil Blunsom, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis
Artificial neural networks are remarkably adept at sensory processing, sequence learning and reinforcement learning, but are limited in their ability to represent variables and data structures and to store data over long timescales, owing to the lack of an external memory. Here we introduce a machine learning model called a differentiable neural computer (DNC), which consists of a neural network that can read from and write to an external memory matrix, analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Daniel L Brady, Douglas J Brown, Lindie Hanyu Liang
Despite decades of research from other academic fields arguing that gossip is an important and potentially functional behavior, organizational research has largely assumed that gossip is malicious talk. This has resulted in the proliferation of gossip items in deviance scales, effectively subsuming workplace gossip research into deviance research. In this paper, the authors argue that organizational research has traditionally considered only a very narrow subset of workplace gossip, focusing almost exclusively on extreme negative cases which are not reflective of typical workplace gossip behavior...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Robert Eugene Hoyt, Dallas Snider, Carla Thompson, Sarita Mantravadi
BACKGROUND: We live in an era of explosive data generation that will continue to grow and involve all industries. One of the results of this explosion is the need for newer and more efficient data analytics procedures. Traditionally, data analytics required a substantial background in statistics and computer science. In 2015, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) released the IBM Watson Analytics (IBMWA) software that delivered advanced statistical procedures based on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)...
October 11, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Dan Parker, Colin Phillips
Linguistic illusions have provided valuable insights into how we mentally navigate complex representations in memory during language comprehension. Two notable cases involve illusory licensing of agreement and negative polarity items (NPIs), where comprehenders fleetingly accept sentences with unlicensed agreement or an unlicensed NPI, but judge those same sentences as unacceptable after more reflection. Existing accounts have argued that illusions are a consequence of faulty memory access processes, and make the additional assumption that the encoding of the sentence remains fixed over time...
October 6, 2016: Cognition
Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Chia-Ying Lee
Orthographic neighborhood (N) size effects have been extensively studied in English consistently producing a facilitatory effect in word naming tasks. In contrast, several recent studies on Chinese character naming have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of neighborhood size. Response latencies tend to be inhibited by inconsistent characters with large neighborhoods relative to small neighborhoods. These differences in neighborhood effects between languages may depend on the characteristics (depth) of the mapping between orthography and phonology...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Erinç Gökdeniz, Arzucan Özgür, Reşit Canbeyli
Identifying the relations among different regions of the brain is vital for a better understanding of how the brain functions. While a large number of studies have investigated the neuroanatomical and neurochemical connections among brain structures, their specific findings are found in publications scattered over a large number of years and different types of publications. Text mining techniques have provided the means to extract specific types of information from a large number of publications with the aim of presenting a larger, if not necessarily an exhaustive picture...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Kersten Döring, Björn A Grüning, Kiran K Telukunta, Philippe Thomas, Stefan Günther
Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools...
2016: PloS One
Anna Jordanous, Bill Keller
Creativity is a complex, multi-faceted concept encompassing a variety of related aspects, abilities, properties and behaviours. If we wish to study creativity scientifically, then a tractable and well-articulated model of creativity is required. Such a model would be of great value to researchers investigating the nature of creativity and in particular, those concerned with the evaluation of creative practice. This paper describes a unique approach to developing a suitable model of how creative behaviour emerges that is based on the words people use to describe the concept...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin C Haller, Philipp W Messer
Modern population genomic datasets hold immense promise for revealing the evolutionary processes operating in natural populations, but a crucial prerequisite for this goal is the ability to model realistic evolutionary scenarios and predict their expected patterns in genomic data. To that end, we present SLiM 2: an evolutionary simulation framework that combines a powerful, fast engine for forward population genetic simulations with the capability of modeling a wide variety of complex evolutionary scenarios...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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