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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919387/impacts-of-structuring-the-electronic-health-record-results-of-a-systematic-literature-review-from-the-perspective-of-secondary-use-of-patient-data
#1
REVIEW
Riikka Vuokko, Päivi Mäkelä-Bengs, Hannele Hyppönen, Minna Lindqvist, Persephone Doupi
PURPOSE: To explore the impacts that structuring of electronic health records (EHRs) has had from the perspective of secondary use of patient data as reflected in currently published literature. This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review aimed at answering the following questions; (1) what are the common methods of structuring patient data to serve secondary use purposes; (2) what are the common methods of evaluating patient data structuring in the secondary use context, and (3) what impacts or outcomes of EHR structuring have been reported from the secondary use perspective...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918181/comparing-vector-based-and-bayesian-memory-models-using-large-scale-datasets-user-generated-hashtag-and-tag-prediction-on-twitter-and-stack-overflow
#2
Clayton Stanley, Michael D Byrne
The growth of social media and user-created content on online sites provides unique opportunities to study models of human declarative memory. By framing the task of choosing a hashtag for a tweet and tagging a post on Stack Overflow as a declarative memory retrieval problem, 2 cognitively plausible declarative memory models were applied to millions of posts and tweets and evaluated on how accurately they predict a user's chosen tags. An ACT-R based Bayesian model and a random permutation vector-based model were tested on the large data sets...
December 2016: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917691/impact-a-multifaceted-implementation-for-conversation-partner-training-in-aphasia-in-dutch-rehabilitation-settings
#3
Sandra Wielaert, Mieke W M E van de Sandt-Koenderman, Nina Dammers, Karen Sage
PURPOSE: Exploration of the clinical uptake of a novel conversation partner training (CPT) programme in aphasia in 10 Dutch rehabilitation facilities and identification of its perceived facilitators and barriers in service providers, and the evaluation of the implementation methods used. METHOD: Ten rehabilitation centres took part in a multifaceted implementation of CPT over 13 months. Each centre selected two speech and language therapists to act as knowledge brokers whose role was to raise awareness of CPT in the team and to facilitate getting partners of people with aphasia into the programme...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911298/a-24-week-multi-modality-exercise-program-improves-executive-control-in%C3%A2-older-adults-with-a-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-evidence-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-antisaccade-task
#4
Matthew Heath, Erin Shellington, Sam Titheridge, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#5
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903727/predicting-when-in-discourse-engages-the-human-dorsal-auditory-stream-an-fmri-study-using-naturalistic-stories
#6
Katerina Danae Kandylaki, Arne Nagels, Sarah Tune, Tilo Kircher, Richard Wiese, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
: The hierarchical organization of human cortical circuits integrates information across different timescales via temporal receptive windows, which increase in length from lower to higher levels of the cortical hierarchy (Hasson et al., 2015). A recent neurobiological model of higher-order language processing (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al., 2015) posits that temporal receptive windows in the dorsal auditory stream provide the basis for a hierarchically organized predictive coding architecture (Friston and Kiebel, 2009)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903489/finding-important-terms-for-patients-in-their-electronic-health-records-a-learning-to-rank-approach-using-expert-annotations
#7
Jinying Chen, Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu
BACKGROUND: Many health organizations allow patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals as a way to enhance patient-centered care. However, EHR notes are typically long and contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to understand. In addition, many medical terms in patients' notes are not directly related to their health care needs. One way to help patients better comprehend their own notes is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them...
November 30, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894378/an-experimental-approach-to-linguistic-representation
#8
Holly P Branigan, Martin J Pickering
Within the cognitive sciences, most researchers assume that it is the job of linguists to investigate how language is represented, and that they do so largely by building theories based on explicit judgments about patterns of acceptability - whereas it is the task of psychologists to determine how language is processed, and that in doing so, they do not typically question the linguists' representational assumptions. We challenge this division of labor, by arguing that structural priming provides an implicit method of investigating linguistic representations that should end the current reliance on acceptability judgments...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891743/ingressive-speech-errors-a-service-evaluation-of-speech-sound-therapy-in-a-child-aged-4-6
#9
Laura Hrastelj, Rachael-Anne Knight
BACKGROUND: A pattern of ingressive substitutions for word-final sibilants can be identified in a small number of cases in child speech disorder, with growing evidence suggesting it is a phonological difficulty, despite the unusual surface form. Phonological difficulty implies a problem with the cognitive process of organizing speech into sound contrasts. AIMS: To evaluate phonological therapy approaches in the remediation of non-pulmonic speech errors. Thus, adding to evidence concerning the nature of ingressive substitutions and their remediation whilst highlighting their occurrence within child speech disorder population for practising and training speech and language therapists...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889399/a-natural-language-processing-based-model-to-automate-mri-brain-protocol-selection-and-prioritization
#10
Andrew D Brown, Thomas R Marotta
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Incorrect imaging protocol selection can contribute to increased healthcare cost and waste. To help healthcare providers improve the quality and safety of medical imaging services, we developed and evaluated three natural language processing (NLP) models to determine whether NLP techniques could be employed to aid in clinical decision support for protocoling and prioritization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test the feasibility of using an NLP model to support clinical decision making for MRI brain examinations, we designed three different medical imaging prediction tasks, each with a unique outcome: selecting an examination protocol, evaluating the need for contrast administration, and determining priority...
November 23, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885570/neo-darwinists-and-neo-aristotelians-how-to-talk-about-natural-purpose
#11
Peter Woodford
This paper examines the points of disagreement between Neo-Darwinian and recent Neo-Aristotelian discussions of the status of purposive language in biology. I discuss recent Neo-Darwinian "evolutionary" treatments and distinguish three ways to deal with the philosophical status of teleological language of purpose: teleological error theory, methodological teleology, and Darwinian teleological realism. I then show how "non-evolutionary" Neo-Aristotelian approaches in the work of Michael Thompson and Philippa Foot differ from these by offering a view of purposiveness grounded in life-cycle patterns, rather than in long-term evolutionary processes or natural selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882837/determining-multiple-sclerosis-phenotype-from-electronic-medical-records
#12
Richard E Nelson, Jorie Butler, Joanne LaFleur, Kristin Knippenberg, Aaron W C Kamauu, Scott L DuVall
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system disease in which nerve signals are disrupted by scarring and demyelination, is classified into phenotypes depending on the patterns of cognitive or physical impairment progression: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), or progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS). The phenotype is important in managing the disease and determining appropriate treatment. The ICD-9-CM code 340.0 is uninformative about MS phenotype, which increases the difficulty of studying the effects of phenotype on disease...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878937/patient-and-family-involvement-in-adult-critical-and-intensive-care-settings-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Olding, Sarah E McMillan, Scott Reeves, Madeline H Schmitt, Kathleen Puntillo, Simon Kitto
BACKGROUND: Despite international bodies calling for increased patient and family involvement, these concepts remain poorly defined within literature on critical and intensive care settings. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review investigates the extent and range of literature on patient and family involvement in critical and intensive care settings. Methodological and empirical gaps are identified, and a future agenda for research into optimizing patient and family involvement is outlined...
December 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872376/the-multi-component-nature-of-statistical-learning
#14
REVIEW
Joanne Arciuli
The central argument presented in this paper is that statistical learning (SL) is an ability comprised of multiple components that operate largely implicitly. Components relating to the stimulus encoding, retention and abstraction required for SL may include, but are not limited to, certain types of attention, processing speed and memory. It is likely that individuals vary in terms of the efficiency of these underlying components, and in patterns of connectivity among these components, and that SL tasks differ from one another in how they draw on certain underlying components more than others...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#15
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872372/do-infants-retain-the-statistics-of-a-statistical-learning-experience-insights-from-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca L Gómez
Statistical structure abounds in language. Human infants show a striking capacity for using statistical learning (SL) to extract regularities in their linguistic environments, a process thought to bootstrap their knowledge of language. Critically, studies of SL test infants in the minutes immediately following familiarization, but long-term retention unfolds over hours and days, with almost no work investigating retention of SL. This creates a critical gap in the literature given that we know little about how single or multiple SL experiences translate into permanent knowledge...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872370/language-learning-language-use-and-the-evolution-of-linguistic-variation
#17
Kenny Smith, Amy Perfors, Olga Fehér, Anna Samara, Kate Swoboda, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864252/predictors-of-care-home-and-hospital-admissions-and-their-costs-for-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-findings-from-a-large-london-case-register
#18
Martin Knapp, Kia-Chong Chua, Matthew Broadbent, Chin-Kuo Chang, Jose-Luis Fernandez, Dominique Milea, Renee Romeo, Simon Lovestone, Michael Spencer, Gwilym Thompson, Robert Stewart, Richard D Hayes
OBJECTIVES: To examine links between clinical and other characteristics of people with Alzheimer's disease living in the community, likelihood of care home or hospital admission, and associated costs. DESIGN: Observational data extracted from clinical records using natural language processing and Hospital Episode Statistics. Statistical analyses examined effects of cognition, physical health, mental health, sociodemographic factors and living circumstances on risk of admission to care home or hospital over 6 months and associated costs, adjusting for repeated observations...
November 18, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859320/advanced-literature-analysis-in-a-big-data-world
#19
Chris Cheadle, Hongbao Cao, Andrey Kalinin, Jaqui Hodgkinson
Comprehensive data mining of the scientific literature has become an increasing challenge. To address this challenge, Elsevier's Pathway Studio software uses the techniques of natural language processing to systematically extract specific biological information from journal articles and abstracts that is then used to create a very large, structured, and constantly expanding literature knowledgebase. Highly sophisticated visualization tools allow the user to interactively explore the vast number of connections created and stored in the Pathway Studio database...
November 10, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856331/supplementary-motor-area-as-key-structure-for-domain-general-sequence-processing-a-unified-account
#20
REVIEW
Giorgia Cona, Carlo Semenza
The Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) is considered as an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous region and is implicated in several functions. We propose that SMA plays a crucial role in domain-general sequence processes, contributing to the integration of sequential elements into higher-order representations regardless of the nature of such elements (e.g., motor, temporal, spatial, numerical, linguistic, etc.). This review emphasizes the domain-general involvement of the SMA, as this region has been found to support sequence operations in a variety of cognitive domains that, albeit different, share an inherent sequence processing...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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