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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299562/gay-and-lesbian-sounding-auditory-cues-elicit-stereotyping-and-discrimination
#1
Fabio Fasoli, Anne Maass, Maria Paola Paladino, Simone Sulpizio
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288975/lay-bystanders-perspectives-on-what-facilitates-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-and-use-of-automated-external-defibrillators-in-real-cardiac-arrests
#2
Carolina Malta Hansen, Simone Mørk Rosenkranz, Fredrik Folke, Line Zinckernagel, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Kathrine B Sondergaard, Graham Nichol, Morten Hulvej Rod
BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders to consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, where an AED was present were conducted (from January 2012 to April 2015, in Denmark)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285548/memory-for-vocal-tempo-and-pitch
#3
Marilyn G Boltz
Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279670/normal-voice-processing-after-posterior-superior-temporal-sulcus-lesion
#4
Guo Jiahui, Lúcia Garrido, Ran R Liu, Tirta Susilo, Jason J S Barton, Bradley Duchaine
The right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) shows a strong response to voices, but the cognitive processes generating this response are unclear. One possibility is that this activity reflects basic voice processing. However, several fMRI and magnetoencephalography findings suggest instead that pSTS serves as an integrative hub that combines voice and face information. Here we investigate whether right pSTS contributes to basic voice processing by testing Faith, a patient whose right pSTS was resected, with eight behavioral tasks assessing voice identity perception and recognition, voice sex perception, and voice expression perception...
March 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275895/-emotiplay-a-serious-game-for-learning-about-emotions-in-children-with-autism-results-of-a-cross-cultural-evaluation
#5
S Fridenson-Hayo, S Berggren, A Lassalle, S Tal, D Pigat, N Meir-Goren, H O'Reilly, S Ben-Zur, S Bölte, S Baron-Cohen, O Golan
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) experience difficulties recognizing others' emotions and mental states. It has been shown that serious games (SG) can produce simplified versions of the socio-emotional world. The current study performed a cross-cultural evaluation (in the UK, Israel and Sweden) of Emotiplay's SG, a system aimed to teach emotion recognition (ER) to children with ASC in an entertaining, and intrinsically motivating way. Participants were 6-9 year olds with high functioning ASC who used the SG for 8-12 weeks...
March 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272305/off-the-shelf-cloud-robotics-for-the-smart-home-empowering-a-wireless-robot-through-cloud-computing
#6
Javier Ramírez De La Pinta, José María Maestre Torreblanca, Isabel Jurado, Sergio Reyes De Cozar
In this paper, we explore the possibilities offered by the integration of home automation systems and service robots. In particular, we examine how advanced computationally expensive services can be provided by using a cloud computing approach to overcome the limitations of the hardware available at the user's home. To this end, we integrate two wireless low-cost, off-the-shelf systems in this work, namely, the service robot Rovio and the home automation system Z-wave. Cloud computing is used to enhance the capabilities of these systems so that advanced sensing and interaction services based on image processing and voice recognition can be offered...
March 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268840/secure-access-to-patient-s-health-records-using-speechxrays-a-mutli-channel-biometrics-platform-for-user-authentication
#7
Emmanouil G Spanakis, Marios Spanakis, Apostolos Karantanas, Kostas Marias
The most commonly used method for user authentication in ICT services or systems is the application of identification tools such as passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs). The rapid development in ICT technology regarding smart devices (laptops, tablets and smartphones) has allowed also the advance of hardware components that capture several biometric traits such as fingerprints and voice. These components are aiming among others to overcome weaknesses and flaws of password usage under the prism of improved user authentication with higher level of security, privacy and usability...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262502/investigation-of-the-effects-of-speech-signal-length-on-vocal-disorder-sorting-done-via-dynamic-pattern-modeling
#8
Vida Mehdizadehfar, Farshad Almasganj, Farhad Torabinezhad
OBJECTIVES: Development of a noninvasive method for separating different vocal fold diseases is an important issue concerning vocal analysis. Due to the time variations along a pathologic vocal signal, application of dynamic pattern modeling tools is expected to help in the detection of defects that occur in the speech production mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the hidden Markov model, which is a state space model, is employed to sort some of the vocal diseases...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254454/developmental-phonagnosia-linking-neural-mechanisms-with-the-behavioural-phenotype
#9
Claudia Roswandowitz, Stefanie Schelinski, Katharina von Kriegstein
Human voice recognition is critical for many aspects of social communication. Recently, a rare disorder, developmental phonagnosia, which describes the inability to recognise a speaker's voice, has been discovered. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to investigate brain function in two behaviourally well characterised phonagnosia cases, both 32 years old: AS has apperceptive and SP associative phonagnosia. We found distinct malfunctioned brain mechanisms in AS and SP matching their behavioural profiles...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253671/autocorrelation-factors-and-intelligibility-of-japanese-monosyllables-in-individuals-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Ryota Shimokura, Sakie Akasaka, Tadashi Nishimura, Hiroshi Hosoi, Toshie Matsui
Some Japanese monosyllables contain consonants that are not easily discernible for individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. However, the acoustic features that make these monosyllables difficult to discern have not been clearly identified. Here, this study used the autocorrelation function (ACF), which can capture temporal features of signals, to clarify the factors influencing speech intelligibility. For each monosyllable, five factors extracted from the ACF [Φ(0): total energy; τ1 and ϕ1: delay time and amplitude of the maximum peak; τe: effective duration; Wϕ(0): spectral centroid], voice onset time, speech intelligibility index, and loudness level were compared with the percentage of correctly perceived articulations (144 ears) obtained by 50 Japanese vowel and consonant-vowel monosyllables produced by one female speaker...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253666/effect-of-the-relationship-between-target-and-masker-sex-on-infants-recognition-of-speech
#11
Rochelle S Newman, Giovanna Morini
When faced with multiple people speaking simultaneously, adult listeners use the sex of the talkers as a cue for separating competing streams of speech. As a result, adult listeners show better performance when a target and a background voice differ from one another in sex. Recent research suggests that infants under 1 year do not show this advantage. So when do infants begin to use talker-gender cues for stream segregation? These studies find that 16-month-olds do not show an advantage when the masker and target differ in sex...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252978/similar-representations-of-emotions-across-faces-and-voices
#12
Lisa Katharina Kuhn, Taeko Wydell, Nadine Lavan, Carolyn McGettigan, Lúcia Garrido
Emotions are a vital component of social communication, carried across a range of modalities and via different perceptual signals such as specific muscle contractions in the face and in the upper respiratory system. Previous studies have found that emotion recognition impairments after brain damage depend on the modality of presentation: recognition from faces may be impaired whereas recognition from voices remains preserved, and vice versa. On the other hand, there is also evidence for shared neural activation during emotion processing in both modalities...
March 2, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247018/autistic-traits-are-linked-to-individual-differences-in-familiar-voice-identification
#13
Verena G Skuk, Romina Palermo, Laura Broemer, Stefan R Schweinberger
Autistic traits vary across the general population, and are linked with face recognition ability. Here we investigated potential links between autistic traits and voice recognition ability for personally familiar voices in a group of 30 listeners (15 female, 16-19 years) from the same local school. Autistic traits (particularly those related to communication and social interaction) were negatively correlated with voice recognition, such that more autistic traits were associated with fewer familiar voices identified and less ability to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar voices...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242133/comparison-of-voice-handicap-index-scores-between-female-students-of-speech-therapy-and-other-health-professions
#14
Dionysios Tafiadis, Spyridon K Chronopoulos, Vassiliki Siafaka, Konstantinos Drosos, Evangelia I Kosma, Eugenia I Toki, Nausica Ziavra
Students' groups (eg, teachers, speech language pathologists) are presumably at risk of developing a voice disorder due to misuse of their voice, which will affect their way of living. Multidisciplinary voice assessment of student populations is currently spread widely along with the use of self-reported questionnaires. This study compared the Voice Handicap Index domains and item scores between female students of speech and language therapy and of other health professions in Greece. We also examined the probability of speech language therapy students developing any vocal symptom...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227038/secure-access-to-patient-s-health-records-using-speechxrays-a-mutli-channel-biometrics-platform-for-user-authentication
#15
Emmanouil G Spanakis, Marios Spanakis, Apostolos Karantanas, Kostas Marias, Emmanouil G Spanakis, Marios Spanakis, Apostolos Karantanas, Kostas Marias, Emmanouil G Spanakis, Apostolos Karantanas, Marios Spanakis, Kostas Marias
The most commonly used method for user authentication in ICT services or systems is the application of identification tools such as passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs). The rapid development in ICT technology regarding smart devices (laptops, tablets and smartphones) has allowed also the advance of hardware components that capture several biometric traits such as fingerprints and voice. These components are aiming among others to overcome weaknesses and flaws of password usage under the prism of improved user authentication with higher level of security, privacy and usability...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220929/increasing-the-efficiency-on-producing-radiology-reports-for-breast-cancer-diagnosis-by-means-of-structured-reports-a-comparative-study
#16
J Damian Segrelles, Rosana Medina, Ignacio Blanquer, Luis Martí-Bonmatí
BACKGROUND: Radiology reports are commonly written on free-text using voice recognition devices. Structured reports (SR) have a high potential but they are usually considered more difficult to fill-in so their adoption in clinical practice leads to a lower efficiency. However, some studies have demonstrated that in some cases, producing SRs may require shorter time than plain-text ones. This work focuses on the definition and demonstration of a methodology to evaluate the productivity of software tools for producing radiology reports...
February 21, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218433/activation-in-the-angular-gyrus-and-in-the-psts-is-modulated-by-face-primes-during-voice-recognition
#17
Cordula Hölig, Julia Föcker, Anna Best, Brigitte Röder, Christian Büchel
The aim of the present study was to better understand the interaction of face and voice processing when identifying people. In a S1-S2 crossmodal priming fMRI experiment, the target (S2) was a disyllabic voice stimulus, whereas the modality of the prime (S1) was manipulated blockwise and consisted of the silent video of a speaking face in the crossmodal condition or of a voice stimulus in the unimodal condition. Primes and targets were from the same speaker (person-congruent) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent)...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211817/post-stroke-acquired-amusia-a-comparison-between-right-and-left-brain-hemispheric-damages
#18
Zahra Jafari, Mahdiye Esmaili, Ahmad Delbari, Masoud Mehrpour, Majid H Mohajerani
BACKGROUND: Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. METHODS: Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198942/normative-analysis-of-the-voice-of-children-in-brazilian-child-protection-legislation
#19
Renata de Moura Bubadué, Ivone Evangelista Cabral, Franco Carnevale, Felipe Dutra Asensi
Objective: to identify and analyse children's voices in healthcare decision making in the discourse of Brazil's child protection laws. Method: Documentary normative analysis of Brazil's child protection legislation (1988-2012) based on the content analysis of nine texts, conducted in 2015. Results: The legislation acknowledges and stresses the voice of children in the decision-making process in research and healthcare. Any recognition of the right to dignity, liberty, information, and protection depends on what the adult decision-maker (with parental authority) believes is the child's capacity for discernment and whether the situation will cause self-harm...
February 9, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129061/inferior-frontal-cortex-contributions-to-the-recognition-of-spoken-words-and-their-constituent-speech-sounds
#20
Jack C Rogers, Matthew H Davis
Speech perception and comprehension are often challenged by the need to recognize speech sounds that are degraded or ambiguous. Here, we explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in resolving ambiguity in the identity of speech sounds using syllables that contain ambiguous phonetic segments (e.g., intermediate sounds between /b/ and /g/ as in "blade" and "glade"). We used an audio-morphing procedure to create a large set of natural sounding minimal pairs that contain phonetically ambiguous onset or offset consonants (differing in place, manner, or voicing)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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