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Hyung Wook Park, Hong-Lim Kim, Yong Soo Park, In-Beom Kim
The retina is a highly specialised part of the brain responsible for visual processing. It is well-laminated; three layers containing five different types of neurons are compartmentalised by two synaptic layers. Among the retinal layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) is composed of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cell types. Bipolar cells form one sublayer in the distal half of the IPL, while amacrine cells form another sublayer in the proximal half, without any border-like structure. Here, we report that a plexiform layer-like structure exists temporarily in the border between the bipolar and amacrine sublayers in the INL in the rat retina during retinal development...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Mariia Karppinen, Atte Sjövall, Tuula Pelkonen, Luis Bernardino, Irmeli Roine, Anne Pitkäranta, Antti A Aarnisalo, Päivi Nevalainen, Leena Lauronen
Objective: To assess the role of single and repeated auditory brain stem response (ABR) in predicting mortality and severe neurological injury among children having bacterial meningitis (BM) in Luanda, Angola. Methods: The morphology of ABR traces of 221 children (aged 2 months to 12 years) from admission day was analyzed and compared with age-matched normative data. Absence and delay of traces were compared with mortality and mortality or severe neurological injury in subgroup analyses...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Rosa de Hoz, Ana I Ramírez, Rosa González-Martín, Daniel Ajoy, Blanca Rojas, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Maria P Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez, Juan J Salazar
The immune system plays an important role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Retinal microglial reactivation associated with ganglion cell loss could reportedly contribute to the glaucoma progression. Recently we have described signs of microglia activation both in contralateral and ocular hypertension (OHT) eyes involving all retinal layers 15 days after OHT laser induction in mice. However, no works available have analyzed the microglial activation at earliest time points after OHT induction (24 h) in this experimental model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
M Ohkuma, M Kaneda, S Yoshida, A Fukuda, E Miyachi
Signaling by glutamatergic synapses plays an important role in visual processing in the retina. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked fluorescence assay system to monitor the dynamics of extracellular glutamate in a slice preparation from the mouse retina. High K stimulation induced an elevation of fluorescence in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina when glutamate transporters were inhibited by dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA). The high K-induced fluorescence signals in the IPL were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker Cd2+ ...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
María Nieves-Moreno, José M Martínez-de-la-Casa, Laura Morales-Fernández, Rubén Sánchez-Jean, Federico Sáenz-Francés, Julián García-Feijoó
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in individual retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis®) produced with age and according to sex. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. METHODS: The study was conducted in 297 eyes of 297 healthy subjects aged 18 to 87 years. In one randomly selected eye of each participant the volume and mean thicknesses of the different macular layers were measured by SD-OCT using the instrument's macular segmentation software...
2018: PloS One
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Xiangfei Geng, Junhai Xu, Baolin Liu, Yonggang Shi
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by at least 2 weeks of low mood, which is present across most situations. Diagnosis of MDD using rest-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data faces many challenges due to the high dimensionality, small samples, noisy and individual variability. To our best knowledge, no studies aim at classification with effective connectivity and functional connectivity measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. In this study, we performed a data-driving classification analysis using the whole brain connectivity measures which included the functional connectivity from two brain templates and effective connectivity measures created by the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal network (FPN), and silence network (SN)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dominika Podkowinski, Ana-Maria Philip, Wolf-Dieter Vogl, Jutta Gamper, Hrvoje Bogunovic, Bianca S Gerendas, Bilal Haj Najeeb, Sebastian M Waldstein, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To characterise neuroretinal atrophy in retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: We included patients with central/branch RVO (CRVO=196, BRVO=107) who received ranibizumab according to a standardised protocol for 6 months. Retinal atrophy was defined as the presence of an area of retinal thickness (RT) <260 µm outside the foveal centre. Moreover, the thickness of three distinct retinal layer compartments was computed as follows: (1) retinal nerve fibre layer to ganglion cell layer, (2) inner plexiform layer (IPL) to outer nuclear layer (ONL) and (3) inner segment/outer segment junction to retinal pigment epithelium...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Xue-Ling Mei, Li Wang
Intense pulsed light (IPL) is effective for the treatment of lentigines, telangiectasia, and generalized erythema, but is less effective in the removal of skin wrinkles. Fractional laser is effective on skin wrinkles and textural irregularities, but can induce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), especially in Asians. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ablative fractional laser (AFL) in combination with IPL in the treatment of photoaging skin in Asians.This study included 28 Chinese women with Fitzpatrick skin type III and IV...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Becky Baker, Coral Drane, Joshua Chambers, Susanne Lindqvist
Interprofessional learning (IPL) aims to equip students for future interprofessional and collaborative practice. Involving students as IPL facilitators is becoming increasingly commonplace as an attempt to catalyse the necessary transformation of our workforce needed to deliver truly integrated and person-centred care. Evidence in the literature highlights the key role of trained facilitators in reaching successful IPL outcomes. Some guidelines are available as to how we train staff facilitators, but little evidence is available that describes how to appropriately prepare student IPL facilitators...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
María Nieves-Moreno, José M Martínez-de-la-Casa, María P Bambo, Laura Morales-Fernández, Karel Van Keer, Evelien Vandewalle, Ingeborg Stalmans, Julián García-Feijoó
Purpose: This study examines the capacity to detect glaucoma of inner macular layer thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using a new normative database as the reference standard. Methods: Participants ( N = 148) were recruited from Leuven (Belgium) and Zaragoza (Spain): 74 patients with early/moderate glaucoma and 74 age-matched healthy controls. One eye was randomly selected for a macular scan using the Spectralis SD-OCT. The variables measured with the instrument's segmentation software were: macular nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volume and thickness along with circumpapillary RNFL thickness (cpRNFL)...
February 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes
Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent evidence from studies of divergent thinking suggests that kernel ideas emerge in posterior brain regions residing within the semantic system and/or the default mode network (DMN), and that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions within the executive control network (ECN) constrain those ideas for generating outputs that meet task demands...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Cheng Chen, Yingying Wan, Yiping Cao
The time-dependent phase error induced by the instability of projection light source (IPLS) is systematically studied for phase-shifting profilometry (PSP). The IPLS of the projection device is investigated by a specially designed experimental setup. Based on the results of the investigation, a new mathematical model to analyze the time-dependent phase error induced by IPLS is established and verified. Two real-time phase error correction methods using a new designed three-dimensional shape measurement system are proposed for the effect of IPLS...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Lisbeth Hoejkjaer Larsen, Ivan Chrilles Zibrandtsen, Troels Wienecke, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Henning Langberg, Jens Bo Nielsen, Mark Schram Christensen
The functional relevance of cortical reorganisation post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 & 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
D Quarato, M Pascali, F Carinci
Scars are a very common condition of the general population and can have a profound impact on the psyche of the patient such as low self-esteem and feelings of psychosocial isolation. Various therapeutic approaches have been proposed for improving the clinical appearance of scars. Fractional mode of ablative and non-ablative lasers has become a novel strategy for the treatment of scars. A total of 43 patients (Fitzpatrick skin type II to IV), clinically diagnosed of surgical and post-traumatic scars from January 2015 to December 2016, were treated...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Arwa M Hassan, Nashwa N Elfar, Omnia M Rizk, Nahed Y Eissa
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that melasma may have a vascular component. Vascular targeting lasers and light treatment can be a therapeutic option that will provide benefits to the patients. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and intense pulsed light in treatment of melasma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight Egyptian female patients with melasma were treated with PDL on the right hemiface (Group A) and with the intense pulsed light on the left hemiface (Group B)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Thomas Fleming, Carlos G Martinez-Moreno, Martha Carranza, Maricela Luna, Steve Harvey, Carlos Arámburo
There is increasing evidence that suggests a possible role for GH in retinal development and synaptogenesis. While our previous studies have focused largely on embryonic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), our current study demonstrates that GH has a synaptogenic effect in retinal primary cell cultures, increasing the abundance of both pre- (SNAP25) and post- (PSD95) synaptic proteins. In the neonatal chick, kainate (KA) treatment was found to damage retinal synapses and abrogate GH expression. In response to damage, an increase in Cy3-GH internalization into RGCs was observed when administered shortly before or after damage...
February 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Na Li, Juntao Han, Dahai Hu, Jing Cheng, Hongtao Wang, Yunchuan Wang, Xuekang Yang, Jiaqi Liu, Ting Li, Wenli Zhao
Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used to treat postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and telangiectasia in Fitzpatrick type I -II skin. However, its therapeutic effects after superficial second-degree burns in Asian populations with Fitzpatrick type III-IV skin are uncertain. Thirty-five Han Chinese patients with facial or hand hyperpigmentation and telangiectasia due to second-degree fire burns received treatment with IPL. Each patient underwent 2-6 treatments over 3-5 weeks. The laser wavelength was 560-615 nm...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
F M C de Vries, A M Meulendijks, R J Driessen, A A van Dooren, E P M Tjin, P C M van de Kerkhof
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a multifaceted skin disorder, affecting more than 85% of young individuals worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is not always desirable because of the development of antibiotic resistance or the potential risk of adverse effects. Non-pharmacological therapies can be viable alternatives for conventional therapies. However, sufficient evidence based support in the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological therapies is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of several non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Metin Unlu, Murat Gultekin, Cagatay Karaca
PURPOSE: There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and the thickness and volume of retinal layers in foveal scans of 15 patients with HD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 12, 2018: International Ophthalmology
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